Metformin limits the adipocyte tumor-promoting effect on ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT: Omental adipocytes promote ovarian cancer by secretion of adipokines, cytokines and growth factors, and acting as fuel depots. We investigated if metformin modulates the ovarian cancer promoting effects of adipocytes. Effect of conditioned media obtained from differentiated mouse 3T3L1 preadipoctes on the proliferation and migration of a mouse ovarian surface epithelium cancer cell line (ID8) was estimated. Conditioned media from differentiated adipocytes increased the proliferation and migration of ID8 cells, which was attenuated by metformin. Metformin inhibited adipogenesis by inhibition of key adipogenesis regulating transcription factors (CEBP?, CEBPß, and SREBP1), and induced AMPK. A targeted Cancer Pathway Finder RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) based gene array revealed 20 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in ID8 cells exposed to adipocyte conditioned media, which were altered by metformin. Adipocyte conditioned media also induced bio-energetic changes in the ID8 cells by pushing them into a highly metabolically active state; these effects were reversed by metformin. Collectively, metformin treatment inhibited the adipocyte mediated ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, expression of cancer associated genes and bio-energetic changes. Suggesting, that metformin could be a therapeutic option for ovarian cancer at an early stage, as it not only targets ovarian cancer, but also modulates the environmental milieu.
Project description:Objective: Although it is well known that adipocyte significantly affects breast cancer progression, its mechanism has not been fully understood. Here, we analyzed the effect of adipocytes on breast cancer progression including cell proliferation and migration. Materials and Methods: We treated the conditioned media obtained from mouse 3T3-L1-derived or human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC)-derived adipocytes to breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. And then, cells viability and proliferation were analyzed using MTT assays and colony forming assays, respectively. Also mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines and proteins expression in main signal pathway were analyzed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Results: Adipocyte-derived conditioned media increased the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells while little effects in a human normal immortalized mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A. In addition, adipocyte-derived conditioned media induced phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR and upregulated the expression of target genes of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway including IL6, IL1?, IL1? and TNF? in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, BEZ235 a dual inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR significantly decreased the adipocyte-mediated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Conclusion: Adipocyte-derived conditioned media enhance the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells through the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, supporting the importance of heterotypic interactions between breast cancer cells and adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment.
Project description:The goal of controlling ovarian cancer metastasis formation has elicited considerable interest in identifying the tissue microenvironments involved in cancer cell colonization of the omentum. Omental adipose is a site of prodigious metastasis in both ovarian cancer models and clinical disease. This tissue is unusual for its milky spots, comprised of immune cells, stromal cells, and structural elements surrounding glomerulus-like capillary beds. The present study shows the novel finding that milky spots and adipocytes play distinct and complementary roles in omental metastatic colonization. In vivo assays showed that ID8, CaOV3, HeyA8, and SKOV3ip.1 cancer cells preferentially lodge and grow within omental and splenoportal fat, which contain milky spots, rather than in peritoneal fat depots. Similarly, medium conditioned by milky spot-containing adipose tissue caused 75% more cell migration than did medium conditioned by milky spot-deficient adipose. Studies with immunodeficient mice showed that the mouse genetic background does not alter omental milky spot number and size, nor does it affect ovarian cancer colonization. Finally, consistent with the role of lipids as an energy source for cancer cell growth, in vivo time-course studies revealed an inverse relationship between metastatic burden and omental adipocyte content. Our findings support a two-step model in which both milky spots and adipose have specific roles in colonization of the omentum by ovarian cancer cells.
Project description:Obesity prevalence is increasing worldwide and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation with macrophage infiltration, which is linked with a poorer breast cancer prognosis. Lunasin is a natural seed peptide with chemopreventive properties and multiple bioactivities. This is the first study to explore the chemopreventive effects of lunasin in the obesity-related breast cancer condition using 4T1 breast cancer cells, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and conditioned media. An obesity-related environment, such as leptin-treatment or adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM), promoted 4T1 cell proliferation and metastasis. Lunasin treatment inhibited metastasis of breast cancer cells, partially through modestly inhibiting production of the angiogenesis-mediator vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and significantly by inhibiting secretion in the Ad-CM condition. Subsequently, two adipocytes inflammation models, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and RAW 264.7 cell-conditioned medium (RAW-CM) was used to mimic the obese microenvironment. Lunasin significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 secretion by TNF-? stimulation, and MCP-1 secretion in the RAW-CM model. This study highlights that lunasin suppressed 3T3-L1 adipocyte inflammation and inhibited 4T1 breast cancer cell migration. Interestingly, lunasin exerted more effective anti-metastasis activity in the obesity-related condition models, indicating that it possesses anti-inflammatory properties and blocks adipocyte-cancer cell cross-talk.
Project description:Asthma and obesity, two growing epidemics worldwide, may share an underlying causal relationship. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a defining component of asthma, has been documented in both 'obese' animal models and non-asthmatic obese individuals. However, there is a paucity of evidence that obesity-derived factors directly affect human airway smooth muscles (ASM).Experiments were designed with primary ASM and adipocytes isolated from the same human tissue explants (n?=?6). The modulatory effects of human adipocytes extracted from subcutaneous (extrathoracic) and visceral (intrathoracic) depots, on ASM biology was examined with respect to proliferation, migration, contractility and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis.Adipocyte-conditioned media as well as myocyte-adipocyte co-cultures failed to show any significant changes in the proliferative or migrational properties of the ASM. Adipocyte-conditioned media also had no effect on the contractility or relaxation of bovine tracheal muscle strips. In contrast, there was a moderate yet significant increase of IL-6 and eotaxin release by ASM incubated with adipocyte-conditioned media (P?=?0.0035 and P?=?0.0067, vs. control, respectively), thereby further consolidating the altered inflammatory state reported for both diseases.We report, for the first time, that adipocytes from either subcutaneous or visceral depots can trigger an inflammatory state in the ASM, with negligible modulatory effects on hyperplasia, hypertrophy or contractile properties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The existence of a cross-talk between peritumoral adipocytes and cancer cells has been increasingly investigated. Several studies have shown that these adipocytes protect tumor cells from the effect of anticancer agents. METHODS:To investigate a potential protective effect of adipocyte-conditioned medium on HER2 positive breast cancer cells exposed to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as lapatinib, we analyzed the sensitivity of HER2 positive breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo on SCID mice in the presence or absence of adipocytes or adipocyte-conditioned medium. RESULTS:Conditioned medium from differentiated adipocytes reduced the in vitro sensitivity of the HER2+ cell lines BT474 and SKBR3 to TKI. Particularly, conditioned medium abrogated P27 induction in tumor cells by lapatinib but this was observed only when conditioned medium was present during exposure to lapatinib. In addition, resistance was induced with adipocytes derived from murine NIH3T3 or human hMAD cells but not with fibroblasts or preadipocytes. In vivo studies demonstrated that the contact of the tumors with adipose tissue reduced sensitivity to lapatinib. Soluble factors involved in this resistance were found to be thermolabile. Pharmacological modulation of lipolysis in adipocytes during preparation of conditioned media showed that various lipolysis inhibitors abolished the protective effect of conditioned media on tumor cells, suggesting a role for adipocyte lipolysis in the induction of resistance of tumor cells to TKI. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, our results suggest that contact of tumor cells with proximal adipose tissue induces resistance to anti HER2 small molecule inhibitors through the production of soluble thermolabile factors, and that this effect can be abrogated using lipolysis inhibitors.
Project description:Advanced endometrial cancer continues to have a poor prognosis, due to limited treatment options, which may be further adversely impacted by obesity. Endometrial cancer stem cells have been reported to drive metastasis, chemotherapy resistance and disease relapse, but have yet to be fully characterised and no specific targeted therapies have been identified. Here, we describe the phenotype and genotype of aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDHhigh) and CD133+ve endometrial cancer stem cells and how adipocyte secreted mediators block the inhibitory effect of metformin on endometrial cancer stem cell activity. Ishikawa and Hec-1a cell lines were used to characterise ALDHhigh and CD133+ve endometrial cancer cells using flow cytometry, functional sphere assays and quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction. The comparative effect of metformin on endometrial cancer stem cell activity and bulk tumour cell proliferation was determined using an Aldefluor and cytotoxicity assay. The impact of adipocyte secreted mediators on metformin response was established using patient-derived conditioned media. ALDHhigh cells demonstrated greater endometrial cancer stem cell activity than CD133+ve cells and had increased expression of stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes. Treatment with 0.5-1 mM metformin reduced the proportion and activity of both endometrial cancer stem cell populations (p ≤ 0.05), without affecting cell viability. This effect was, however, inhibited by exposure to patient-derived adipocyte conditioned media. These results indicate a selective and specific effect of metformin on endometrial cancer stem cell activity, which is blocked by adipocyte secreted mediators. Future studies of metformin as an adjuvant therapy in endometrial cancer should be adequately powered to investigate the influence of body mass on treatment response.
Project description:Introduction:Malignant ascites (MA) is a major cause of morbidity that occurs in 37% of ovarian cancer patients. The accumulation of MA in the peritoneal cavity due to cancer results in debilitating symptoms and extremely poor quality of life. There is an urgent unmet need to expand the understanding of MA to design effective treatment strategies, and to improve MA diagnosis. Objective:Our purpose here is to contribute to a better characterization of MA metabolic composition in ovarian cancer. Method:We determined the metabolic composition of ascitic fluids resulting from orthotopic growth of two ovarian cancer cell lines, the mouse ID8-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Defb29 cell line and the human OVCAR3 cell line using high-resolution 1H MRS. ID8-VEGF-Defb29 tumors induce large volumes of ascites, while OVCAR3 tumors induce ascites less frequently and at smaller volumes. To better understand the factors driving the metabolic composition of the fluid, we characterized the metabolism of these ovarian cancer cells in culture by analyzing cell lysates and conditioned culture media with 1H NMR. Results:Distinct metabolite patterns were detected in ascitic fluid collected from OVCAR3 and ID8-VEGF-Defb29 tumor bearing mice that were not reflected in the corresponding cell culture or conditioned medium. Conclusion:High-resolution 1H NMR metabolic markers of MA can be used to improve characterization and diagnosis of MA. Metabolic characterization of MA can provide new insights into how MA fluid supports cancer cell growth and resistance to treatment, and has the potential to identify metabolic targeting strategies to reduce or eliminate the formation of MA.
Project description:In osteoporosis, bone loss is accompanied by increased marrow adiposity. Given their proximity in the bone marrow and their shared origin, a dialogue between adipocytes and osteoblasts could be a factor in the competition between human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) differentiation routes, leading to adipocyte differentiation at the expense of osteoblast differentiation. The adipocyte/osteoblast balance is highly regulated at the level of gene transcription. In our work, we focused on PPARgamma, CEBPalpha and CEBPdelta, as these transcription factors are seen as master regulators of adipogenesis and expressed precociously, and on leptin and adiponectin, considered as adipocyte marker genes. In 2010, our group has demonstrated, thanks to a coculture model, that in the presence of hMSC-derived adipocytes (hMSC-Adi), hMSC-derived osteoblasts (hMSC-Ost) express lesser amounts of osteogenic markers but exhibit the expression of typical adipogenic genes. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying this modulation of gene expression are not clarified. Recently, adipocytes were described as releasing extracellular vesicles (EVs), containing and transferring adipocyte specific transcripts, like PPARgamma, leptin and adiponectin. Here, we investigated whether EVs could be the way in which adipocytes transfer adipogenic RNAs in our coculture model.We observed in hMSC-Ost incubated in hAdi-CM an increase in the adipogenic PPAR?, leptin, CEBP? and CEBP? transcripts as well as the anti-osteoblastic miR-138, miR30c, miR125a, miR-125b, miR-31 miRNAs, probably implicated in the observed osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OP) expression decrease. Moreover, EVs were isolated from conditioned media collected from cultures of hMSC at different stages of adipocyte differentiation and these specific adipogenic transcripts were detected inside. Finally, thanks to interspecies conditioned media exposition, we could highlight for the first time a horizontal transfer of adipogenic transcripts from medullary adipocytes to osteoblasts.Here, we have shown, for the first time, RNA transfer between hMSC-derived adipocytes and osteoblasts through EVs. Additional studies are needed to clarify if this mechanism has a role in the adipocytic switch driven on osteoblasts by adipocytes inside bone marrow and if EVs could be a target component to regulate the competition between osteoblasts and adipocytes in the prevention or in the therapy of osteoporosis and other osteopenia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and metabolic disorders is complex and highly associated. The impairment of adipogenic capacity in pre-adipocytes may promote adipocyte hypertrophy and increase the risk of further metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that intermittent hypoxia (IH), as a pathophysiologic feature of OSA, may regulate adipogenesis by promoting macrophage polarization. METHODS:Male C57BL/6N mice were exposed to either IH (240 seconds of 10% O? followed by 120 seconds of 21% O?, i.e., 10 cycles/hour) or intermittent normoxia (IN) for 6 weeks. Stromal-vascular fractions derived from subcutaneous (SUB-SVF) and visceral (VIS-SVF) adipose tissues were cultured and differentiated. Conditioned media from cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages after air (Raw) or IH exposure (Raw-IH) were incubated with SUB-SVF during adipogenic differentiation. RESULTS:Adipogenic differentiation of SUB-SVF but not VIS-SVF from IH-exposed mice was significantly downregulated in comparison with that derived from IN-exposed mice. IH-exposed mice compared to IN-exposed mice showed induction of hypertrophic adipocytes and increased preferential infiltration of M1 macrophages in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compared to visceral adipose tissue. Complementary in vitro analysis demonstrated that Raw-IH media significantly enhanced inhibition of adipogenesis of SUB-SVF compared to Raw media, in agreement with corresponding gene expression levels of differentiation-associated markers and adipogenic transcription factors. CONCLUSION:Low frequency IH exposure impaired adipogenesis of SAT in lean mice, and macrophage polarization may be a potential mechanism for the impaired adipogenesis.
Project description:Intra-abdominal tumors, such as ovarian cancer, have a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, an organ primarily composed of adipocytes. Currently, it is unclear why tumor cells preferentially home to and proliferate in the omentum, yet omental metastases typically represent the largest tumor in the abdominal cavities of women with ovarian cancer. We show here that primary human omental adipocytes promote homing, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and that adipokines including interleukin-8 (IL-8) mediate these activities. Adipocyte-ovarian cancer cell coculture led to the direct transfer of lipids from adipocytes to ovarian cancer cells and promoted in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. Furthermore, coculture induced lipolysis in adipocytes and ?-oxidation in cancer cells, suggesting adipocytes act as an energy source for the cancer cells. A protein array identified upregulation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4, also known as aP2) in omental metastases as compared to primary ovarian tumors, and FABP4 expression was detected in ovarian cancer cells at the adipocyte-tumor cell interface. FABP4 deficiency substantially impaired metastatic tumor growth in mice, indicating that FABP4 has a key role in ovarian cancer metastasis. These data indicate adipocytes provide fatty acids for rapid tumor growth, identifying lipid metabolism and transport as new targets for the treatment of cancers where adipocytes are a major component of the microenvironment.