A genome-wide association study reveals dominance effects on number of teats in pigs.
ABSTRACT: Dominance has been suggested as one of the genetic mechanisms explaining heterosis. However, using traditional quantitative genetic methods it is difficult to obtain accurate estimates of dominance effects. With the availability of dense SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) panels, we now have new opportunities for the detection and use of dominance at individual loci. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect additive and dominance effects on number of teats (NT), specifically to investigate the importance of dominance in a Landrace-based population of pigs. In total, 1,550 animals, genotyped for 32,911 SNPs, were used in single SNP analysis. SNPs with a significant genetic effect were tested for their mode of gene action being additive, dominant or a combination. In total, 21 SNPs were associated with NT, located in three regions with additive (SSC6, 7 and 12) and one region with dominant effects (SSC4). Estimates of additive effects ranged from 0.24 to 0.29 teats. The dominance effect of the QTL located on SSC4 was negative (-0.26 teats). The additive variance of the four QTLs together explained 7.37% of the total phenotypic variance. The dominance variance of the four QTLs together explained 1.82% of the total phenotypic variance, which corresponds to one-fourth of the variance explained by additive effects. The results suggest that dominance effects play a relevant role in the genetic architecture of NT. The QTL region on SSC7 contains the most promising candidate gene: VRTN. This gene has been suggested to be related to the number of vertebrae, a trait correlated with NT.
Project description:Traditionally, exploration of genetic variance in humans, plants, and livestock species has been limited mostly to the use of additive effects estimated using pedigree data. However, with the development of dense panels of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the exploration of genetic variation of complex traits is moving from quantifying the resemblance between family members to the dissection of genetic variation at individual loci. With SNPs, we were able to quantify the contribution of additive, dominance, and imprinting variance to the total genetic variance by using a SNP regression method. The method was validated in simulated data and applied to three traits (number of teats, backfat, and lifetime daily gain) in three purebred pig populations. In simulated data, the estimates of additive, dominance, and imprinting variance were very close to the simulated values. In real data, dominance effects account for a substantial proportion of the total genetic variance (up to 44%) for these traits in these populations. The contribution of imprinting to the total phenotypic variance of the evaluated traits was relatively small (1-3%). Our results indicate a strong relationship between additive variance explained per chromosome and chromosome length, which has been described previously for other traits in other species. We also show that a similar linear relationship exists for dominance and imprinting variance. These novel results improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of the evaluated traits and shows promise to apply the SNP regression method to other traits and species, including human diseases.
Project description:Number of functional teats is an important trait in commercial swine production. As litter size increases, the number of teats must also increase to supply nutrition to all piglets. Therefore, a genome-wide association analysis was conducted to identify genomic regions that affect this trait in a commercial swine population. Genotypic data from the Illumina Porcine SNP60v1 BeadChip were available for 2951 animals with total teat number (TTN) records. A subset of these animals (n = 1828) had number of teats on each side recorded. From this information, the following traits were derived: number of teats on the left (LTN) and right side (RTN), maximum number of teats on a side (MAX), difference between LTN and RTN (L - R) and absolute value of L - R (DIF). Bayes C option of GENSEL (version 4.61) and 1-Mb windows were implemented. Identified regions that explained more than 1.5% of the genomic variation were tested in a larger group of animals (n = 5453) to estimate additive genetic effects.Marker heritabilities were highest for TTN (0.233), intermediate for individual side counts (0.088 to 0.115) and virtually nil for difference traits (0.002 for L - R and 0.006 for DIF). Each copy of the VRTN mutant allele increased teat count by 0.35 (TTN), 0.16 (LTN and RTN) and 0.19 (MAX). 15, 18, 13 and 18 one-Mb windows were detected that explained more than 1.0% of the genomic variation for TTN, LTN, RTN, and MAX, respectively. These regions cumulatively accounted for over 50% of the genomic variation of LTN, RTN and MAX, but only 30% of that of TTN. Sus scrofa chromosome SSC10:52 Mb was associated with all four count traits, while SSC10:60 and SSC14:54 Mb were associated with three count traits. Thirty-three SNPs accounted for nearly 39% of the additive genetic variation in the validation dataset. No effect of piglet sex or percentage of males in litter was detected, but birth weight was positively correlated with TTN.Teat number is a heritable trait and use of genetic markers would expedite selection progress. Exploiting genetic variation associated with teat counts on each side would enhance selection focused on total teat counts. These results confirm QTL on SSC4, seven and ten and identify a novel QTL on SSC14.
Project description:An "immortalized F2" (IF2) population and two reciprocal backcross (HSBCF1 and MARBCF1) populations were constructed to investigate the genetic bases of fiber quality traits in upland cotton across four different environments. A relatively high level of heterosis for micronaire (MIC) in IF2 population as well as fiber length (FL) and MIC in MARBCF1 population was observed. A total of 167 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in the three related experimental populations and their corresponding midparental heterosis (MPH) datasets using the composite interval mapping (CIM) approach. An analysis of genetic effects of QTLs detected in different populations and their MPH datasets showed 16 (24.24%) QTLs of partial dominance, and 46 (69.70%) QTLs of overdominance were identified in an IF2 population; 89 (62.68%) additive QTLs, three (2.11%) partial dominant QTLs, and 49 (34.51%) over-dominant QTLs were detected in two BCF1 populations. Multi-environment analysis showed 48 and 56 main-QTLs (m-QTLs) and 132 and 182 epistasis-QTLs (e-QTLs), by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) in IF2 and two BCF1 populations, respectively. Phenotypic variance explained by e-QTLs, except for MARBCF1 population, was higher than that by m-QTLs. Thus, the overdominant, partial dominant, and epistasis effects were the main causes of heterosis in the IF2 population, whereas the additive, overdominant, and epistasis effects were the primary genetic basis of heterosis in the two BCF1 populations. Altogether, additive effect, partial dominance, overdominance, and epistasis contributed to fiber quality heterosis in upland cotton, but overdominance and epistasis were the most important factors.
Project description:Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both breeds; those SNPs also showed the largest dominance effects for fat yield (both breeds) as well as for Holstein milk yield.
Project description:The study was designed to perform a genome-wide association (GWA) and partitioning of genome using Illumina's PorcineSNP60 Beadchip in order to identify variants and determine the explained heritability for the total number of teats in Yorkshire pig.After screening with the following criteria: minor allele frequency, MAF≤0.01; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, HWE≤0.000001, a pair-wise genomic relationship matrix was produced using 42,953 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A genome-wide mixed linear model-based association analysis (MLMA) was conducted. And for estimating the explained heritability with genome- or chromosome-wide SNPs the genetic relatedness estimation through maximum likelihood approach was used in our study.The MLMA analysis and false discovery rate p-values identified three significant SNPs on two different chromosomes (rs81476910 and rs81405825 on SSC8; rs81332615 on SSC13) for total number of teats. Besides, we estimated that 30% of variance could be explained by all of the common SNPs on the autosomal chromosomes for the trait. The maximum amount of heritability obtained by partitioning the genome were 0.22±0.05, 0.16±0.05, 0.10±0.03 and 0.08±0.03 on SSC7, SSC13, SSC1, and SSC8, respectively. Of them, SSC7 explained the amount of estimated heritability along with a SNP (rs80805264) identified by genome-wide association studies at the empirical p value significance level of 2.35E-05 in our study. Interestingly, rs80805264 was found in a nearby quantitative trait loci (QTL) on SSC7 for the teat number trait as identified in a recent study. Moreover, all other significant SNPs were found within and/or close to some QTLs related to ovary weight, total number of born alive and age at puberty in pigs.The SNPs we identified unquestionably represent some of the important QTL regions as well as genes of interest in the genome for various physiological functions responsible for reproduction in pigs.
Project description:It has been suggested that traits with low heritability, such as fertility, may have proportionately more genetic variation arising from non-additive effects than traits with higher heritability, such as milk yield. Here, we performed a large genome scan with 408,255 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to identify chromosomal regions associated with additive, dominance and epistatic (pairwise additive × additive) variability in milk yield and a measure of fertility, calving interval, using records from a population of 7,055 Holstein cows. The results were subsequently validated in an independent set of 3,795 Jerseys.We identified genomic regions with validated additive effects on milk yield on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 5, 14 and 20, whereas SNPs with suggestive additive effects on fertility were observed on BTA 5, 9, 11, 18, 22, 27, 29 and the X chromosome. We also confirmed genome regions with suggestive dominance effects for milk yield (BTA 2, 3, 5, 26 and 27) and for fertility (BTA 1, 2, 3, 7, 23, 25 and 28). A number of significant epistatic effects for milk yield on BTA 14 were found across breeds. However on close inspection, these were likely to be associated with the mutation in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene, given that the associations were no longer significant when the additive effect of the DGAT1 mutation was included in the epistatic model.In general, we observed a low statistical power (high false discovery rates and small number of significant SNPs) for non-additive genetic effects compared with additive effects for both traits which could be an artefact of higher dependence on linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative mutations or smaller size of non-additive effects relative to additive effects. The results of our study suggest that individual non-additive effects make a small contribution to the genetic variation of milk yield and fertility. Although we found no individual mutation with large dominance effect for both traits under investigation, a contribution to genetic variance is still possible from a large number of small dominance effects, so methods that simultaneously incorporate genotypes across all loci are suggested to test the variance explained by dominance gene actions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping provides a powerful tool to unravel the genetic bases of cotton yield and its components, as well as their heterosis. In the present study, the genetic basis underlying inbreeding depression and heterosis for yield and yield components of upland cotton was investigated in recombinant inbred line (RIL), immortalized F2 (IF2), and two backcross (BCF1) populations based on a high-density SNP linkage map across four environments. RESULTS:Significant inbreeding depression of fruit branches per plant (FB), boll numbers per plant (BN), seed cotton yield (SY), and lint yield (LY) in RIL population and high levels of heterosis for SY, LY, and boll weight (BW) in IF2 and two BCF1 populations were observed. A total of 285 QTLs were identified in the four related populations using a composite interval mapping approach. In the IF2 population, 26.60% partially dominant (PD) QTLs and 71.28% over-dominant (OD) QTLs were identified. In two BCF1 populations, 42.41% additive QTLs, 4.19% PD QTLs, and 53.40% OD QTLs were detected. For multi-environment analysis, phenotypic variances (PV) explained by e-QTLs were higher than those by m-QTLs in each of the populations, and the average PV of m-QTLs and e-QTLs explained by QTL?×?environment interactions occupied a considerable proportion of total PV in all seven datasets. CONCLUSIONS:At the single-locus level, the genetic bases of heterosis varied in different populations. Partial dominance and over-dominance were the main cause of heterosis in the IF2 population, while additive effects and over-dominance were the main genetic bases of heterosis in two BCF1 populations. In addition, the various genetic components to heterosis presented trait specificity. In the multi-environment model analysis, epistasis was a common feature of most loci associated with inbreeding depression and heterosis. Furthermore, the environment was a critical factor in the expression of these m-QTLs and e-QTLs. Altogether, additive effects, over-dominance, epistasis and environmental interactions all contributed to the heterosis of yield and its components in upland cotton, with over-dominance and epistasis more important than the others.
Project description:Non-additive effects play important roles in determining genetic changes with regard to complex traits; however, such effects are usually ignored in genetic evaluation and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis. In this study, a two-component genome-based restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) was applied to obtain the additive genetic variance and dominance variance for carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), meat percentage (MP), average daily gain (ADG), and chuck roll (CR) in 1233 Simmental beef cattle. We estimated predictive abilities using additive models (genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and BayesA) and dominance models (GBLUP-D and BayesAD). Moreover, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) considering both additive and dominance effects were performed using a multi-locus mixed-model (MLMM) approach. We found that the estimated dominance variances accounted for 15.8%, 16.1%, 5.1%, 4.2%, and 9.7% of the total phenotypic variance for CW, DP, MP, ADG, and CR, respectively. Compared with BayesA and GBLUP, we observed 0.5-1.1% increases in predictive abilities of BayesAD and 0.5-0.9% increases in predictive abilities of GBLUP-D, respectively. Notably, we identified a dominance association signal for carcass weight within RIMS2, a candidate gene that has been associated with carcass weight in beef cattle. Our results suggest that dominance effects yield variable degrees of contribution to the total genetic variance of the studied traits in Simmental beef cattle. BayesAD and GBLUP-D are convenient models for the improvement of genomic prediction, and the detection of QTLs using a dominance model shows promise for use in GWAS in cattle.
Project description:Lactation persistency (LP), defined as the ability of a cow to maintain milk production at a high level after milk peak, is an important phenotype for the dairy industry. In this study, we used a targeted genotyping approach to scan for potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 57 potential candidate genes derived from our previous genome wide association study on LP and from the literature. A total of 175,490 SNPs were annotated within 10-kb flanking regions of the selected candidate genes. After applying several filtering steps, a total of 105 SNPs were retained for genotyping using target genotyping arrays. SNP association analyses were performed in 1,231 Holstein cows with 69 polymorphic SNPs using the univariate liner mixed model with polygenic effects using DMU package. Six SNPs including rs43770847, rs208794152, and rs208332214 in ADRM1; rs209443540 in C5orf34; rs378943586 in DDX11; and rs385640152 in GHR were suggestively significantly associated with LP based on additive effects and associations with 4 of them (rs43770847, rs208794152, rs208332214, and rs209443540) were based on dominance effects at P < 0.05. However, none of the associations remained significant at false discovery rate adjusted P (FDR) < 0.05. The additive variances explained by each suggestively significantly associated SNP ranged from 0.15% (rs43770847 in ADRM1) to 5.69% (rs209443540 in C5orf34), suggesting that these SNPs might be used in genetic selection for enhanced LP. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by dominance effect ranged from 0.24% to 1.35% which suggests that genetic selection for enhanced LP might be more efficient by inclusion of dominance effects. Overall, this study identified several potentially functional variants that might be useful for selection programs for higher LP. Finally, a combination of identification of potentially functional variants followed by targeted genotyping and association analysis is a cost-effective approach for increasing the power of genetic association studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The number of teats in pigs is related to a sow's ability to rear piglets to weaning age. Several studies have identified genes and genomic regions that affect teat number in swine but few common results were reported. The objective of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect teat number in pigs, evaluate the accuracy of genomic prediction, and evaluate the contribution of significant genes and genomic regions to genomic broad-sense heritability and prediction accuracy using 41,108 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genotyping-by-sequencing on 2936 Duroc boars.<h4>Results</h4>Narrow-sense heritability and dominance heritability of teat number estimated by genomic restricted maximum likelihood were 0.365 ± 0.030 and 0.035 ± 0.019, respectively. The accuracy of genomic predictions, calculated as the average correlation between the genomic best linear unbiased prediction and phenotype in a tenfold validation study, was 0.437 ± 0.064 for the model with additive and dominance effects and 0.435 ± 0.064 for the model with additive effects only. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using three methods of analysis identified 85 significant SNP effects for teat number on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 14. The region between 102.9 and 106.0 Mb on chromosome 7, which was reported in several studies, had the most significant SNP effects in or near the PTGR2, FAM161B, LIN52, VRTN, FCF1, AREL1 and LRRC74A genes. This region accounted for 10.0% of the genomic additive heritability and 8.0% of the accuracy of prediction. The second most significant chromosome region not reported by previous GWAS was the region between 77.7 and 79.7 Mb on chromosome 11, where SNPs in the FGF14 gene had the most significant effect and accounted for 5.1% of the genomic additive heritability and 5.2% of the accuracy of prediction. The 85 significant SNPs accounted for 28.5 to 28.8% of the genomic additive heritability and 35.8 to 36.8% of the accuracy of prediction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The three methods used for the GWAS identified 85 significant SNPs with additive effects on teat number, including SNPs in a previously reported chromosomal region and SNPs in novel chromosomal regions. Most significant SNPs with larger estimated effects also had larger contributions to the total genomic heritability and accuracy of prediction than other SNPs.