Structural and spectroscopic insights into BolA-glutaredoxin complexes.
ABSTRACT: BolA proteins are defined as stress-responsive transcriptional regulators, but they also participate in iron metabolism. Although they can form [2Fe-2S]-containing complexes with monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx), structural details are lacking. Three Arabidopsis thaliana BolA structures were solved. They differ primarily by the size of a loop referred to as the variable [H/C] loop, which contains an important cysteine (BolA_C group) or histidine (BolA_H group) residue. From three-dimensional modeling and spectroscopic analyses of A. thaliana GrxS14-BolA1 holo-heterodimer (BolA_H), we provide evidence for the coordination of a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster. For BolA_C members, the cysteine could replace the histidine as a ligand. NMR interaction experiments using apoproteins indicate that a completely different heterodimer was formed involving the nucleic acid binding site of BolA and the C-terminal tail of Grx. The possible biological importance of these complexes is discussed considering the physiological functions previously assigned to BolA and to Grx-BolA or Grx-Grx complexes.
Project description:Two ubiquitous protein families have emerged as key players in iron metabolism, the CGFS-type monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) and the BolA proteins. Monothiol Grxs and BolA proteins form heterocomplexes that have been implicated in Fe-S cluster assembly and trafficking. The Escherichia coli genome encodes members of both of these proteins families, namely, the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx4 and two BolA family proteins, BolA and IbaG. Previous work has demonstrated that E. coli Grx4 and BolA interact as both apo and [2Fe-2S]-bridged heterodimers that are spectroscopically distinct from [2Fe-2S]-bridged Grx4 homodimers. However, the physical and functional interactions between Grx4 and IbaG are uncharacterized. Here we show that co-expression of Grx4 with IbaG yields a [2Fe-2S]-bridged Grx4-IbaG heterodimer. In vitro interaction studies indicate that IbaG binds the [2Fe-2S] Grx4 homodimer to form apo Grx4-IbaG heterodimer as well as the [2Fe-2S] Grx4-IbaG heterodimer, altering the cluster stability and coordination environment. Additionally, spectroscopic and mutagenesis studies provide evidence that IbaG ligates the Fe-S cluster via the conserved histidine that is present in all BolA proteins and by a second conserved histidine that is present in the H/C loop of two of the four classes of BolA proteins. These results suggest that IbaG may function in Fe-S cluster assembly and trafficking in E. coli as demonstrated for other BolA homologues that interact with monothiol Grxs.
Project description:Human glutaredoxin 3 (Glrx3) is an essential [2Fe-2S]-binding protein with ill-defined roles in immune cell response, embryogenesis, cancer cell growth, and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to other members of the CGFS monothiol glutaredoxin (Grx) family, human Glrx3 forms homodimers bridged by two [2Fe-2S] clusters that are ligated by the conserved CGFS motifs and glutathione (GSH). We recently demonstrated that the yeast homologues of human Glrx3 and the yeast BolA-like protein Fra2 form [2Fe-2S]-bridged heterodimers that play a key role in signaling intracellular iron availability. Herein, we provide biophysical and biochemical evidence that the two tandem Grx-like domains in human Glrx3 form similar [2Fe-2S]-bridged complexes with human BolA2. UV-visible absorption and circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses of recombinant [2Fe-2S] Glrx3 homodimers and [2Fe-2S] Glrx3-BolA2 complexes indicate that the Fe-S coordination environments in these complexes are virtually identical to those of the analogous complexes in yeast. Furthermore, we demonstrate that apo BolA2 binds to each Grx domain in the [2Fe-2S] Glrx3 homodimer forming a [2Fe-2S] BolA2-Glrx3 heterotrimer. Taken together, these results suggest that the unusual [2Fe-2S]-bridging Grx-BolA interaction is conserved in higher eukaryotes and may play a role in signaling cellular iron status in humans.
Project description:The BolA homologue Fra2 and the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins Grx3 and Grx4 together play a key role in regulating iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic studies indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 regulate activity of the iron-responsive transcription factors Aft1 and Aft2 in response to mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. We have previously shown that Fra2 and Grx3/4 form a [2Fe-2S](2+)-bridged heterodimeric complex with iron ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. To further characterize this unusual Fe-S-binding complex, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify specific residues in Fra2 that influence Fe-S cluster binding and regulation of Aft1 activity in vivo. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence that His-103 in Fra2 is an Fe-S cluster ligand in the Fra2-Grx3 complex. Replacement of this residue does not abolish Fe-S cluster binding, but it does lead to a change in cluster coordination and destabilization of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. In vivo genetic studies further confirm that Fra2 His-103 is critical for control of Aft1 activity in response to the cellular iron status. Using CD spectroscopy, we find that ?1 mol eq of apo-Fra2 binds tightly to the [2Fe-2S] Grx3 homodimer to form the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 heterodimer, suggesting a mechanism for formation of the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3 heterodimer in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the histidine coordination and stability of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the Fra2-Grx3 complex are essential for iron regulation in yeast.
Project description:Many iron-sulfur proteins involved in cluster trafficking form [2Fe-2S]-cluster-bridged complexes that are often challenging to characterize because of the inherent instability of the cluster at the interface. Herein, we illustrate the use of fast, online buffer exchange coupled to a native mass spectrometry (OBE nMS) method to characterize [2Fe-2S]-cluster-bridged proteins and their transient cluster-transfer intermediates. The use of this mechanistic and protein-characterization tool is demonstrated with holo glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) homodimer and holo GLRX5:BolA-like protein 3 (BOLA3) heterodimer. Using the OBE nMS method, cluster-transfer reactions between the holo-dimers and apo-ferredoxin (FDX2) are monitored, and intermediate [2Fe-2S] species, such as (FDX2:GLRX5:[2Fe-2S]:GSH) and (FDX2:BOLA3:GLRX5:[2Fe-2S]:GSH) are detected. The OBE nMS method is a robust technique for characterizing iron-sulfur-cluster-bridged protein complexes and transient iron-sulfur-cluster transfer intermediates.
Project description:Monothiol glutaredoxins (mono-Grx) represent a highly evolutionarily conserved class of proteins present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. Mono-Grxs have been implicated in iron sulfur (FeS) cluster biosynthesis as potential scaffold proteins and in iron homeostasis via an FeS-containing complex with Fra2p (homologue of E. coli BolA) in yeast and are linked to signal transduction in mammalian systems. However, the function of the mono-Grx in prokaryotes and the nature of an interaction with BolA-like proteins have not been established. Recent genome-wide screens for E. coli genetic interactions reported the synthetic lethality (combination of mutations leading to cell death; mutation of only one of these genes does not) of a grxD mutation when combined with strains defective in FeS cluster biosynthesis (isc operon) functions [Butland, G., et al. (2008) Nature Methods 5, 789-795]. These data connected the only E. coli mono-Grx, GrxD to a potential role in FeS cluster biosynthesis. We investigated GrxD to uncover the molecular basis of this synthetic lethality and observed that GrxD can form FeS-bound homodimeric and BolA containing heterodimeric complexes. These complexes display substantially different spectroscopic and functional properties, including the ability to act as scaffold proteins for intact FeS cluster transfer to the model [2Fe-2S] acceptor protein E. coli apo-ferredoxin (Fdx), with the homodimer being significantly more efficient. In this work, we functionally dissect the potential cellular roles of GrxD as a component of both homodimeric and heterodimeric complexes to ultimately uncover if either of these complexes performs functions linked to FeS cluster biosynthesis.
Project description:The transcription of iron uptake and storage genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Aft1 is dependent upon mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biosynthesis via a signaling pathway that includes the cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins (Grx3 and Grx4) and the BolA homologue Fra2. However, the interactions between these proteins and the iron-dependent mechanism by which they control Aft1 localization are unclear. To reconstitute and characterize components of this signaling pathway in vitro, we have overexpressed yeast Fra2 and Grx3/4 in Escherichia coli. We have shown that coexpression of recombinant Fra2 with Grx3 or Grx4 allows purification of a stable [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster-containing Fra2-Grx3 or Fra2-Grx4 heterodimeric complex. Reconstitution of a [2Fe-2S] cluster on Grx3 or Grx4 without Fra2 produces a [2Fe-2S]-bridged homodimer. UV-visible absorption and CD, resonance Raman, EPR, ENDOR, Mossbauer, and EXAFS studies of [2Fe-2S] Grx3/4 homodimers and the [2Fe-2S] Fra2-Grx3/4 heterodimers indicate that inclusion of Fra2 in the Grx3/4 Fe-S complex causes a change in the cluster stability and coordination environment. Taken together, our analytical, spectroscopic, and mutagenesis data indicate that Grx3/4 and Fra2 form a Fe-S-bridged heterodimeric complex with Fe ligands provided by the active site cysteine of Grx3/4, glutathione, and a histidine residue. Overall, these results suggest that the ability of the Fra2-Grx3/4 complex to assemble a [2Fe-2S] cluster may act as a signal to control the iron regulon in response to cellular iron status in yeast.
Project description:Monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs) with a signature CGFS active site and BolA-like proteins have recently emerged as novel players in iron homeostasis. Elegant genetic and biochemical studies examining the functional and physical interactions of CGFS Grxs in the fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have unveiled their essential roles in intracellular iron signaling, iron trafficking, and the maturation of Fe-S cluster proteins. Biophysical and biochemical analyses of the [2Fe-2S] bridging interaction between CGFS Grxs and a BolA-like protein in S. cerevisiae provided the first molecular-level understanding of the iron regulation mechanism in this model eukaryote and established the ubiquitous CGFS Grxs and BolA-like proteins as novel Fe-S cluster-binding regulatory partners. Parallel studies focused on Escherichia coli and human homologues for CGFS Grxs and BolA-like proteins have supported the studies in yeast and provided additional clues about their involvement in cellular iron metabolism. Herein, we review recent progress in uncovering the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CGFS Grxs and BolA-like proteins help regulate iron metabolism in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms.
Project description:Cells contain hundreds of proteins that require iron cofactors for activity. Iron cofactors are synthesized in the cell, but the pathways involved in distributing heme, iron-sulfur clusters, and ferrous/ferric ions to apoproteins remain incompletely defined. In particular, cytosolic monothiol glutaredoxins and BolA-like proteins have been identified as [2Fe-2S]-coordinating complexes in vitro and iron-regulatory proteins in fungi, but it is not clear how these proteins function in mammalian systems or how this complex might affect Fe-S proteins or the cytosolic Fe-S assembly machinery. To explore these questions, we use quantitative immunoprecipitation and live cell proximity-dependent biotinylation to monitor interactions between Glrx3, BolA2, and components of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly system. We characterize cytosolic Glrx3·BolA2 as a [2Fe-2S] chaperone complex in human cells. Unlike complexes formed by fungal orthologs, human Glrx3-BolA2 interaction required the coordination of Fe-S clusters, whereas Glrx3 homodimer formation did not. Cellular Glrx3·BolA2 complexes increased 6-8-fold in response to increasing iron, forming a rapidly expandable pool of Fe-S clusters. Fe-S coordination by Glrx3·BolA2 did not depend on Ciapin1 or Ciao1, proteins that bind Glrx3 and are involved in cytosolic Fe-S cluster assembly and distribution. Instead, Glrx3 and BolA2 bound and facilitated Fe-S incorporation into Ciapin1, a [2Fe-2S] protein functioning early in the cytosolic Fe-S assembly pathway. Thus, Glrx3·BolA is a [2Fe-2S] chaperone complex capable of transferring [2Fe-2S] clusters to apoproteins in human cells.
Project description:The paralogous iron-responsive transcription factors Aft1 and Aft2 (activators of ferrous transport) regulate iron homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by activating expression of iron-uptake and -transport genes when intracellular iron is low. We present the previously unidentified crystal structure of Aft2 bound to DNA that reveals the mechanism of DNA recognition via specific interactions of the iron-responsive element with a Zn(2+)-containing WRKY-GCM1 domain in Aft2. We also show that two Aft2 monomers bind a [2Fe-2S] cluster (or Fe(2+)) through a Cys-Asp-Cys motif, leading to dimerization of Aft2 and decreased DNA-binding affinity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the [2Fe-2S]-bridged heterodimer formed between glutaredoxin-3 and the BolA-like protein Fe repressor of activation-2 transfers a [2Fe-2S] cluster to Aft2 that facilitates Aft2 dimerization. Previous in vivo findings strongly support the [2Fe-2S] cluster-induced dimerization model; however, given the available evidence, Fe(2+)-induced Aft2 dimerization cannot be completely ruled out as an alternative Aft2 inhibition mechanism. Taken together, these data provide insight into the molecular mechanism for iron-dependent transcriptional regulation of Aft2 and highlight the key role of Fe-S clusters as cellular iron signals.
Project description:The synthesis and trafficking of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes requires coordination within an expanding network of proteins that function in the cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in order to assemble and deliver these ancient and essential cofactors to a wide variety of Fe-S-dependent enzymes and proteins. This review focuses on the evolving roles of two ubiquitous classes of proteins that operate in this network: CGFS glutaredoxins and BolA proteins. Monothiol or CGFS glutaredoxins possess a Cys-Gly-Phe-Ser active site that coordinates an Fe-S cluster in a homodimeric complex. CGFS glutaredoxins also form [2Fe-2S]-bridged heterocomplexes with BolA proteins, which possess an invariant His and an additional His or Cys residue that serve as cluster ligands. Here we focus on recent discoveries in bacteria, fungi, humans, and plants that highlight the shared and distinct roles of CGFS glutaredoxins and BolA proteins in Fe-S cluster biogenesis, Fe-S cluster storage and trafficking, and Fe-S cluster signaling to transcriptional factors that control iron metabolism--.