Preventive effect of permethrin-impregnated long-lasting insecticidal nets on the blood feeding of three major pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in western Kenya.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as a principal strategy for effective malaria prevention and control, pyrethroids have been the only class of insecticides used for LLINs. The dramatic success of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and LLINs in African countries, however, has been threatened by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes. ITNs and LLINs are still used as effective self-protection measures, but there have been few studies on the effectiveness of ITNs and LLINs in areas where vector mosquitoes are pyrethroid-resistant. METHODS: To investigate the behavioral pattern of mosquitoes in the houses where LLINs were used, indoor mosquito trappings of Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. were performed with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap equipped with a collection bottle rotator at 2-hour intervals between 4:00?pm and 8:00?am. The trapped female mosquitoes were identified and classified as unfed, blood fed, and gravid. The abdominal contents of fed female mosquitoes were used for DNA extractions to identify the blood source. RESULTS: A large proportion of human blood feeding of An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. (but not An. gambiae s.s.) took place during the time people were active outside LLINs. However, during the hours when people were beneath LLINs, these provided protective efficacy as indicated by reduced human blood feeding rates. CONCLUSION: LLINs provided effective protection against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vector populations during bedtime hours. However, protection of LLINs was insufficient during the hours when people were active outside of the bed nets. Such limitation of LLINs will need to be intensively addressed in African countries in the near future.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The dramatic success of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in African countries has been countered by the rapid development of pyrethroid resistance in vector mosquitoes over the past decade. One advantage of the use of pyrethroids in ITNs is their excito-repellency. Use of the excito-repellency of pyrethroids might be biorational, since such repellency will not induce or delay the development of any physiological resistance. However, little is known about the relationship between the mode of insecticide resistance and excito-repellency in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. METHODS: Differences in the reactions of 3 major malaria vectors in western Kenya to pyrethroids were compared in laboratory tests. Adult susceptibility tests were performed using World Health Organization (WHO) test tube kits for F1 progenies of field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s., and laboratory colonies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. The contact repellency to pyrethroids or permethrin-impregnated LLINs (Olyset® Nets) was evaluated with a simple choice test modified by WHO test tubes and with the test modified by the WHO cone bioassay test. RESULTS: Field-collected An. gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis, and An. funestus s.s. showed high resistance to both permethrin and deltamethrin. The allelic frequency of the point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014S) in An. gambiae s.s. was 99.3-100%, while no point mutations were detected in the other 2 species. The frequency of takeoffs from the pyrethroid-treated surface and the flying times without contacting the surface increased significantly in pyrethroid-susceptible An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis colonies and wild An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. colonies, while there was no significant increase in the frequency of takeoffs or flying time in the An. gambiae s.s. wild colony. CONCLUSION: A different repellent reaction was observed in the field-collected An. gambiae s.s. than in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. It might be that resistant mosquitoes governed by knockdown resistance (kdr) loose repellency to pyrethroids, whereas those lacking kdr maintain high repellency irrespective of their possessing metabolic resistance factors to pyrethroids. Further genetic evaluation is required for the demonstration of the above hypothesis.
Project description:Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT.
Project description:To control malaria in Tanzania, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The main threat to effective malaria control is the selection of insecticide resistance. While resistance to pyrethroids, the primary insecticide used for LLINs and IRS, has been reported among mosquito vectors in only a few sites in Tanzania, neighbouring East African countries are recording increasing levels of resistance. To monitor the rapidly evolving situation, the resistance status of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l to different insecticides and the prevalence of the kdr resistance allele involved in pyrethroid resistance were investigated in north-western Tanzania, an area that has been subject to several rounds of pyrethroid IRS since 2006.Household collections of anopheline mosquitoes were exposed to diagnostic dosages of pyrethroid, DDT, and bendiocarb using WHO resistance test kits. The relative proportions of An. gambiae s.s and Anopheles arabiensis were also investigated among mosquitoes sampled using indoor CDC light traps. Anophelines were identified to species and the kdr mutation was detected using real time PCR TaqMan assays.From the light trap collections 80% of An. gambiae s.l were identified as An. gambiae s.s and 20% as An. arabiensis. There was cross-resistance between pyrethroids and DDT with mortality no higher than 40% reported in any of the resistance tests. The kdr-eastern variant was present in homozygous form in 97% of An. gambiae s.s but was absent in An. arabiensis. Anopheles gambiae s.s showed reduced susceptibility to the carbamate insecticide, bendiocarb, the proportion surviving WHO tests ranging from 0% to 30% depending on season and location.Anopheles gambiae s.s has developed phenotypic resistance to pyrethroids and DDT and kdr frequency has almost reached fixation. Unlike in coastal Tanzania, where the ratio of An. gambiae s.s to An. arabiensis has decreased in response to vector control, An. gambiae s.s persists at high frequency in north-western Tanzania, probably due to selection of pyrethroid resistance, and this trend is likely to arise in other areas as resistance spreads or is subject to local selection from IRS or LLINs.
Project description:Malaria is transmitted by many Anopheles species whose proportionate contributions vary across settings. We re-assessed the roles of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus, and examined potential benefits of species-specific interventions in an area in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission persists, four years after mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Monthly mosquito sampling was done in randomly selected households in three villages using CDC light traps and back-pack aspirators, between January-2015 and January-2016, four years after the last mass distribution of LLINs in 2011. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify members of An. funestus and Anopheles gambiae complexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquito salivary glands, and to identify sources of mosquito blood meals. WHO susceptibility assays were done on wild caught female An. funestus s.l, and physiological ages approximated by examining mosquito ovaries for parity. A total of 20,135 An. arabiensis and 4,759 An. funestus were collected. The An. funestus group consisted of 76.6% An. funestus s.s, 2.9% An. rivulorum, 7.1% An. leesoni, and 13.4% unamplified samples. Of all mosquitoes positive for Plasmodium, 82.6% were An. funestus s.s, 14.0% were An. arabiensis and 3.4% were An. rivulorum. An. funestus and An. arabiensis contributed 86.21% and 13.79% respectively, of annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR). An. arabiensis fed on humans (73.4%), cattle (22.0%), dogs (3.1%) and chicken (1.5%), but An. funestus fed exclusively on humans. The An. funestus populations were 100% susceptible to organophosphates, pirimiphos methyl and malathion, but resistant to permethrin (10.5% mortality), deltamethrin (18.7%), lambda-cyhalothrin (18.7%) and DDT (26.2%), and had reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (95%) and propoxur (90.1%). Parity rate was higher in An. funestus (65.8%) than An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.
Project description:Pyrethroid resistance is becoming a major problem for vector control programs, because at present, there are few suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids, as when used on bed nets the insecticide must have low mammalian toxicity as well as high activity to mosquitoes. Pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of the most active chemicals among the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) group. Sterilizing mosquitoes by using PPF could be a potential control measure for pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. We investigated the sterilizing effects of two types of PPF-impregnated bed nets - a 1% PPF-impregnated net and a 1% PPF +2% permethrin-impregnated net (Olyset Duo) - to pyrethroid-resistant wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. High mortality of blood-fed mosquitos was observed 3 days post-collection, in the houses where PPF-impregnated nets were used, indicating the effect of PPF on the longevity of mosquitos that came in contact with the net. Reduction in the number of ovipositing females, number of eggs, and number of progeny per female were also observed in the houses in which both Olyset Duo and PPF-impregnated nets were used. This is the first field study showing the high sterilizing efficacy of PPF against wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. population. In addition, we recognized the necessity of combined use of permethrin with PPF, in order to reduce the risk of mosquito bites and provide a level of personal protection. Further studies on wild pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations such as An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. would provide more information on the practical use of the PPF-impregnated bed nets.
Project description:Background: Insecticides resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes limits Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) used for malaria control in Africa, especially Benin. This study aimed to evaluate the bio-efficacy of current LLINs in an area where An. funestuss.l. and An. gambiae have developed multi-resistance to insecticides, and to assess in experimental huts the performance of a mixed combination of pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) treated nets on these resistant mosquitoes. Methods: The study was conducted at Kpomè, Southern Benin. The bio-efficacy of LLINs against An. funestus and An. gambiae was assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) cone and tunnel tests. A released/recapture experiment following WHO procedures was conducted to compare the efficacy of conventional LLINs treated with pyrethroids only and LLINs with combinations of pyrethroids and PBO. Prior to huts trials, we confirmed the level of insecticide and PBO residues in tested nets using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Conventional LLINs (Type 2 and Type 4) have the lowest effect against local multi-resistant An. funestus s.s. and An. coluzzii populations from Kpomè. Conversely, when LLINs containing mixtures of pyrethroids and PBO (Type 1 and Type 3) were introduced in trial huts, we recorded a greater effect against the two mosquito populations (P < 0.0001). Tunnel test with An. funestus s.s. revealed mortalities of over 80% with this new generation of LLINs (Type 1 and Type 3),while conventional LLINs produced 65.53 ± 8.33% mortalities for Type 2 and 71.25 ±7.92% mortalities for Type 4. Similarly, mortalities ranging from 77 to 87% were recorded with the local populations of An. coluzzii. Conclusion: This study suggests the reduced efficacy of conventional LLINs (Pyrethroids alone) currently distributed in Benin communities where Anopheles populations have developed multi-insecticide resistance. The new generation nets (pyrethroids+PBO) proved to be more effective on multi-resistant populations of mosquitoes.
Project description:In Kenya, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) distributed to pregnant women and children under 5 years old through various programs have resulted in a significant reduction in malaria deaths. All of the World Health Organization-recommended insecticides for mosquito nets are pyrethroids, and vector mosquito resistance to these insecticides is one of the major obstacles to an effective malaria control program. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are major malaria vectors that are widely distributed in Kenya. Two point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014F and L1014S) are associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroids in An. gambiae s.s. While the same point mutations have been reported to be rare in An. arabiensis, some evidence of metabolic resistance has been reported in this species. In order to determine the distribution of the point mutation L1014S in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in southern and western Kenya, we collected larvae and screened for the mutation by DNA sequencing. We found high allelic and homozygous frequencies of the L1014S mutation in An. gambiae s.s. The L1014S mutation was also widely distributed in An. arabiensis, although the allelic frequency was lower than in An. gambiae s.s. The same intron sequence (length: 57 base) found in both species indicated that the mutation was introgressed by hybridization. The allelic frequency of L1014S was higher in both species in western regions, demonstrating the strong selection pressure imposed by long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLITN)/ITN on the An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis populations in those areas. The present contribution of the L1014S mutation to pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis may be negligible. However, the homozygous frequency could increase with continuing selection pressure due to expanded LLITN coverage in the future.
Project description:Increasing pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has been reported in western Kenya where long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the mainstays of vector control. To ensure the sustainability of insecticide-based malaria vector control, monitoring programs need to be implemented. This study was designed to investigate the extent and distribution of pyrethroid resistance in 4 Districts of western Kenya (Nyando, Rachuonyo, Bondo and Teso). All four Districts have received LLINs while Nyando and Rachuonyo Districts have had IRS campaigns for 3-5 years using pyrethroids. This study is part of a programme aimed at determining the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria epidemiology.Three day old adult mosquitoes from larval samples collected in the field, were used for bioassays using the WHO tube bioassay, and mortality recorded 24 hours post exposure. Resistance level was assigned based on the 2013 WHO guidelines where populations with <90% mortality were considered resistant. Once exposed, samples were identified to species using PCR.An. arabiensis comprised at least 94% of all An. gambiae s.l. in Bondo, Rachuonyo and Nyando. Teso was a marked contrast case with 77% of all samples being An. gambiae s.s. Mortality to insecticides varied widely between clusters even in one District with mortality to deltamethrin ranging from 45-100%, while to permethrin the range was 30-100%. Mortality to deltamethrin in Teso District was?<?90% in 4 of 6 clusters tested in An arabiensis and <90% in An. gambiae s.s in 5 of 6 clusters tested. To permethrin, mortality ranged between 5.9-95%, with <90% mortality in 9 of 13 and 8 of 13 in An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. respectively. Cluster specific mortality of An. arabiensis between permethin and deltamethrin were not correlated (Z?=?2.9505, P?=?0.2483).High levels of pyrethroid resistance were observed in western Kenya. This resistance does not seem to be associated with either species or location. Insecticide resistance can vary within small geographical areas and such heterogeneity may make it possible to evaluate the impact of resistance on malaria and mosquito parameters within similar eco-epidemiological zones.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pyrethroid resistance in vectors could limit the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) because all LLINs are currently treated with pyrethroids. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and wash resistance of PermaNet® 3.0 compared to PermaNet® 2.0 in an area of high pyrethroid in Côte d'Ivoire. PermaNet® 3.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 85 mg/m2 on the sides of the net and with deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide on the roof. PermaNet® 2.0 is impregnated with deltamethrin at 55 mg/m2 across the entire net. METHODS: The study was conducted in the station of Yaokoffikro, in central Côte d'Ivoire. The efficacy of intact unwashed and washed LLINs was compared over a 12-week period with a conventionally-treated net (CTN) washed to just before exhaustion. WHO cone bioassays were performed on sub-sections of the nets, using wild-resistant An. gambiae and Kisumu strains. Mosquitoes were collected five days per week and were identified to genus and species level and classified as dead or alive, then unfed or blood-fed. RESULTS: Mortality rates of over 80% from cone bioassays with wild-caught pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s were recorded only with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0. Over 12 weeks, a total of 7,291 mosquitoes were collected. There were significantly more An. gambiae s.s. and Culex spp. caught in control huts than with other treatments (P < 0.001). The proportion of mosquitoes exiting the huts was significantly lower with the control than for the treatment arms (P < 0.001). Mortality rates with resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp, were lower for the control than for other treatments (P < 0.001), which did not differ (P > 0.05) except for unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 (P < 0.001), which gave significantly higher mortality (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 caused significantly higher mortality against pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s and Culex spp than PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN. The increased efficacy with unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 over PermaNet® 2.0 and the CTN was also demonstrated by higher KD and mortality rates (KD > 95% and mortality rate > 80%) in cone bioassays performed with wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the principal tool for malaria control in Africa and are presently treated with a single class of insecticide; however, increasing levels of insecticide resistance threaten their success. In response to this threat nets have been developed that incorporate the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO), which inhibits the activity of cytochrome P450s which is one main mechanisms of insecticide resistance, allowing resistance to pyrethroids to be reversed. However, data on the value and cost effectiveness of these nets is lacking. A large-scale cluster randomised trial of conventional LLINs and PBO-LLINs was conducted in Uganda in 104 health sub-districts (HSDs) in 2017-2019. Prior to the mass distribution of LLINs, a baseline entomological survey was carried out, the results of which are reported herein. Ten households from each HSD were randomly selected for entomological surveillance at baseline which included household mosquito collections. RESULTS:Prior to LLIN distribution entomological collections were carried out in 1029 houses across the 104 HSDs. Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) was the principal vector in all but 9 of the 71 HSDs that yielded vector species. Molecular analysis found An. gambiae (s.s.) to be the predominant vector collected. Plasmodium falciparum was detected in 5.5% of An. gambiae (s.s.) and in 4.0% of An. funestus (s.s.) examined. Infection rates of other plasmodium species (P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae) were lower with infection rates of 1.2% and 1.7% for An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.), respectively. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation Vgsc-L1014S was found at very high frequency in An. gambiae (s.s.) with the Vgsc-L1014F mutation at low frequency and the wild-type allele virtually absent. In An. arabiensis the wild-type allele was predominant. The resistance-associated alleles, Cyp4j5-L43F and Coeae1d were found at moderate frequencies which varied across the study site. Vgsc-N1575Y mutation was not found in any samples examined. CONCLUSIONS:No significant differences between planned intervention arms was observed in vector densities, sporozoite infection rate or insecticide resistance marker frequency across the study site prior to the distribution of LLINs. Very high levels of kdr resistance were observed in all areas; however, the resistance-associated markers Cyp4j5-L43F and Coeae1d were found at varying frequencies across the study site which may have implications for the effectiveness of standard LLINs. Trial registration This study is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17516395. Registered 14 February 2017, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN17516395.