SPA0355 attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury in mice.
ABSTRACT: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to oxidative stress and acute inflammatory responses that cause liver damage and have a considerable impact on the postoperative outcome. Much research has been performed to develop possible protective techniques. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of SPA0355, a synthetic thiourea analog, in an animal model of hepatic I/R injury. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent normothermic partial liver ischemia for 45?min followed by varying periods of reperfusion. The animals were divided into three groups: sham operated, I/R and SPA0355 pretreated. Pretreatment with SPA0355 protected against hepatic I/R injury, as indicated by the decreased levels of serum aminotransferase and reduced parenchymal necrosis and apoptosis. Liver synthetic function was also restored by SPA0355 as reflected by the prolonged prothrombin time. To gain insight into the mechanism involved in this protection, we measured the activity of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), which revealed that SPA0355 suppressed the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-?B subunits. Concomitantly, the expression of NF-?B target genes such as IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? and iNOS was significantly downregulated. Lastly, the liver antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione were upregulated by SPA0355 treatment, which correlated with the reduction in serum malondialdehyde. Our results suggest that SPA0355 pretreatment prior to I/R injury could be an effective method to reduce liver damage.
Project description:Prolonged hepatic warm ischemia during surgery remains a significant problem, particularly in the setting of liver resection and reduced remaining liver mass. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effect of passive cooling caused by exposure to ambient conditions on hepatic injury in rats during warm ischemia followed by hepatectomy.The left and median lobes of male rats were exposed to 75 min of ischemia under either normothermic (37 degrees C) or mildly hypothermic (34 degrees C) conditions. After 75 min of ischemia, the right lobe was resected, leaving the animal with only the remaining ischemic lobes. Animals were allowed to survive indefinitely or sacrificed at 4 h after reperfusion for determination of injury and inflammatory gene expression.Survival was already markedly higher in mildly hypothermic rats than normothermic rats at 24 h. Short passive cooling for the time course of the ischemic event significantly increased the hepatic induction of heat shock proteins 70 and 32 (both 3-fold versus normothermia, P<0.05) in response to ischemia/reperfusion whereas it significantly decreased the induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the liver. Biochemical markers of hepatic injury were significantly lower in the passive cooling group than in normothermic animals: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum concentrations were 9277+/-3461IU/L versus 15106+/-4104IU/L (P<0.01), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels 5986+/-2246IU/L versus 9429+/-3643IU/L (P<0.01).We demonstrated in a clinically relevant model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion that mild hypothermia significantly reduces hepatic injury and improves survival.
Project description:A shortage of available organs for liver transplantation has led transplant surgeons and researchers to seek for innovative approaches in hepatoprotection and improvement of marginal allografts. The most exciting development in the past decade has been continuous mechanical perfusion of livers with blood or preservation solution to mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury in contrast to the current standard of static cold storage. Two variations of machine perfusion have emerged in clinical practice. During hypothermic oxygenated perfusion the liver is perfused using a red blood cell-free perfusate at 2-10°C. In contrast, normothermic machine perfusion mimics physiologic liver perfusion using a red blood cell-based solution at 35.5-037.5°C, offering a multitude of potential advantages. Putative effects of normothermic perfusion include abrogation of hyperfibrinolysis after reperfusion and inflammation, glycogen repletion, and regeneration of adenosine triphosphate. Research in normothermic machine perfusion focuses on development of biomarkers predicting allograft quality and susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Moreover, normothermic perfusion of marginal allografts allows for application of a variety of therapeutic interventions potentially enhancing organ quality. Both methods need to be subjected to translational investigation and evaluation in clinical trials. A clear advantage is transformation of an emergency procedure at night into a planned daytime surgery. Current clinical trials suggest that normothermic perfusion not only increases the use of hepatic allografts but is also associated with milder ischemia-reperfusion injury, resulting in a reduced risk of early allograft dysfunction and less biliary complications, including ischemic cholangiopathy, compared to static cold storage. The aim of this review is to give a concise overview of normothermic machine perfusion and its current applications, benefits, and possible advances in the future.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common clinical event with high morbidity in patients undergoing complex liver surgery or having abdominal trauma. Inflammatory and oxidative stress responses are the main contributing factors in liver IRI. The iridoid glucoside aucubin (AU) has good anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects; however, there are no relevant reports on the protective effect of glucosides on hepatic IRI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AU pretreatment could prevent liver IRI and to explore the mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The sham operation and IRI control groups were given intraperitoneal injections of normal saline, while the AU low-dose (AU-L) group, AU medium-dose (AU-M) group, and AU high-dose (AU-H) group were given intraperitoneal injections of AU at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 10 d, liver IRI (70% liver ischemia for 1 h, reperfusion for 6 h) was surgically established in all groups except the sham group. Our results confirmed that liver injury was significantly aggravated after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. AU alleviated the increase of transaminase and pathological changes induced by ischemia-reperfusion and improved liver damage. AU could also ameliorate the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses induced by ischemia-reperfusion and reduced expression of high mobility group protein (HMG)B1, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, AU reduced ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cells apoptosis, increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator (PGC)-1? and uncoupling (UCP)2 protein expression, and reduced caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and Cytochrome P450 proteins (CYP) expression. To determine expression levels of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway-related proteins in vitro and in vivo, we also measured TLR-4, myeloid differentiation factor88 (MyD88), NF-?B P65, p-P65, I-kappa-B-alpha (I?B-?), and p-I?B-? levels. The results showed that AU effectively inhibited activation of the TLR-4/NF-?B signaling pathway. In conclusion, we showed for the first time a hepatoprotective effect for AU in liver IRI, which acted by inhibiting the HMGB1/TLR-4/NF-?B signaling pathway, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Pretreatment with AU may be a promising strategy for preventing liver IRI.
Project description:The toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist, CBLB502/Entolimod, is a peptide derived from bacterial flagellin and has been shown to protect against radiation-induced tissue damage in animal models. Here we investigated the protective mechanism of CBLB502 in the liver using models of ischemia-reperfusion injury and concanavalin A (ConA) induced immuno-hepatitis. We report that pretreatment of mice with CBLB502 provoked a concomitant activation of NF-κB and STAT3 signaling in the liver and reduced hepatic damage in both models. To understand the underlying mechanism, we screened for cytokines in the serum of CBLB502 treated animals and detected high levels of IL-22. There was no transcriptional upregulation of IL-22 in the liver, rather it was found in extrahepatic tissues, mainly the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and spleen. RNA-seq analysis on isolated hepatocytes demonstrated that the concomitant activation of NF-κB signaling by CBLB502 and STAT3 signaling by IL-22 produced a synergistic cytoprotective transcriptional signature. In IL-22 knockout mice, the loss of IL-22 resulted in a decrease of hepatic STAT3 activation, a reduction in the cytoprotective signature, and a loss of hepatoprotection following ischemia-reperfusion-induced liver injury. Taken together, these findings suggest that CBLB502 protects the liver by increasing hepatocyte resistance to acute liver injury through the cooperation of TLR5-NF-κB and IL-22-STAT3 signaling pathways.
Project description:Ischemia and reperfusion significantly contributes to the morbidity and mortality of liver surgery and transplantation. Based on studies showing a critical role for adenosine signaling in mediating tissue adaptation during hypoxia, we hypothesized that signaling events through adenosine receptors (ADORA1, ADORA2A, ADORA2B, or ADORA3) attenuates hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury. Initial screening studies of human liver biopsies obtained during hepatic transplantation demonstrated a selective and robust induction of ADORA2B transcript and protein following ischemia and reperfusion. Subsequent exposure of gene-targeted mice for each individual adenosine receptor to liver ischemia and reperfusion revealed a selective role for the Adora2b in liver protection. Moreover, treatment of wild-type mice with an Adora2b-selective antagonist resulted in enhanced liver injury, whereas Adora2b-agonist treatment was associated with attenuated hepatic injury in wild-type, but not in Adora2b(-/-) mice. Subsequent studies in mice with Adora2b deletion in different tissues--including vascular endothelia, myeloid cells, and hepatocytes--revealed a surprising role for hepatocellular-specific Adora2b signaling in attenuating nuclear factor NF-?B activation and thereby mediating liver protection from ischemia and reperfusion injury. These studies provide a unique role for hepatocellular-specific Adora2b signaling in liver protection during ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Project description:Hepatocytes from donors with preexisting hepatic steatosis exhibited increased sensitivity to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) during liver transplantation. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protected the liver against IRI, but the mechanism was not clarified. Therefore, the hypothesis that ALR attenuated IRI in steatotic liver by inhibition of inflammation and downregulation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway was examined. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce liver steatosis. Mice were transfected with ALR-containing adenovirus 3 days prior to partial warm hepatic IRI. After 30 min of ischemia and 6 h of reperfusion injury, liver function, hepatic injury, the inflammatory response and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation were assessed. ALR maintained liver function and alleviated hepatic injury as indicated by the decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), preserved hepatic structure and reduced apoptosis. ALR also reduced the IRI-induced inflammatory response by suppressing Kupffer cell activation, inhibiting neutrophil chemotaxis and reducing inflammatory cytokine production. Further investigation using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that ALR reduced TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway activation, which led to a decreased synthesis of inflammatory cytokines. ALR functioned as a regulator of the IRI-induced inflammatory response by suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which supports the use of ALR in therapeutic applications for fatty liver transplantation.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major factor influencing graft outcome in liver transplantation, but its mechanism is not well defined. Although complement, including the membrane attack complex (MAC), a terminal product of complement activation, is thought to be involved in the multiple reactions subsequent to the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) process, the role of MAC in the pathogenesis of hepatic IRI requires further investigation. We used a warm ischemia-reperfusion injury model in mice and a syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation model in rats to define the role of complement, including MAC, in hepatic IR. CD59-deficient mice had more severe liver dysfunction, evidenced by increased aspartate aminotransferase levels and increased injury of liver parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells than did CD59-sufficient mice during warm hepatic IR. Furthermore, complement depletion in CD59-deficient mice by pretreatment with cobra venom factor (CVF) or the genetic introduction of C3 deficiency partially protected against development of the severe liver dysfunction that occurred in CD59-deficient mice. Severity of liver dysfunction correlated with MAC deposition, apoptotic cells, and increased inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor ?. Moreover, depletion of complement with CVF in orthotopic liver transplantation recipient rats attenuated IRI of the donor livers. Taken together, these results highlight the protective role of CD59 and pathogenic role of complement, including MAC, in the pathogenesis of hepatic IRI.
Project description:Recently, increasing evidences had suggested that long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we determined the LncRNA expression profile using microarray technology in mouse livers after ischemia/reperfusion treatment. Seventy one LncRNAs were upregulated, and 27 LncRNAs were downregulated in ischemia/reperfusion-treated mouse livers. Eleven of the most significantly deregulated LncRNAs were further validated by quantitative PCR assays. Among the upregulated LncRNAs confirmed by quantitative PCR assays, AK139328 exhibited the highest expression level in normal mouse livers. siRNA-mediated knockdown of hepatic AK139328 decreased plasma aminotransferase activities, and reduced necrosis area in the livers with a decrease in caspase-3 activation after ischemia/reperfusion treatment. In ischemia/reperfusion liver, knockdown of AK139328 increased survival signaling proteins including phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (pGSK3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (peNOS). Furthermore, knockdown of AK139328 also reduced macrophage infitration and inhibited NF-?B activity and inflammatory cytokines expression. In conclusion, these findings revealed that deregulated LncRNAs are involved in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. Silencing of AK139328 ameliorated ischemia/reperfusion injury in the liver with the activation of Akt signaling pathway and inhibition of NF-?B activity. LncRNA AK139328 might be a novel target for diagnosis and treatment of liver surgery or transplantation.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury contributes to the morbidity and mortality associated with liver surgery. This study investigated the protective function and mechanism of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide, in a mouse hepatic IR injury model. PSS (25 or 50 mg/kg) or saline were injected intraperitoneally to male Balb/c mice 1 h before 45 min of 70% warm hepatic ischemia and 2, 8, and 24 h of reperfusion. Serum and liver tissue samples were collected for evaluation of hepatocellular damage, liver histology, and assay of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins, and proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs). Histological injury and release of transaminases, and inflammatory cytokine production were significantly reduced by PSS pretreatment. The expression of apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins, and the activation of MAPK signal, including jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and P38 were all affected by PSS treatment compared with IR model controls. PSS protected the liver from IR injury by suppressing the MAPK signaling and down-regulating inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>During donor organ procurement and subsequent static cold storage (SCS), hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels are progressively depleted, which contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). We sought to investigate a simple approach to prevent ATP depletion and IRI using a porcine donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver reperfusion model.<h4>Methods</h4>After 30 min warm ischemia, porcine livers were flushed via the portal vein with cold (4°C) non-oxygenated University of Wisconsin (UW) preservation solution (n = 6, control group) or with oxygenated UW (n = 6, OxyFlush group). Livers were then subjected to 4 h SCS in non-oxygenated (control) or oxygenated (OxyFlush) UW, followed by 4 h normothermic reperfusion using whole blood. Hepatic ATP levels were compared, and hepatobiliary function and injury were assessed.<h4>Results</h4>At the end of SCS, ATP was higher in the OxyFlush group compared to controls (delta ATP of +0.26 vs. -0.68 µmol/g protein, p = 0.04). All livers produced bile and metabolized lactate, and there were no differences between the groups. Grafts in the OxyFlush group had lower blood glucose levels after reperfusion (p = 0.04). Biliary pH, glucose and bicarbonate were not different between the groups. Injury markers including liver transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, cell-free DNA and flavin mononucleotide in the SCS solution and during reperfusion were also similar. Histological assessment of the parenchyma and bile ducts did not reveal differences between the groups.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Oxygenated flush out and storage of DCD porcine livers prevents ATP depletion during ischemia, but this does not seem sufficient to mitigate early signs of IRI.