Preliminary validation of direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus within clinical samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a simple lateral flow device for detection.
ABSTRACT: Rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Current approaches involve either; 1) Detection of FMD virus (FMDV) with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (LFD), which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2) portable RT-qPCR that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to modify an FMDV-specific reverse transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP) assay to enable detection of dual-labelled LAMP products with an LFD, and to evaluate simple sample processing protocols without nucleic acid extraction. The limit of detection of this assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to that of a laboratory based real-time RT-qPCR assay and to have a 10,000 fold higher analytical sensitivity than the FMDV-specific antigen LFD currently used in the field. Importantly, this study demonstrated that FMDV RNA could be detected from epithelial suspensions without the need for prior RNA extraction, utilising a rudimentary heat source for amplification. Once optimised, this RT-LAMP-LFD protocol was able to detect multiple serotypes from field epithelial samples, in addition to detecting FMDV in the air surrounding infected cattle, pigs and sheep, including pre-clinical detection. This study describes the development and evaluation of an assay format, which may be used as a future basis for rapid and low cost detection of FMDV. In addition it provides providing "proof of concept" for the future use of LAMP assays to tackle other challenging diagnostic scenarios encompassing veterinary and human health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most highly infectious diseases in livestock, and leads to huge economic losses. Early diagnosis and rapid differentiation of FMDV serotype is therefore integral to the prevention and control of FMD. In this study, a series of serotype-specific reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays combined with lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD) were establish to differentiate FMDV serotypes A, O or Asia 1, respectively. RESULTS:The serotype-specific primers and probes of RPA-LFD were designed to target conserved regions of the FMDV VP1 gene sequence, and three primer and probe sets of serotype-specific RPA-LFD were selected for amplification of FMDV serotypes A, O or Asia 1, respectively. Following incubation at 38 °C for 20 min, the RPA amplification products could be visualized by LFD. Analytical sensitivity of the RPA assay was then determined with ten-fold serial dilutions of RNA of VP1 gene and the recombinant vector respectively containing VP1 gene from FMDV serotypes A, O or Asia1, the detection limits of these assays were 3 copies of plasmid DNA or 50 copies of viral RNA per reaction. Moreover, the specificity of the assay was assessed, and there was no cross reactions with other viruses leading to bovine vesicular lesions. Furthermore, 126 clinical samples were respectively detected with RPA-LFD and real-time PCR (rPCR), there was 98.41% concordance between the two assays, and two samples were positive by RPA-LFD but negative in rPCR, these were confirmed as FMDV-positive through viral isolation in BHK-21 cells. It showed that RPA-LFD assay was more sensitive than the rPCR method in this study. CONCLUSION:The development of serotype-specific RPA-LFD assay provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for differentiation of FMDV serotype A, O or Asia1, respectively. It is possible that the serotype-specific RPA-LFD assay may be used as a integral protocol for field detection of FMDV.
Project description:A simple, rapid and sensitive diagnostic assay for Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is required for deployment in the field. In this study, development of Reverse Transcription-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) assay based on the 3D polymerase gene for specific and rapid detection FMD virus (FMDV) was carried out. The assay was optimised with viral RNA extracted from serotype O, A and Asia 1 FMDV vaccine strains, which resulted a reliable amplification at 65 °C for 60 min. The amplified RT-LAMP products were identified by agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining or observation by naked eye for the presence of turbidity and colour change following the addition of hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB). The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the absence of amplification of genome extracted from other viruses or cellular origin. With respect to analytical sensitivity the developed RT-LAMP assay was found more sensitive than routinely used multiplex PCR (mPCR). Further, the assay was evaluated with RNA extracted from cell cultured isolates (n = 50), tongue epithelial samples (n = 150) and semen samples from infected bulls (n = 13). In conclusion, RT-LAMP with HNB dye was shown to be simple, specific and sensitive assay for rapid diagnosis of FMDV infection. Further, the assay has the potential for field deployment and use for rapid FMDV surveillance in India.
Project description:Accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. However, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. These concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect cases of FMD. In this context, FMD virus (FMDV)-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, compatible with simple sample preparation methods and in situ visualization, have been developed which share equivalent analytical sensitivity with laboratory-based rRT-PCR. However, the lack of robust 'ready-to-use kits' that utilize stabilized reagents limits the deployment of these tests into field settings. To address this gap, this study describes the performance of lyophilized rRT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays to detect FMDV. Both of these assays are compatible with the use of fluorescence to monitor amplification in real-time, and for the RT-LAMP assays end point detection could also be achieved using molecular lateral flow devices. Lyophilization of reagents did not adversely affect the performance of the assays. Importantly, when these assays were deployed into challenging laboratory and field settings within East Africa they proved to be reliable in their ability to detect FMDV in a range of clinical samples from acutely infected as well as convalescent cattle. These data support the use of highly sensitive molecular assays into field settings for simple and rapid detection of FMDV.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a trans-boundary viral disease of livestock, which causes huge economic losses and constitutes a serious infectious threat for livestock farming worldwide. Early diagnosis of FMD helps to diminish its impact by adequate outbreak management. In this study, we describe the development of a real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV). The FMDV RT-RPA design targeted the 3D gene of FMDV and a 260 nt molecular RNA standard was used for assay validation. The RT-RPA assay was fast (4-10 minutes) and the analytical sensitivity was determined at 1436 RNA molecules detected by probit regression analysis. The FMDV RT-RPA assay detected RNA prepared from all seven FMDV serotypes but did not detect classical swine fever virus or swine vesicular disease virus. The FMDV RT-RPA assay was used in the field during the recent FMD outbreak in Egypt. In clinical samples, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-RPA showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and 98%, respectively. In conclusion, FMDV RT-RPA was quicker and much easier to handle in the field than real-time RT-PCR. Thus RT-RPA could be easily implemented to perform diagnostics at quarantine stations or farms for rapid spot-of-infection detection.
Project description:Effective control and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) relies upon rapid and accurate disease confirmation. Currently, clinical samples are usually tested in reference laboratories using standardized assays recommended by The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). However, the requirements for prompt and serotype-specific diagnosis during FMD outbreaks, and the need to establish robust laboratory testing capacity in FMD-endemic countries have motivated the development of simple diagnostic platforms to support local decision-making. Using a portable thermocycler, the T-COR™ 8, this study describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a commercially available, lyophilized pan-serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay and a newly available FMD virus (FMDV) typing assay (East Africa-specific for serotypes: O, A, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1 and 2). Analytical sensitivity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the pan-serotype-specific lyophilized assay were comparable to that of an OIE-recommended laboratory-based rRT-PCR (determined using a panel of 57 FMDV-positive samples and six non-FMDV vesicular disease samples for differential diagnosis). The FMDV-typing assay was able to correctly identify the serotype of 33/36 FMDV-positive samples (no cross-reactivity between serotypes was evident). Furthermore, the assays were able to accurately detect and type FMDV RNA in multiple sample types, including epithelial tissue suspensions, serum, oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid and oral swabs, both with and without the use of nucleic acid extraction. When deployed in laboratory and field settings in Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia, both assays reliably detected and serotyped FMDV RNA in samples (n = 144) collected from pre-clinical, clinical and clinically recovered cattle. These data support the use of field-ready rRT-PCR platforms in endemic settings for simple, highly sensitive and rapid detection and/or characterization of FMDV.
Project description:Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are both important viruses seriously affecting poultry industry worldwide. In this study, reverse-transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) was combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) forming a novel detection tool which could simultaneously detect IBV and NDV visually. Primers targeted the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IBV genome and the conserved region of NDV large polymerase gene (LP). The specificity and sensitivity of this multiple reverse transcription-LAMP-LFD (mRT-LAMP-LFD) assay were compared with those of conventional RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR (nRT-PCR), quantification RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and RT-LAMP monitored by electrophoresis. No non-specific amplifications were observed when the assays were tested with unrelated viruses. According to the sensitivity study, when detecting IBV or NDV alone, the lowest detection limits of mRT-LAMP-LFD were 100.8 IBV RNA copies/reaction and 100.7 NDV RNA copies/reaction. Furthermore, when detecting IBV and NDV simultaneously, the lowest detection limit was the same as that of the single detection assays. In the clinical sample study, mRT-LAMP-LFD performed the best among these assays. When tested with IBV or NDV single infected samples, the mean detection rates were 98.65% and 97.25%, respectively. In the IBV and NDV co-infected sample study, the mean detection rates of IBV and NDV were both 95%. This study showed that mRT-LAMP-LFD was a promising qualitative detection tool suitable for field single or multiple IBV and NDV detection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and causes devastating economic damages. Accurate, rapid and simple detection of FMDV is critical to containing an FMD outbreak. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) has been explored for detection of diverse pathogens because of its accuracy, rapidness and simplicity. A visible and equipment-free reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay combined with lateral flow strip (LFS RT-RPA) was developed to detect the FMDV using primers and LF probe specific for the 3D gene. RESULTS:The FMDV LFS RT-RPA assay was performed successfully in a closed fist using body heat for 15 min, and the products were visible on the LFS inspected by the naked eyes within 2 min. The assay could detect FMDV serotypes O, A and Asia1, and there were no cross-reactions with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). The analytical sensitivity was 1.0?×?102 copies in vitro transcribed FMDV RNA per reaction, which was the same as a real-time RT-PCR. For the 55 samples, FMDV RNA positive rate was 45.5% (25/55) by LFS RT-RPA and 52.7% (29/55) by real-time RT-PCR. For the LFS RT-RPA assay, the positive and negative predicative values were 100% and 80%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The performance of the LFS RT-RPA assay was comparable to real-time RT-PCR, while the LFS RT-RPA assay was much faster and easier to be performed. The developed FMDV LFS RT-RPA assay provides an attractive and promising tool for rapid and reliable detection of FMDV in under-equipped laboratory and at point-of-need facility, which is of great significance in FMD control in low resource settings.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating livestock disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Outbreaks of this disease in a country always result in conspicuous economic losses to livestock industry and subsequently lead to serious socioeconomic damages due to the immediate imposition of trade embargo. Rapid and accurate diagnoses are imperative to control this infectious virus. In the current review, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods used in FMD diagnosis are extensively reviewed, particularly the sandwich, liquid-phase blocking, and solid-phase competition ELISA. The differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals using ELISA-based methods is also highlighted, in which the role of 3ABC polyprotein as a marker is reviewed intensively. Recently, more studies are focusing on the molecular diagnostic methods, which detect the viral nucleic acids based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). These methods are generally more sensitive because of their ability to amplify a minute amount of the viral nucleic acids. In this digital era, the RT-PCR and RT-LAMP are progressing toward the mobile versions, aiming for on-site FMDV diagnosis. Apart from RT-PCR and RT-LAMP, another diagnostic assay specifically designed for on-site diagnosis is the lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips. These test strips have some distinct advantages over other diagnostic methods, whereby the assay often does not require the aid of an external device, which greatly lowers the cost per test. In addition, the on-site diagnostic test can be easily performed by untrained personnel including farmers, and the results can be obtained in a few minutes. Lastly, the use of FMDV diagnostic assays for progressive control of the disease is also discussed critically.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. Rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is critical to containing an FMD outbreak. Availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an FMDV outbreak. Here we report validation of a novel reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) assay that can be performed on a commercially available, compact and portable POCKIT™ analyser that automatically analyses data and displays '+' or '-' results. The FMDV RT-iiPCR assay targets the 3D region of the FMDV genome and was capable of detecting 9 copies of in vitro-transcribed RNA standard with 95% confidence. It accurately identified 63 FMDV strains belonging to all seven serotypes and showed no cross-reactivity with viruses causing similar clinical diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. The assay was able to identify FMDV RNA in multiple sample types including oral, nasal and lesion swabs, epithelial tissue suspensions, vesicular and oral fluid samples, even before the appearance of clinical signs. Clinical sensitivity of the assay was comparable or slightly higher than the laboratory-based real-time RT-PCR assay in use. The assay was able to detect FMDV RNA in vesicular fluid samples without nucleic acid extraction. For RNA extraction from more complex sample types, a commercially available taco™ mini transportable magnetic bead-based, automated extraction system was used. This assay provides a potentially useful field-deployable diagnostic tool for rapid detection of FMDV in an outbreak in FMD-free countries or for routine diagnostics in endemic countries with less structured laboratory systems.
Project description:Senecavirus A (SVA) is a critical pathogen causing vesicular lesions in sows and acute death of newborn piglets, resulting in very large economic losses in the pig industry. To restrict the transmission of SVA, an establishment of an effective diagnostic method is crucial for the prevention and control of the disease. However, traditional detection methods often have many drawbacks. In this study, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was combined with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) to detect SVA. The resulting RT-LAMP-LFD assay was performed at 60°C for 50 min and then directly judged on an LFD visualization strip. This method shows high specificity and sensitivity to SVA. The detection limit of RT-LAMP was 4.56x10-8 ng/?L RNA, approximately 11 copies/?L RNA, and it was 10 times more sensitive than RT-PCR. This detection method's positive rate for clinical samples is comparable to that of RT-PCR. This method is time saving and highly efficient and is thus expected to be used to diagnose SVA infections in this field.