The injury-induced myokine insulin-like 6 is protective in experimental autoimmune myositis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies represent a group of autoimmune diseases that are characterized by lymphocyte infiltration of muscle and muscle weakness. Insulin-like 6 (Insl6) is a poorly characterized member of the insulin-like/relaxin family of secreted proteins, whose expression is upregulated upon acute muscle injury. METHODS: In this study, we employed Insl6 gain or loss of function mice to investigate the role of Insl6 in a T cell-mediated model of experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM). EAM models in rodents have involved immunization with human myosin-binding protein C with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) emulsions and pertussis toxin. RESULTS: Insl6-deficiency in mice led to a worsened myositis phenotype including increased infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T cells and the elevated expression of inflammatory cytokines. Insl6-deficient mice show significant motor function impairment when tested with treadmill or Rotarod devices. Conversely, muscle-specific overexpression of Insl6 protected against the development of myositis as indicated by reduced lymphocyte infiltration in muscle, diminished inflammatory cytokine expression and improved motor function. The improvement in myositis by Insl6 could also be demonstrated by acute hydrodynamic delivery of a plasmid encoding murine Insl6. In cultured cells, Insl6 inhibits Jurkat cell proliferation and activation in response to phytohemagglutinin/phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation. Insl6 transcript expression in muscle was reduced in a cohort of dermatomyositis and polymyositis patients. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Insl6 may have utility for the treatment of myositis, a condition for which few treatment options exist.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the key players in the development of many autoimmune diseases. To determine the possible role of TLR4 in polymyositis (PM) development, we collected muscle samples from PM patients and mice subjected to an experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) model. METHODS:We measured TLR4-MyD88 pathway-related factors, interferon-? (IFN-?), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) in EAM mice and PM patients. Then, we observed the changes of above factors and the inflammatory development of EAM mice with TLR4 antagonist TAK-242, IFN-?, or IL-17A antibody treatment. RESULTS:The expression of TLR4, MyD88, and NF-?B was significantly upregulated in the muscle tissues both in 22 patients with PM and in the EAM model. As expected, increased levels of various cytokines, such as IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, TGF-?, IFN-?, and IL-17A, were evident in the serum of EAM mice. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IFN-? and IL-17A were significantly increased in both PM patients and EAM mice. Consistently, the levels of these factors were positively correlated with the degree of muscle inflammation in EAM mice. However, when EAM mice were treated with TLR4 antagonist TAK-242, the expression of IFN-? and IL-17A was decreased. When the cytokines were neutralized by anti-IFN-? or anti-IL-17A antibody, the inflammatory development of EAM exacerbated or mitigated. CONCLUSION:The present study provided the important evidence that the TLR4-MyD88 pathway may be involved in the immune mechanisms of PM by mediating IFN-? and IL-17A.
Project description:Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a group of autoimmune inflammatory muscle diseases. Rapamycin has been shown to ameliorate inflammation and improve muscle function in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM). In the present study, the therapeutic effect of rapamycin was compared with methylprednisolone (MP) on EAM. Mice were injected with myosin for 10 days to induce EAM and were subsequently treated with rapamycin (1.5 mg/kg), MP (40 mg/kg) or placebo (DMSO) for 14 days. The rapamycin-treated group exhibited significantly decreased severe inflammation and improved muscle strength compared with the MP-treated group. The plasma transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) concentration in the rapamycin-treated group was significantly higher compared with the placebo group. However, both treatment groups exhibited significantly lower plasma interleukin-10 levels compared with the placebo group. Moreover, splenic regulatory T cell frequency in both the rapamycin- and MP-treated animals was significantly lower than that in the animals of the placebo group. Rapamycin showed better immune suppressive effects than MP in this model of EAM, and these effects were likely to be mediated by the TGF-? signaling pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND Recent data have demonstrated the potential immunosuppressive roles of interleukin-37 (IL-37) in several diseases, but whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathy has not been elucidated. MATERIAL AND METHODS An experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) model was built by subcutaneous injections of pertussis toxin (PTX) and purified rabbit myosin (10mg/kg) emulsified with an equal volume of conventional complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in a Lewis model. Autoimmune myositis Lewis model rats were divided into 3 groups: group A rats (control group) were injected with CFA in saline weekly; group B (IL-37 group) rats were injected with saline with IL-37 and CFA in saline weekly; and group C (IL-37 + SIS3 group) rats were injected with IL-37, CFA, and SIS3. ELISA was also used to assess the expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, TGF-?1, and CK. HE staining was performed to assess pathological changes in lung and muscle tissues. RESULTS The expressions of TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, TGF-?1, and CK significantly increased in autoimmune myositis Lewis model rats. After IL-37 treatment, the expression of TNF-?, IL-6, IL-1?, TGF-?1, and CK was significantly reduced, as were the inflammatory responses of lung and muscle. However, SIS3 reduced the effects of IL-37 on the autoimmune myositis Lewis model rats. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that IL-37 protects against inflammatory response via regulating Smad3 in autoimmune myositis Lewis model rats.
Project description:Myocarditis is an inflammatory and autoimmune cardiovascular disease that causes dilated myocardiopathy and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cortistatin is a neuropeptide produced by neurons and cells of the immune and vascular systems. Besides its action in locomotor activity and sleep, cortistatin inhibits inflammation in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases. However, its role in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders is unexplored. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of cortistatin in a well-established preclinical model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM).We induced EAM by immunization with a fragment of cardiac myosin in susceptible Balb/c mice. Cortistatin was administered i.p. starting 7, 11 or 15 days after EAM induction. At day 21, we evaluated heart hypertrophy, myocardial injury, cardiac inflammatory infiltration and levels of serum and cardiac inflammatory cytokines, cortistatin and autoantibodies. We determined proliferation and cytokine production by heart draining lymph node cells in response to cardiac myosin restimulation.Systemic injection of cortistatin during the effector phase of the disease significantly reduced its prevalence and signs of heart hypertrophy and injury (decreased the levels of brain natriuretic peptide) and impaired myocardial inflammatory cell infiltration. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in self-antigen-specific T-cell responses in lymph nodes and in the levels of cardiomyogenic antibodies and inflammatory cytokines in serum and myocardium. Finally, we found a positive correlation between cardiac and systemic cortistatin levels and EAM severity.Cortistatin emerges as a new candidate to treat inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy.
Project description:We developed an experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) mouse model of polymyositis where we outlined the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Rapamycin, this immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, is known to spare Treg. Our aim was to test the efficacy of rapamycin in vivo in this EAM model and to investigate the effects of the drug on different immune cell sub-populations.EAM is induced by 3 injections of myosin emulsified in CFA. Mice received rapamycin during 25 days starting one day before myosin immunization (preventive treatment), or during 10 days following the last myosin immunization (curative treatment).Under preventive or curative treatment, an increase of muscle strength was observed with a parallel decrease of muscle inflammation, both being well correlated (R(2) = -0.645, p<0.0001). Rapamycin induced a general decrease in muscle of CD4 and CD8 T cells in lymphoid tissues, but spared B cells. Among T cells, the frequency of Treg was increased in rapamycin treated mice in draining lymph nodes (16.9 ± 2.2% vs. 9.3 ± 1.4%, p<0.001), which were mostly activated regulatory T cells (CD62L(low)CD44(high): 58.1 ± 5.78% vs. 33.1 ± 7%, treated vs. untreated, p<0.001). In rapamycin treated mice, inhibition of proliferation (Ki-67(+)) is more important in effector T cells compared to Tregs cells (p<0.05). Furthermore, during preventive treatment, rapamycin increased the levels of KLF2 transcript in CD44(low) CD62L(high) naive T cell and in CD62L(low) CD44(high) activated T cell.Rapamycin showed efficacy both as curative and preventive treatment in our murine model of experimental myositis, in which it induced an increase of muscle strength with a parallel decrease in muscle inflammation. Rapamycin administration was also associated with a decrease in the frequency of effector T cells, an increase in Tregs, and, when administered as preventive treatment, an upregulation of KFL2 in naive and activated T cells.
Project description:Myocarditis is a critical inflammatory disorder which causes life-threatening conditions. No specific or effective treatment has been established. DPP-4 inhibitors have salutary effects not only on type 2 diabetes but also on certain cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of a DPP-4 inhibitor on myocarditis has not been investigated. To clarify the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on myocarditis, we used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. EAM mice were assigned to the following groups: EAM mice group treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor (linagliptin) (n = 19) and those untreated (n = 22). Pathological analysis revealed that the myocardial fibrosis area ratio in the treated group was significantly lower than in the untreated group. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the levels of mRNA expression of IL-2, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6 were significantly lower in the treated group than in the untreated group. Lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that treatment with the DPP-4 inhibitor had no effect on antigen-induced spleen cell proliferation. Administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor remarkably suppressed cardiac fibrosis and reduced inflammatory cytokine gene expression in EAM mice. Thus, the agents present in DPP-4 inhibitors may be useful to treat and/or prevent clinical myocarditis.
Project description:It is generally believed that muscle weakness in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis is due to autoimmune and inflammatory processes. However, it has been observed that there is a poor correlation between the suppression of inflammation and a recovery of muscle function in these patients. This study was undertaken to examine whether nonimmune mechanisms also contribute to muscle weakness. In particular, it has been suggested that an acquired deficiency of AMP deaminase 1 (AMPD1) may be responsible for muscle weakness in myositis.We performed comprehensive functional, behavioral, histologic, molecular, enzymatic, and metabolic assessments before and after the onset of inflammation in a class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-transgenic mouse model of autoimmune inflammatory myositis.Muscle weakness and metabolic disturbances were detectable in the mice prior to the appearance of infiltrating mononuclear cells. Force contraction analysis of muscle function revealed that weakness was correlated with AMPD1 expression and was myositis specific. Decreasing AMPD1 expression resulted in decreased muscle strength in healthy mice. Fiber typing suggested that fast-twitch muscles were converted to slow-twitch muscles as myositis progressed, and microarray results indicated that AMPD1 and other purine nucleotide pathway genes were suppressed, along with genes essential to glycolysis.These data suggest that an AMPD1 deficiency is acquired prior to overt muscle inflammation and is responsible, at least in part, for the muscle weakness that occurs in the mouse model of myositis. AMPD1 is therefore a potential therapeutic target in myositis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. METHODS: In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. RESULTS: Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of transcriptional changes in myositis muscle or other heterogeneous tissue samples. Taken together, the leukocyte index and other gene signatures developed in this study may be potential molecular biomarkers to help to further characterize inflammatory myopathies and aid in clinical development. These hypotheses need to be confirmed in separate and sufficiently powered clinical trials.
Project description:Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle most commonly caused by viral infection and often maintained by autoimmunity. Virus-induced tissue damage triggers chemokine production and, subsequently, immune cell infiltration with pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine production follows. In patients, the overall inflammatory burden determines the disease outcome. Following the aim to define specific molecules that drive both immunopathology and/or autoimmunity in inflammatory heart disease, here we report on increased expression of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) in patients with myocarditis. CSF-1 controls monocytes originating from hematopoietic stem cells and subsequent progenitor stages. Both, monocytes and macrophages are centrally involved in mediating tissue damage and fibrotic scarring in the heart. CSF-1 influences monocytes via engagement of CSF-1 receptor, and it is also produced by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system themselves. Based on this, we sought to modulate the virus-triggered inflammatory response in an experimental model of Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis by silencing the CSF-1 axis in myeloid cells using nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA. siCSF-1 inverted virus-mediated immunopathology as reflected by lower troponin T levels, a reduction of accumulating myeloid cells in heart tissue and improved cardiac function. Importantly, pathogen control was maintained and the virus was efficiently cleared from heart tissue. Since viral heart disease triggers heart-directed autoimmunity, in a second approach we investigated the influence of CSF-1 upon manifestation of heart tissue inflammation during experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). EAM was induced in Balb/c mice by immunization with a myocarditogenic myosin-heavy chain-derived peptide dissolved in complete Freund's adjuvant. siCSF-1 treatment initiated upon established disease inhibited monocyte infiltration into heart tissue and this suppressed cardiac injury as reflected by diminished cardiac fibrosis and improved cardiac function at later states. Mechanistically, we found that suppression of CSF-1 production arrested both differentiation and maturation of monocytes and their precursors in the bone marrow. In conclusion, during viral and autoimmune myocarditis silencing of the myeloid CSF-1 axis by nanoparticle-encapsulated siRNA is beneficial for preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the heart and preserving cardiac function without compromising innate immunity's critical defense mechanisms.
Project description:Macrophages can be reprogramming, such as the classical activated macrophage, M1 or alternative activated macrophages, M2 phenotype following the milieu danger signals, especially inflammatory factors. Macrophage reprogramming is now considered as a key determinant of disease development and/or regression. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is characterized by monocytes/macrophage infiltration, Th17 cells activation and inflammatory factors producing such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). Whether infiltrated macrophages could be reprogramming in EAM? HMGB1 was associated with macrophage reprogramming? Our results clearly demonstrated that infiltrated macrophage was reprogrammed towards a proinflammatory M1-like phenotype and cardiac protection by monocytes/macrophages depletion or HMGB1 blockade in EAM; in vitro, HMGB1 facilitated macrophage reprogramming towards M1-like phenotype dependent on TLR4-PI3K?-Erk1/2 pathway; furthermore, the reprogramming M1-like macrophage promoted Th17 expansion. Therefore, we speculated that HMGB1 contributed EAM development via facilitating macrophage reprogramming towards M1-like phenotype except for directly modulating Th17 cells expansion.