Computing proton dose to irregularly moving targets.
ABSTRACT: While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery.The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion.A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in the phantom (2 mm, 2%), and 90.8% (3 mm, 3%)for the patient data.We have demonstrated a method for accurately reproducing proton dose to an irregularly moving target from a single CT image. We believe this algorithm could prove a useful tool to study the dosimetric impact of baseline shifts either before or during treatment.
Project description:The XCAT phantom is a realistic 4D digital torso phantom that is widely used in imaging and therapy research. However, lung mass is not conserved between respiratory phases of the phantom, making detailed dosimetric simulations and dose accumulation unphysical. A framework is developed to correct this issue by enforcing local mass conservation in the XCAT lung. Dose calculations are performed to assess the implications of neglecting mass conservation, and to demonstrate an application of the phantom to calculate the accumulated delivered dose in an irregularly breathing patient.A displacement vector field (DVF) between each respiratory state and a reference image is generated from the XCAT motion model and its divergence is calculated and used to correct the lung density. A series of phantoms with regular and irregular breathing (based on patient data) are generated and modified to conserve mass. Monte Carlo methods are used to simulate conventional and SBRT treatment delivery. The calculated dose is deformed and accumulated using the DVF. Results from the mass-conserving and original XCAT are compared. A 4DCT is simulated for the irregularly breathing patient, and a 4DCT-based dose estimate is compared with the accumulated delivered dose.The presented framework successfully conserves mass in the XCAT lung. The spatial distribution of the lung dose was qualitatively changed by the use of a mass conservation in the XCAT; however, the corresponding DVH did not change significantly. The comparison of the delivered dose with the 4DCT-based prediction shows similar lung metric results, however dose differences of 10% can be seen in some spatial regions.The XCAT phantom has been successfully modified so that it conserves lung mass during respiration, enabling it to be used as a tool to perform dose accumulation studies in the lung without relying on deformable image registration. Neglecting mass conservation can result in erroneous spatial distributions of the dose in the lung. Using this tool to simulate patient treatments reveals differences between the planned dose and the calculated delivered dose for the full treatment. The software is freely available from the authors.
Project description:The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, both in phantom and patient, the feasibility of using an average 4DCT image set (AVG-CT) for 4D cumulative dose estimation. A series of 4DCT numerical phantoms and corresponding AVG-CTs were generated. For full 4D dose summation, static dose was calculated on each phase and cumulative dose was determined by combining each phase's static dose distribution with known tumor displacement. The AVG-CT cumulative dose was calculated similarly, although the same AVG-CT static dose distribution was used for all phases (i.e., tumor displacements). Four lung cancer cases were also evaluated for stereotactic body radiotherapy and conformal treatments; however, deformable image registration of the 4DCTs was used to generate the displacement vector fields (DVFs) describing patient-specific motion. Dose discrepancy between full 4D summation and AVG-CT approach was calculated and compared. For all phantoms, AVG-CT approximation yielded slightly higher cumulative doses compared to full 4D summation, with dose discrepancy increasing with increased tumor excursion. In vivo, using the AVG-CT coupled with deformable registration yielded clinically insignificant differences for all GTV parameters including the minimum, mean, maximum, dose to 99% of target, and dose to 1% of target. Furthermore, analysis of the spinal cord, esophagus, and heart revealed negligible differences in major dosimetric indices and dose coverage between the two dose calculation techniques. Simplifying 4D dose accumulation via the AVG-CT, while fully accounting for tumor deformation due to respiratory motion, has been validated, thereby, introducing the potential to streamline the use of 4D dose calculations in clinical practice, particularly for adaptive planning purposes.
Project description:As a counterpart of 4DCT in the treatment planning stage of radiotherapy treatment, 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) method has been proposed to verify tumor motion trajectories before radiation therapy treatment delivery. Besides 4DCBCT acquisition using slower gantry rotation speed or multiple rotations, a new method using the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) image reconstruction method and the standard 1-min data acquisition were proposed. In this paper, the PICCS-4DCBCT method was combined with deformable registration to validate its capability in motion trajectory extraction using physical phantom data, simulated human subject data from 4DCT and in vivo human subject data.Two methods were used to validate PICCS-4DCBCT for the purpose of respiratory motion delineation. The standard 1-min gantry rotation Cone Beam CT acquisition was used for both methods. In the first method, 4DCBCT projection data of a physical motion phantom were acquired using an on-board CBCT acquisition system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Using a deformable registration method, the object motion trajectories were extracted from both FBP and PICCS reconstructed 4DCBCT images, and compared against the programmed motion trajectories. In the second method, using a clinical 4DCT dataset, Cone Beam CT projections were simulated by forward projection. Using a deformable registration method, the tumor motion trajectories were extracted from the reconstructed 4DCT and PICCS-4DCBCT images. The performance of PICCS-4DCBCT is assessed against the 4DCT ground truth. The breathing period was varied in the simulation to study its effect on motion extraction. For both validation methods, the root mean square error (RMSE) and the maximum of the errors (MaxE) were used to quantify the accuracy of the extracted motion trajectories. After the validation, a clinical dataset was used to demonstrate the motion delineation capability of PICCS-4DCBCT for human subjects.In both validation studies, the RMSEs of the extracted motion trajectories from PICCS-4DCBCT images are less than 0.7 mm, and their MaxEs are less than 1 mm, for all three directions. In comparison, FBP-4DCBCT shows considerably larger RMSEs in the physical phantom based validation. PICCS-4DCBCT also shows insensitivity to the breathing period in the 4DCT based validation. For the in vivo human subject study, high quality 3D motion trajectory of the tumor was obtained from PICCS-4DCBCT images and showed consistency with visual observation.These results demonstrate accurate delineation of tumor motion trajectory can be achieved using PICCS-4DCBCT and the standard 1-min data acquisition.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Respiratory motion is one of the major challenges in radiotherapy. In this work, a comprehensive and clinically plausible set of 4D numerical phantoms, together with their corresponding "ground truths," have been developed and validated for 4D radiotherapy applications.<h4>Methods</h4>The phantoms are based on CTs providing density information and motion from multi-breathing-cycle 4D Magnetic Resonance imagings (MRIs). Deformable image registration (DIR) has been utilized to extract motion fields from 4DMRIs and to establish inter-subject correspondence by registering binary lung masks between Computer Tomography (CT) and MRI. The established correspondence is then used to warp the CT according to the 4DMRI motion. The resulting synthetic 4DCTs are called 4DCT(MRI)s. Validation of the 4DCT(MRI) workflow was conducted by directly comparing conventional 4DCTs to derived synthetic 4D images using the motion of the 4DCTs themselves (referred to as 4DCT(CT)s). Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) as well as 4D pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton dose calculations were used for validation.<h4>Results</h4>Based on the CT image appearance of 13 lung cancer patients and deformable motion of five volunteer 4DMRIs, synthetic 4DCT(MRI)s with a total of 871 different breathing cycles have been generated. The 4DCT(MRI)s exhibit an average superior-inferior tumor motion amplitude of 7 ± 5 mm (min: 0.5 mm, max: 22.7 mm). The relative change of the DRR image intensities of the conventional 4DCTs and the corresponding synthetic 4DCT(CT)s inside the body is smaller than 5% for at least 81% of the pixels for all studied cases. Comparison of 4D dose distributions calculated on 4DCTs and the synthetic 4DCT(CT)s using the same motion achieved similar dose distributions with an average 2%/2 mm gamma pass rate of 90.8% (min: 77.8%, max: 97.2%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We developed a series of numerical 4D lung phantoms based on real imaging and motion data, which give realistic representations of both anatomy and motion scenarios and the accessible "ground truth" deformation vector fields of each 4DCT(MRI). The open-source code and motion data allow foreseen users to generate further 4D data by themselves. These numeric 4D phantoms can be used for the development of new 4D treatment strategies, 4D dose calculations, DIR algorithm validations, as well as simulations of motion mitigation and different online image guidance techniques for both proton and photon radiation therapy.
Project description:Surrogate-driven respiratory motion models relate the motion of the internal anatomy to easily acquired respiratory surrogate signals, such as the motion of the skin surface. They are usually built by first using image registration to determine the motion from a number of dynamic images, and then fitting a correspondence model relating the motion to the surrogate signals. In this paper we present a generalized framework that unifies the image registration and correspondence model fitting into a single optimization. This allows the use of 'partial' imaging data, such as individual slices, projections, or k-space data, where it would not be possible to determine the motion from an individual frame of data. Motion compensated image reconstruction can also be incorporated using an iterative approach, so that both the motion and a motion-free image can be estimated from the partial image data. The framework has been applied to real 4DCT, Cine CT, multi-slice CT, and multi-slice MR data, as well as simulated datasets from a computer phantom. This includes the use of a super-resolution reconstruction method for the multi-slice MR data. Good results were obtained for all datasets, including quantitative results for the 4DCT and phantom datasets where the ground truth motion was known or could be estimated.
Project description:Respiratory motion management techniques in radiotherapy (RT) planning are primarily focused on maintaining tumor target coverage. An inadequately addressed need is accounting for motion in dosimetric estimations in smaller serial structures. Accurate dose estimations in such structures are more sensitive to motion because respiration can cause them to move completely in or out of a high dose-gradient field. In this work, we study three motion management strategies (m1-m3) to find an accurate method to estimate the dosimetry in airways. To validate these methods, we generated a 'ground truth' digital breathing model based on a 4DCT scan from a lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SAbR) patient. We simulated 225 breathing cycles with??±10% perturbations in amplitude, respiratory period, and time per respiratory phase. A high-resolution breath-hold CT (BHCT) was also acquired and used with a research virtual bronchoscopy software to autosegment 239 airways. Contours for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were defined on the maximum intensity projection of the 4DCT (CTMIP) and transferred to the average of the 10 4DCT phases (CTAVG). To design the motion management methods, the RT plan was recreated using different images and structure definitions. Methods m1 and m2 recreated the plan using the CTAVG image. In method m1, airways were deformed to the CTAVG. In m2, airways were deformed to each of the 4DCT phases, and union structures were transferred onto the CTAVG. In m3, the RT plan was recreated on each of the 10 phases, and the dose distribution from each phase was deformed to the BHCT and summed. Dose errors (mean [min, max]) in airways were: m1: 21% (0.001%, 93%); m2: 45% (0.1%, 179%); and m3: 4% (0.006%, 14%). Our work suggests that accurate dose estimation in moving small serial structures requires customized motion management techniques (like m3 in this work) rather than current clinical and investigational approaches.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT) can decrease treatment toxicity by allowing for smaller treatment volumes for mobile tumors. RGRT is commonly performed using external surrogates of tumor motion. We describe the use of time-integrated electronic portal imaging (TI-EPI) to verify the position of internal structures during RGRT delivery METHODS: TI-EPI portals were generated by continuously collecting exit dose data (aSi500 EPID, Portal vision, Varian Medical Systems) when a respiratory motion phantom was irradiated during expiration, inspiration and free breathing phases. RGRT was delivered using the Varian RPM system, and grey value profile plots over a fixed trajectory were used to study object positions. Time-related positional information was derived by subtracting grey values from TI-EPI portals sharing the pixel matrix. TI-EPI portals were also collected in 2 patients undergoing RPM-triggered RGRT for a lung and hepatic tumor (with fiducial markers), and corresponding planning 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans were analyzed for motion amplitude. RESULTS: Integral grey values of phantom TI-EPI portals correlated well with mean object position in all respiratory phases. Cranio-caudal motion of internal structures ranged from 17.5-20.0 mm on planning 4DCT scans. TI-EPI of bronchial images reproduced with a mean value of 5.3 mm (1 SD 3.0 mm) located cranial to planned position. Mean hepatic fiducial markers reproduced with 3.2 mm (SD 2.2 mm) caudal to planned position. After bony alignment to exclude set-up errors, mean displacement in the two structures was 2.8 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively, and corresponding reproducibility in anatomy improved to 1.6 mm (1 SD). CONCLUSION: TI-EPI appears to be a promising method for verifying delivery of RGRT. The RPM system was a good indirect surrogate of internal anatomy, but use of TI-EPI allowed for a direct link between anatomy and breathing patterns.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In adults, a single pre-treatment four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) acquisition is often used to account for respiratory-induced target motion during radiotherapy. However, studies have indicated that a 4D-CT is not always representative for respiratory motion. Our aim was to investigate whether respiratory-induced diaphragm motion in children on a single pre-treatment 4DCT can accurately predict respiratory-induced diaphragm motion as observed on cone beam CTs (CBCTs).<h4>Methods</h4>Twelve patients (mean age 14.5 yrs.; range 8.6-17.9 yrs) were retrospectively included based on visibility of the diaphragm on abdominal or thoracic imaging data acquired during free breathing. A 4DCT for planning purposes and daily/weekly CBCTs (total 125; range 4-29 per patient) acquired prior to dose delivery were available. The amplitude, corresponding to the difference in position of the diaphragm in cranial-caudal direction in end-inspiration and end-expiration phases, was extracted from the 4DCT (A<sub>4DCT</sub>). The amplitude in CBCTs (A<sub>CBCT</sub>) was defined as displacement between averaged in- and expiration diaphragm positions on corresponding projection images, and the distribution of A<sub>CBCT</sub> was compared to A<sub>4DCT</sub> (one-sample t-test, significance level p?< 0.05).<h4>Results</h4>Over all patients, the mean A<sub>4DCT</sub> was 10.4 mm and the mean A<sub>CBCT</sub> 11.6 mm. For 9/12 patients, A<sub>4DCT</sub> differed significantly (p <?0.05) from A<sub>CBCT</sub>. Differences >?3 mm were found in 69/125 CBCTs (55%), with A<sub>4DCT</sub> mostly underestimating A<sub>CBCT</sub>. For 7/12 patients, diaphragm positions differed significantly from the baseline position.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Respiratory-induced diaphragm motion determined on 4DCT does not accurately predict the daily respiratory-induced diaphragm motion observed on CBCTs, as the amplitude and baseline position differed statistically significantly in the majority of patients. Regular monitoring of respiratory motion during the treatment course using CBCTs could yield a higher accuracy when a daily adaptation to the actual breathing amplitude takes place.
Project description:To develop a method that allows a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) to perform accurate dose reconstruction for rigidly moving targets and to validate the method in phantom measurements for a range of treatments including intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), and dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking.An in-house computer program was developed to manipulate Dicom treatment plans exported from a TPS (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) such that target motion during treatment delivery was incorporated into the plans. For each treatment, a motion including plan was generated by dividing the intratreatment target motion into 1 mm position bins and construct sub-beams that represented the parts of the treatment that were delivered, while the target was located within each position bin. For each sub-beam, the target shift was modeled by a corresponding isocenter shift. The motion incorporating Dicom plans were reimported into the TPS, where dose calculation resulted in motion including target dose distributions. For experimental validation of the dose reconstruction a thorax phantom with a moveable lung equivalent rod with a tumor insert of solid water was first CT scanned. The tumor insert was delineated as a gross tumor volume (GTV), and a planning target volume (PTV) was formed by adding margins. A conformal plan, two IMRT plans (step-and-shoot and sliding windows), and a VMAT plan were generated giving minimum target doses of 95% (GTV) and 67% (PTV) of the prescription dose (3 Gy). Two conformal fields with MLC leaves perpendicular and parallel to the tumor motion, respectively, were generated for DMLC tracking. All treatment plans were delivered to the thorax phantom without tumor motion and with a sinusoidal tumor motion. The two conformal fields were delivered with and without portal image guided DMLC tracking based on an embedded gold marker. The target dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film in the moving rod and compared with the reconstructed doses using gamma tests.Considerable interplay effects between machine motion and target motion were observed for the treatments without tracking. For nontracking experiments, the mean 2 mm∕2% gamma pass rate over all investigated scenarios was 99.6% between calculated and measured doses. For tracking experiments, the mean gamma pass rate was 99.4%.A method for accurate dose reconstruction for moving targets with dynamic treatments was developed and experimentally validated in a variety of delivery scenarios. The method is suitable for integration into TPSs, e.g., for reconstruction of the dose delivered to moving tumors or calculation of target doses delivered with DMLC tracking.
Project description:Particle therapy of moving targets is still a great challenge. The motion of organs situated in the thorax and abdomen strongly affects the precision of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy. The motion is responsible for not only the dislocation of the tumour but also the alterations in the internal density along the beam path, which influence the range of particle beams. Furthermore, in case of pencil beam scanning, there is an interference between the target movement and dynamic beam delivery. This review presents the strategies for tumour motion monitoring and moving target irradiation in the context of hadron therapy. Methods enabling the direct determination of tumour position (fluoroscopic imaging of implanted radio-opaque fiducial markers, electromagnetic detection of inserted transponders and ultrasonic tumour localization systems) are presented. Attention is also drawn to the techniques which use external surrogate motion for an indirect estimation of target displacement during irradiation. The role of respiratory-correlated CT [four-dimensional CT (4DCT)] in the determination of motion pattern prior to the particle treatment is also considered. An essential part of the article is the review of the main approaches to moving target irradiation in hadron therapy: gating, rescanning (repainting), gated rescanning and tumour tracking. The advantages, drawbacks and development trends of these methods are discussed. The new accelerators, called "cyclinacs", are presented, because their application to particle therapy will allow making a breakthrough in the 4D spot scanning treatment of moving organs.