The influence of pentafluorophenyl groups on the nonlinear optical (NLO) performance of high generation dendrons and dendrimers.
ABSTRACT: With the aim to make the influence of pentafluorophenyl groups in the periphery of high generation dendrons and dendrimers on their NLO performance clearly, some NLO dendrons and dendrimers with different chromophore moieties or different end-capped groups were carefully designed and investigated in detail. The results demonstrated that some strong Ar-Ar(F) interactions between the pentafluorophenyl groups in the periphery and the normal phenyl rings of the donors, could influence the topological structures of dendrons or dendrimers, and then affect their NLO performance. Furthermore, the optical transparency and the stability of the dendrons and dendrimers with pentafluorophenyl groups as end-capped moieties were all improved, in comparison with normal dendrons and dendrimers containing phenyl ones as the end-capped groups.
Project description:A new type of Janus dendrimers, consisting of two different side dendrons with the dipole orientation of the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore moieties partially in a non-centrosymmetric direction, was intelligently designed and synthesized in order to enhance the macroscopic NLO performance and break through the limitation of NLO efficiency in the current molecular topological structure of azo chromophore-based polymers. This kind of Janus dendritic structure was constructed by the combination of convergent and divergent methods, with the utilization of a powerful "click chemistry reaction". The obtained three dendrimers, D-13N, D-17N and D-21N, show very high NLO performance, especially the dramatically enhanced NLO coefficient of 299 pm V-1 for D-13N, which is the highest value ever reported for polymers containing a simple azo chromophore. The new dendrimers provide a clear structure-properties relationship between high NLO efficiency and the controllable molecular topology with the non-centrosymmetrical alignment of dipole orientation, thus opening up a new avenue for the further development of NLO dendrimers with high performance and more importantly providing some clues for the rational design of functional dendrimers with controllable molecular topology.
Project description:Multifunctional dendrimers bearing two or more surface functionalities have the promise to provide smart drug delivery devices that can for example combine tissue targeting and imaging or be directed more precisely to a specific tissue or cell type. We have developed a concise synthetic methodology for efficient dendrimer assembly and heterobifunctionalization based on three sequential azide-alkyne cycloadditions. The methodology is compatible with biologically important compounds rich in chemical functionalities such as peptides, carbohydrates, and fluorescent tags. In the approach, a strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) between polyester dendrons modified at the focal point with an azido and 4-dibenzocyclooctynol (DIBO) moiety provided dendrimers bearing terminal and TMS-protected (TMS=trimethylsilyl) alkynes at the periphery. The terminal alkynes were outfitted with azido-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains or galactosyl residues by using Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC). Next, a one-pot TMS deprotection and second click reaction of the resulting terminal alkyne with azido-containing compounds gave multifunctional dendrimers bearing complex biologically active moieties at the periphery.
Project description:Whereas encapsulation of functional groups at the core of dendrimers is well-understood, very little is known about their intermediate layers or even the periphery. Here we report on a systematic investigation of every layer of dendrimers by incorporating a single ferrocene unit in well-defined locations in dendrons. Site-specific incorporation of the ferrocene unit was achieved by utilizing the dendrimer sequencing methodology. We show here that the redox potential values of ferrocene at intermediate layers were remarkably different from those at the core and the periphery. Although redox potential values were location-dependent, no significant change in the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer (k(0)) was observed with respect to locations. This was attributed to the possibility that free rotation of dendrimer nullifies the distance between the electrode and ferrocene unit. Finally, we also show that no Faradaic current was observed for the amphiphilic assemblies of these dendrons, whereas the same dendron did exhibit significant Faradaic current in nonassembling solvent environments.
Project description:2,2-Bis(azidomethyl)propionic acid was prepared in four steps and 85% yield from the commercially available 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid and used as the starting building block for the divergent, convergent, and double-stage convergent-divergent iterative methods for the synthesis of dendrimers and dendrons containing ethylenediamine (EDA), piperazine (PPZ), and methyl 2,2-bis(aminomethyl)propionate (COOMe) cores. These cores have the same multiplicity but different conformations. A diversity of synthetic methods were used for the synthesis of dendrimers and dendrons. Regardless of the method used, a self-interruption of the synthesis was observed at generation 4 for the dendrimer with an EDA core and at generation 5 for the one with a PPZ core, whereas for the COOMe core, self-interruption was observed at generation 6 dendron, which is equivalent to generation 5 dendrimer. Molecular modeling and molecular-dynamics simulations demonstrated that the observed self-interruption is determined by the backfolding of the azide groups at the periphery of the dendrimer. The latter conformation inhibits completely the heterogeneous hydrogenation of the azide groups catalyzed by 10% Pd/carbon as well as homogeneous hydrogenation by the Staudinger method. These self-terminated polyamide dendrimers are enzymatically and hydrolytically stable and also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Thus, these nanoscale constructs open avenues for biomedical applications.
Project description:Multidrug resistant bacterial infections threaten to become the number one cause of death by the year 2050. Development of antimicrobial dendritic polymers is considered promising as an alternative infection control strategy. For antimicrobial dendritic polymers to effectively kill bacteria residing in infectious biofilms, they have to penetrate and accumulate deep into biofilms. Biofilms are often recalcitrant to antimicrobial penetration and accumulation. Therefore, this work aims to determine the role of compact dendrons with different peripheral composition in their penetration into <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> biofilms. Red fluorescently labeled dendrons with pH-responsive NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> peripheral groups initially penetrated faster from a buffer suspension at pH 7.0 into the acidic environment of <i>P. aeruginosa</i> biofilms than dendrons with OH or COO<sup>-</sup> groups at their periphery. In addition, dendrons with NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> peripheral groups accumulated near the top of the biofilm due to electrostatic double-layer attraction with negatively charged biofilm components. However, accumulation of dendrons with OH and COO<sup>-</sup> peripheral groups was more evenly distributed across the depth of the biofilms than NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> composed dendrons and exceeded accumulation of NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> composed dendrons after 10 min of exposure. Unlike dendrons with NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> groups at their periphery, dendrons with OH or COO<sup>-</sup> peripheral groups, lacking strong electrostatic double-layer attraction with biofilm components, were largely washed-out during exposure to PBS without dendrons. Thus, penetration and accumulation of dendrons into biofilms is controlled by their peripheral composition through electrostatic double-layer interactions, which is an important finding for the further development of new antimicrobial or antimicrobial-carrying dendritic polymers.
Project description:(1) Background: Natural peptides supporting the innate immune system studied at the functional and mechanistic level are a rich source of innovative compounds for application in human therapy. Increasing evidence indicates that apart from antimicrobial activity, some of them exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells. Their cationic, amphipathic structure enables interactions with the negatively-charged membranes of microbial or malignant cells. It can be modeled in 3D by application of dendrimer chemistry. (2) Methods: Here we presented design principles, synthesis and bioactivity of branched peptides constructed from ornithine (Orn) assembled as proline (Pro)- or histidine (His)-rich dendrons and dendrimers of the bola structure. The impact of the structure and amphipathic properties of dendrons/dendrimers on two glioblastoma cell lines U87 and T98G was studied with the application of proliferation, apoptosis and cell migration assays. Cell morphology/cytoskeleton architecture was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. (3) Results: Dimerization of dendrons into bola dendrimers enhanced their bioactivity. Pro- and His-functionalized bola dendrimers displayed cytostatic activity, even though differences in the responsiveness of U87 and T98G cells to these compounds indicate that their bioactivity depends not only on multiple positive charge and amphipathic structure but also on cellular phenotype. (4) Conclusion: Ornithine dendrons/dendrimers represent a group of promising anti-tumor agents and the potential tools to study interrelations between drug bioactivity, its chemical properties and tumor cells' phenotype.
Project description:Previously, G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists were tethered from polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to provide high receptor affinity and selectivity. Here, we prepared GPCR ligand--dendrimer (GLiDe) conjugates from a potent adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist; such agents are of interest for treating Parkinson's disease, asthma, and other conditions. Xanthine amine congener (XAC) was appended with an alkyne group on an extended C8 substituent for coupling by Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry to azide-derivatized G4 (fourth-generation) PAMAM dendrimers to form triazoles. These conjugates also contained triazole-linked PEG groups (8 or 22 moieties per 64 terminal positions) for increasing water-solubility and optionally prosthetic groups for spectroscopic characterization and affinity labeling. Human AR binding affinity increased progressively with the degree of xanthine substitution to reach K(i) values in the nanomolar range. The order of affinity of each conjugate was hA(2A)AR > hA(3)AR > hA(1)AR, while the corresponding monomer was ranked hA(2A)AR > hA(1)AR ? hA(3)AR. The antagonist activity of the most potent conjugate 14 (34 xanthines per dendrimer) was examined at the G(i)-coupled A(1)AR. Conjugate 14 at 100 nM right-shifted the AR agonist concentration--response curve in a cyclic AMP functional assay in a parallel manner, but at 10 nM (lower than its K(i) value), it significantly suppressed the maximal agonist effect in calcium mobilization. This is the first systematic probing of a potent AR antagonist tethered on a dendrimer and its activity as a function of variable loading.
Project description:We previously synthesized a series of potent and selective A(3) adenosine receptor (AR) agonists (North-methanocarba nucleoside 5'-uronamides) containing dialkyne groups on extended adenine C2 substituents. We coupled the distal alkyne of a 2-octadiynyl nucleoside by Cu(I)-catalyzed "click" chemistry to azide-derivatized G4 (fourth-generation) PAMAM dendrimers to form triazoles. A(3)AR activation was preserved in these multivalent conjugates, which bound with apparent K(i) of 0.1-0.3 nM. They were substituted with nucleoside moieties, solely or in combination with water-solubilizing carboxylic acid groups derived from hexynoic acid. A comparison with various amide-linked dendrimers showed that triazole-linked conjugates displayed selectivity and enhanced A(3)AR affinity. We prepared a PAMAM dendrimer containing equiproportioned peripheral azido and amino groups for conjugation of multiple ligands. A bifunctional conjugate activated both A(3) and P2Y(14) receptors (via amide-linked uridine-5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid), with selectivity in comparison to other ARs and P2Y receptors. This is the first example of targeting two different GPCRs with the same dendrimer conjugate, which is intended for activation of heteromeric GPCR aggregates. Synergistic effects of activating multiple GPCRs with a single dendrimer conjugate might be useful in disease treatment.
Project description:The modular synthesis of a library containing seven self-assembling amphiphilic Janus dendrimers is reported. Three of these molecules contain environmentally friendly chiral-racemic fluorinated dendrons in their hydrophobic part (RF), one contains achiral hydrogenated dendrons (RH), while one denoted hybrid Janus dendrimer, contains a combination of chiral-racemic fluorinated and achiral hydrogenated dendrons (RHF) in its hydrophobic part. Two Janus dendrimers contain either chiral-racemic fluorinated dendrons and a green fluorescent dye conjugated to its hydrophilic part (RF-NBD) or achiral hydrogenated and a red fluorescent dye in its hydrophilic part (RH-RhB). These RF, RH, and RHF Janus dendrimers self-assembled into unilamellar or onion-like soft vesicular dendrimersomes (DSs), with similar thicknesses to biological membranes by simple injection from ethanol solution into water or buffer. Since RF and RH dendrons are not miscible, RF-NBD and RH-RhB were employed to investigate by fluorescence microscopy the self-sorting and coassembly of RF and RH as well as of phospholipids into hybrid DSs mediated by the hybrid hydrogenated-fluorinated RHF Janus dendrimer. The hybrid RHF Janus dendrimer coassembled with both RF and RH. Three-component hybrid DSs containing RH, RF, and RHF were formed when the proportion of RHF was higher than 40%. With low concentration of RHF and in its absence, RH and RF self-sorted into individual RH or RF DSs. Phospholipids were also coassembled with hybrid RHF Janus dendrimers. The simple synthesis and self-assembly of DSs and hybrid DSs, their similar thickness with biological membranes and their imaging by fluorescence and (19)F-MRI make them important tools for synthetic biology.
Project description:Herein we describe the construction of hexadecameric self-assembled dendrimers (SADs) using a series of dendronized 8-(m-acetylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (mAG) subunits. The azido-substituted mAG subunits were covalently linked to alkynyl polyester dendrons using a copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Discrete SADs are formed with high fidelity and thermal stability even with the increased steric hindrance offered by the dendrons.