QTL analysis of flowering time and ripening traits suggests an impact of a genomic region on linkage group 1 in Vitis.
ABSTRACT: In the recent past, genetic analyses of grapevine focused mainly on the identification of resistance loci for major diseases such as powdery and downy mildew. Currently, breeding programs make intensive use of these results by applying molecular markers linked to the resistance traits. However, modern genetics also allows to address additional agronomic traits that have considerable impact on the selection of grapevine cultivars. In this study, we have used linkage mapping for the identification and characterization of flowering time and ripening traits in a mapping population from a cross of V3125 ('Schiava Grossa' × 'Riesling') and the interspecific rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia × Vitis cinerea). Comparison of the flowering time QTL mapping with data derived from a second independent segregating population identified several common QTLs. Especially a large region on linkage group 1 proved to be of special interest given the genetic divergence of the parents of the two populations. The proximity of the QTL region contains two CONSTANS-like genes. In accordance with data from other plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, we hypothesize that these genes are major contributors to control the time of flowering in Vitis.
Project description:Grapevine breeding has become highly relevant due to upcoming challenges like climate change, a decrease in the number of available fungicides, increasing public concern about plant protection, and the demand for a sustainable production. Downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide of cultivated Vitis vinifera. In modern breeding programs, therefore, genetic marker technologies and genomic data are used to develop new cultivars with defined and stacked resistance loci. Potential sources of resistance are wild species of American or Asian origin. The interspecific hybrid of Vitis riparia Gm 183 x Vitis cinerea Arnold, available as the rootstock cultivar 'Börner,' carries several relevant resistance loci. We applied next-generation sequencing to enable the reliable identification of simple sequence repeats (SSR), and we also generated a draft genome sequence assembly of 'Börner' to access genome-wide sequence variations in a comprehensive and highly reliable way. These data were used to cover the 'Börner' genome with genetic marker positions. A subset of these marker positions was used for targeted mapping of the P. viticola resistance locus, Rpv14, to validate the marker position list. Based on the reference genome sequence PN40024, the position of this resistance locus can be narrowed down to less than 0.5 Mbp on chromosome 5.
Project description:Vitis riparia, a critically important Native American grapevine species, is used globally in rootstock and scion breeding and contributed to the recovery of the French wine industry during the mid-19th century phylloxera epidemic. This species has abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and the largest natural geographic distribution of the North American grapevine species. Here we report an Illumina short-read 369X coverage, draft de novo heterozygous genome sequence of V. riparia Michx. 'Manitoba 37' with the size of ~495?Mb for 69,616 scaffolds and a N50 length of 518,740?bp. Using RNAseq data, 40,019 coding sequences were predicted and annotated. Benchmarking with Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis of predicted gene models found 96% of the complete BUSCOs in this assembly. The assembly continuity and completeness were further validated using V. riparia ESTs, BACs, and three de novo transcriptome assemblies of three different V. riparia genotypes resulting in >98% of respective sequences/transcripts mapping with this assembly. Alignment of the V. riparia assembly and predicted CDS with the latest V. vinifera 'PN40024' CDS and genome assembly showed 99% CDS alignment and a high degree of synteny. An analysis of plant transcription factors indicates a high degree of homology with the V. vinifera transcription factors. QTL mapping to V. riparia 'Manitoba 37' and V. vinifera PN40024 has identified genetic relationships to phenotypic variation between species. This assembly provides reference sequences, gene models for marker development and understanding V. riparia's genetic contributions in grape breeding and research.
Project description:Grapevine is one of the most important fruit species in the world. In order to better understand genetic basis of traits variation and facilitate the breeding of new genotypes, we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the genome of the American native Vitis riparia, one of the main species used worldwide for rootstock and scion breeding. A total of 164?Gb raw DNA reads were obtained from Vitis riparia resulting in a 225X depth of coverage. We generated a genome assembly of the V. riparia grape de novo using the PacBio long-reads that was phased with the 10x Genomics Chromium linked-reads. At the chromosome level, a 500?Mb genome was generated with a scaffold N50 size of 1?Mb. More than 34% of the whole genome were identified as repeat sequences, and 37,207 protein-coding genes were predicted. This genome assembly sets the stage for comparative genomic analysis of the diversification and adaptation of grapevine and will provide a solid resource for further genetic analysis and breeding of this economically important species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grapevine is a crop of major economic importance, yet little is known about the regulation of shoot development in grapevine or other perennial fruits crops. Here we combine genetic and genomic tools to identify candidate genes regulating shoot development in Vitis spp. RESULTS:An F2 population from an interspecific cross between V. vinifera and V. riparia was phenotyped for shoot development traits, and three Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) were identified on linkage groups (LGs) 7, 14 and 18. Around 17% of the individuals exhibited a dwarfed phenotype. A transcriptomic study identified four candidate genes that were not expressed in dwarfed individuals and located within the confidence interval of the QTL on LG7. A deletion of 84,482?bp was identified in the genome of dwarfed plants, which included these four not expressed genes. One of these genes was VviCURLY LEAF (VviCLF), an orthologue of CLF, a regulator of shoot development in Arabidopsis thaliana. CONCLUSIONS:The phenotype of the dwarfed grapevine plants was similar to that of clf mutants of A. thaliana and orthologues of the known targets of CLF in A. thaliana were differentially expressed in the dwarfed plants. This suggests that CLF, a major developmental regulator in A. thaliana, also controls shoot development in grapevine.
Project description:Leaf shape in plants plays important roles in water use, canopy structure, and physiological tolerances to abiotic stresses; all important traits for the future development and sustainability of grapevine cultivation. Historically, researchers have used ampelography, the study of leaf shape in grapevines, to differentiate Vitis species and cultivars based on finite leaf attributes. However, ampelographic measurements have limitations and new methods for quantifying shape are now available. We paired an analysis of finite trait attributes with a 17-point landmark survey and generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA) to reconstruct grapevine leaves digitally from five interspecific hybrid mapping families. Using the reconstructed leaves, we performed three types of quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses to determine the genetic architecture that defines leaf shape. In the first analysis, we compared several important ampelographic measurements as finite trait QTL. In the second and third analyses, we identified significant shape variation via principal components analysis (PCA) and using a multivariate least squares interval mapping (MLSIM) approach. In total, we identified 271 significant QTL across the three measures of leaf shape and identified specific QTL hotspots in the grape genome which appear to drive major aspects of grapevine leaf shape.
Project description:In winegrapes (Vitis spp.), fruit quality traits such as berry color, total soluble solids content (SS), malic acid content (MA), and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) affect fermentation or wine quality, and are important traits in selecting new hybrid winegrape cultivars. Given the high genetic diversity and heterozygosity of Vitis species and their tendency to exhibit inbreeding depression, linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has relied on F1 families with the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and other markers. This study presents the construction of a genetic map by single nucleotide polymorphisms identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology in an F2 mapping family of 424 progeny derived from a cross between the wild species V. riparia Michx. and the interspecific hybrid winegrape cultivar, 'Seyval'. The resulting map has 1449 markers spanning 2424 cM in genetic length across 19 linkage groups, covering 95% of the genome with an average distance between markers of 1.67 cM. Compared to an SSR map previously developed for this F2 family, these results represent an improved map covering a greater portion of the genome with higher marker density. The accuracy of the map was validated using the well-studied trait berry color. QTL affecting YAN, MA and SS related traits were detected. A joint MA and SS QTL spans a region with candidate genes involved in the malate metabolism pathway. We present an analytical pipeline for calling intercross GBS markers and a high-density linkage map for a large F2 family of the highly heterozygous Vitis genus. This study serves as a model for further genetic investigations of the molecular basis of additional unique characters of North American hybrid wine cultivars and to enhance the breeding process by marker-assisted selection. The GBS protocols for identifying intercross markers developed in this study can be adapted for other heterozygous species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a major insect pest that negatively impacts commercial grapevine performance worldwide. Consequently, the use of phylloxera resistant rootstocks is an essential component of vineyard management. However, the majority of commercially available rootstocks used in viticulture production provide limited levels of grape phylloxera resistance, in part due to the adaptation of phylloxera biotypes to different Vitis species. Therefore, there is pressing need to develop new rootstocks better adapted to specific grape growing regions with complete resistance to grape phylloxera biotypes. RESULTS:Grapevine rootstock breeding material, including an accession of Vitis cinerea and V. aestivalis, DRX55 ([M. rotundifolia x V. vinifera] x open pollinated) and MS27-31 (M. rotundifolia specific hybrid), provided complete resistance to grape phylloxera in potted plant assays. To map the genetic factor(s) of grape phylloxera resistance, a F1 V. cinerea x V. vinifera Riesling population was screened for resistance. Heritability analysis indicates that the V. cinerea accession contained a single allele referred as RESISTANCE TO DAKTULOSPHAIRA VITIFOLIAE 2 (RDV2) that confers grape phylloxera resistance. Using genetic maps constructed with pseudo-testcross markers for V. cinerea and Riesling, a single phylloxera resistance locus was identified in V. cinerea. After validating SNPs at the RDV2 locus, interval and linkage mapping showed that grape phylloxera resistance mapped to linkage group 14 at position 16.7 cM. CONCLUSION:The mapping of RDV2 and the validation of markers linked to grape phylloxera resistance provides the basis to breed new rootstocks via marker-assisted selection that improve vineyard performance.
Project description:Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most important perennial crop plants in worldwide. Understanding of developmental processes like flowering, which impact quality and quantity of yield in this species is therefore of high interest. This gets even more important when considering some of the expected consequences of climate change. Earlier bud burst and flowering, for example, may result in yield loss due to spring frost. Berry ripening under higher temperatures will impact wine quality. Knowledge of interactions between a genotype or allele combination and the environment can be used for the breeding of genotypes that are better adapted to new climatic conditions. To this end, we have generated a list of more than 500 candidate genes that may play a role in the timing of flowering. The grapevine genome was exploited for flowering time control gene homologs on the basis of functional data from model organisms like A. thaliana. In a previous study, a mapping population derived from early flowering GF.GA-47-42 and late flowering 'Villard Blanc' was analyzed for flowering time QTLs. In a second step we have now established a workflow combining amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics to follow alleles of selected candidate genes in the F1 individuals and the parental genotypes. Allele combinations of these genes in individuals of the mapping population were correlated with early or late flowering phenotypes. Specific allele combinations of flowering time candidate genes within and outside of the QTL regions for flowering time on chromosome 1, 4, 14, 17, and 18 were found to be associated with an early flowering phenotype. In addition, expression of many of the flowering candidate genes was analyzed over consecutive stages of bud and inflorescence development indicating functional roles of these genes in the flowering control network.
Project description:Plant parasitic nematodes, including root knot nematode Meloidogyne species, cause extensive damage to agriculture and horticultural crops. As Vitis vinifera cultivars are susceptible to root knot nematode parasitism, rootstocks resistant to these soil pests provide a sustainable approach to maintain grapevine production. Currently, most of the commercially available root knot nematode resistant rootstocks are highly vigorous and take up excess potassium, which reduces wine quality. As a result, there is a pressing need to breed new root knot nematode resistant rootstocks, which have no impact on wine quality. To develop molecular markers that predict root knot nematode resistance for marker assisted breeding, a genetic approach was employed to identify a root knot nematode resistance locus in grapevine. To this end, a Meloidogyne javanica resistant Vitis cinerea accession was crossed to a susceptible Vitis vinifera cultivar Riesling and results from screening the F1 individuals support a model that root knot nematode resistance, is conferred by a single dominant allele, referred as MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA RESISTANCE1 (MJR1). Further, MJR1 resistance appears to be mediated by a hypersensitive response that occurs in the root apical meristem. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and results from association and genetic mapping identified the MJR1 locus, which is located on chromosome 18 in the Vitis cinerea accession. Validation of the SNPs linked to the MJR1 locus using a Sequenom MassARRAY platform found that only 50% could be validated. The validated SNPs that flank and co-segregate with the MJR1 locus can be used for marker-assisted selection for Meloidogyne javanica resistance in grapevine.
Project description:Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood.Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways.Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola.