CT angiography spot sign in intracerebral hemorrhage predicts active bleeding during surgery.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign marks bleeding complications during and after surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).In a 2-center study of consecutive spontaneous ICH patients who underwent CTA followed by surgical hematoma evacuation, 2 experienced readers (blinded to clinical and surgical data) reviewed CTAs for spot sign presence. Blinded raters assessed active intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. The association between spot sign and active intraoperative bleeding, postoperative rebleeding, and residual ICH volumes was evaluated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression.A total of 95 patients met inclusion criteria: 44 lobar, 17 deep, 33 cerebellar, and 1 brainstem ICH; ?1 spot sign was identified in 32 patients (34%). The spot sign was the only independent marker of active bleeding during surgery (odds ratio [OR] 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-9.0). Spot sign (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.1-17), female sex (OR 6.9; 95% CI 1.7-37), and antiplatelet use (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2-21) were predictive of postoperative rebleeding. Larger residual hematomas and postoperative rebleeding were associated with higher discharge case fatality (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.1-11) and a trend toward increased case fatality at 3 months (OR 2.9; 95% CI 0.9-8.8).The CTA spot sign is associated with more intraoperative bleeding, more postoperative rebleeding, and larger residual ICH volumes in patients undergoing hematoma evacuation for spontaneous ICH. The spot sign may therefore be useful to select patients for future surgical trials.
Project description:The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign predicts hematoma expansion and poor outcome in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The biological underpinnings of the spot sign remain poorly understood; it may be that the underlying vasculopathy influences its presence. Therefore, we conducted a study to identify genetic predictors of the spot sign.In an ongoing prospective cohort study, we analyzed 371 patients with CTA and genetic data available. CTAs were reviewed for the spot sign by 2 experienced readers, blinded to clinical data, according to validated criteria. Analyses were stratified by ICH location.In multivariate analysis, patients on warfarin were more likely to have a spot sign regardless of ICH location (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.33-11.13 in deep ICH and OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.33-6.13 in lobar ICH). Apolipoprotein E ?2, but not ?4, was associated with the presence of a spot sign in lobar ICH (OR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.05-4.19). There was no effect for ?2 or ?4 in deep ICH.Patients with ICH on warfarin are more likely to present with a spot sign regardless of ICH location. Among patients with lobar ICH, those who possess the apolipoprotein E ?2 allele are more likely to have a spot sign. Given the established relationship between apolipoprotein E ?2 and vasculopathic changes in cerebral amyloid angiopathy, our findings suggest that both hemostatic factors and vessel pathology influence spot sign presence.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The role of spot sign on computed tomography angiography (CTA) for predicting hematoma expansion (HE) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been the focus of many studies. Our study sought to evaluate the predictive accuracy of spot signs for HE in a meta-analytic approach.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>The database of Pubmed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies. Researches were included if they reported data on HE in primary ICH patients, assessed by spot sign on first-pass CTA. Studies with additional data of second-pass CTA, post-contrast CT (PCCT) and CT perfusion (CTP) were also included.<h4>Results</h4>18 studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, including 14 studies of first-pass CTA, and 7 studies of combined CT modalities. In evaluating the accuracy of spot sign for predicting HE, studies of first-pass CTA showed that the sensitivity was 53% (95% CI, 49%-57%) with a specificity of 88% (95% CI, 86%-89%). The pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 4.70 (95% CI, 3.28-6.74) and the negative likelihood ratio (NLR) was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34-0.58). For studies of combined CT modalities, the sensitivity was 73% (95% CI, 67%-79%) with a specificity of 88% (95% CI, 86%-90%). The aggregated PLR was 6.76 (95% CI, 3.70-12.34) and the overall NLR was 0.17 (95% CI 0.06-0.48).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Spot signs appeared to be a reliable imaging biomarker for HE. The additional detection of delayed spot sign was helpful in improving the predictive accuracy of early spot signs. Awareness of our results may impact the primary ICH care by providing supportive evidence for the use of combined CT modalities in detecting spot signs.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial. Participants included consecutive patients with primary ICH who underwent a CTA within 8 hours from onset at 59 sites from May 15, 2011, through December 19, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1 to August 31, 2016.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Patients in ATACH-II were randomized to intensive (systolic BP target, <140 mm Hg) vs standard (systolic BP target, <180 mm Hg) BP reduction within 4.5 hours from onset. Expansion of ICH was defined as hematoma growth of greater than 33%, and an unfavorable outcome was defined as a 90-day modified Rankin Scale score of 4 or greater (range, 0-6). The association among BP reduction, ICH expansion, and outcome was investigated with multivariable logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 133 patients (83 men [62.4%] and 50 women [37.6%]; mean [SD] age, 61.9 [13.1] years) were included. Of these, 53 (39.8%) had a spot sign, and 24 of 123 without missing data (19.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The spot sign was associated with expansion with sensitivity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.74) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.72). After adjustment for potential confounders, intensive BP treatment was not associated with a significant reduction of ICH expansion (relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.51; P = .74) or improved outcome (relative risk of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53-2.91; P = .62) in spot sign-positive patients.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>The predictive performance of the spot sign for ICH expansion was lower than in prior reports from single-center studies. No evidence suggested that patients with ICH and a spot sign specifically benefit from intensive BP reduction.<h4>Trial registration</h4>clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176565.
Project description:Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) who present with a spot sign on computed tomography angiography are at increased risk of hematoma expansion and poor outcome. Because primary ICH is the acute manifestation of chronic cerebral small vessel disease, we investigated whether different clinical or imaging characteristics predict spot sign presence, using ICH location as a surrogate for arteriolosclerosis- and cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related ICH.Patients with primary ICH and available computed tomography angiography at presentation were included. Predictors of spot sign were assessed using uni- and multivariable regression, stratified by ICH location.Seven hundred forty-one patients were eligible, 335 (45%) deep and 406 (55%) lobar ICH. At least one spot sign was present in 76 (23%) deep and 102 (25%) lobar ICH patients. In multivariable regression, warfarin (odds ratio [OR], 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-5.71; P=0.04), baseline ICH volume (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33, per 10 mL increase; P<0.001), and time from symptom onset to computed tomography angiography (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96, per hour; P=0.009) were associated with the spot sign in deep ICH. Predictors of spot sign in lobar ICH were warfarin (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.87-8.51; P<0.001) and baseline ICH volume (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31, per 10 mL increase; P<0.001).The most potent associations with spot sign are shared between deep and lobar ICH, suggesting that the acute bleeding process that arises in the setting of different chronic small vessel diseases shares commonalities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess the inter- and intrarater reliability of noncontrast CT (NCCT) markers [Black Hole Sign (BH), Blend Sign (BS), Island Sign (IS), and Hypodensities (HD)] and Spot Sign (SS) on CTA in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS:Patients with spontaneous ICH at three German tertiary stroke centers were retrospectively included. Each CT scan was rated for four NCCT markers and SS on CTA by two radiology residents. Raters were blind to all demographic and outcome data. Inter- and intrarater agreement was determined by Cohen's kappa (?) coefficient and percentage of agreement. RESULTS:Interrater agreement was excellent in 473 included patients, ranging from 96% to 99%. Interrater ? ranged from 0.85 (95% CI [0.78-0.91]) to 0.97 (95% CI [0.94-0.99]) for NCCT markers and 0.93 (95% CI [0.88-0.98]) for SS, all p-values < 0.001. Intrarrater agreement ranged from 96% to 100%, with ? ranging from 0.85 (95% CI [0.78-0.91]) to 1.00 (95% CI [0.10-0.85]) for NCCT markers and 0.96 (95% CI [0.92-1.00]) for SS, all p-values < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS:NCCT imaging findings and SS on CTA have good-to-excellent inter- and intrarater reliabilities, with the highest agreement for BH and SS.
Project description:Few studies have examined the risk of computed tomography angiography (CTA) during the acute phase of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), while the benefits of CTA in ICH have been well-documented. The present study investigated both the benefits of identifying spot signs, which are supposed to indicate hematoma enlargement after admission, and risks of CTA performed during the acute phase of ICH.We retrospectively assessed 323 consecutive patients with spontaneous ICHs admitted to our hospital between April 2009 and March 2012 and who underwent CTA on admission.In 80 patients (24.7 %), spot signs were demonstrated on CTA source images. Multivariate analysis revealed two independent factors correlated with presence of the spot sign: age and hematoma volume (p?<?0.05 each). The presence of spot sign was associated with unfavorable outcomes at discharge and hematoma growth after admission (p?<?0.05 each). Adverse events related to CTA occurred in 17 patients (5.2 %), including transient renal dysfunction in 16 patients and allergy to contrast medium in one patient. All adverse events completely resolved within 1 week.Presence of the spot sign indicated the possibility of hematoma growth and unfavorable outcomes. A small number of adverse events occurred in association with CTA, but without any permanent deficits. Given the potential benefits and risks, we believe that CTA performed at admission in all patients with ICH is beneficial to improve the outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To determine the association of ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) with the CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, hematoma expansion, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed data from 231 patients enrolled in the multicenter Predicting Haematoma Growth and Outcome in Intracerebral Haemorrhage Using Contrast Bolus CT study. uHG was defined as baseline ICH volume/onset-to-CT time (mL/h). The spot sign was used as marker of active hemorrhage. Outcome parameters included significant hematoma expansion (>33% or >6 mL, primary outcome), rate of hematoma expansion, early neurologic deterioration, 90-day mortality, and poor outcome.<h4>Results</h4>uHG was higher in spot sign patients (p < 0.001) and in patients scanned earlier (p < 0.001). Both uHG >4.7 mL/h (p = 0.002) and the CTA spot sign (p = 0.030) showed effects on rate of hematoma expansion but not its interaction (2-way analysis of variance, p = 0.477). uHG >4.7 mL/h improved the sensitivity of the spot sign in the prediction of significant hematoma expansion (73.9% vs 46.4%), early neurologic deterioration (67.6% vs 35.3%), 90-day mortality (81.6% vs 44.9%), and poor outcome (72.8% vs 29.8%), respectively. uHG was independently related to significant hematoma expansion (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.10) and clinical outcomes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>uHG is a useful predictor of hematoma expansion and poor clinical outcomes in patients with acute ICH. The combination of high uHG and the spot sign is associated with a higher rate of hematoma expansion, highlighting the need for very fast treatment in ICH patients.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Recent studies have recommended both early and late imaging to increase spot sign detection. However optimal acquisition timing for spot detection and impact on outcome prediction is uncertain. Our aim was to assess the utility of CTP in spot sign detection and characterization with emphasis on its impact on the prediction of outcome in patients with acute primary ICH.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>A retrospective review of 28 patients presenting within 6 hours of ICH, studied with CTA, CTP, and postcontrast CT, was performed. CTA, CTP, and postcontrast CT spot sign characteristics were recorded according to predefined radiologic criteria. A combined primary outcome of hematoma expansion or poor clinical outcome was used and defined as hematoma expansion ≥6 mL or ≥30%, need for surgical drainage, or in-hospital mortality. Associations with the primary outcome and spot sign presence were examined against baseline clinical, laboratory, and radiographic variables. Predictive ability of CTA, CTP, and postcontrast CT spot characteristics were compared among modalities.<h4>Results</h4>Primary outcome criteria were met in 18 patients (61%). CTP spot sign presence was an independent predictor of hematoma expansion or poor outcome (P = .040) and demonstrated greater sensitivity (78%) than spots detected on CTA (44%, P = .034) and postcontrast CT (50%, P = .025). Specificity and positive predictive value of the spot sign was high (100%) on all modalities. CTP detected the greatest number of spots (80%) with peak spot attenuation demonstrated at a median (interquartile range) time of 50 seconds (range, 34-63 seconds) after contrast bolus injection. CTP spot appearance was later than CTA-detected spots (P = .002) and earlier than postcontrast CT spots (P < .001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>CTP spot sign detection improves the sensitivity for prediction of outcome compared with CTA or postcontrast CT-detected spots.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), several non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers and the spot sign (SS) in computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) have been established for the prediction of hematoma growth and neurological outcome. However, the prognostic value of these markers in patients under oral anticoagulation (ORAC) is unclear. We hypothesized that outcome prediction by these imaging markers may be significantly different between patients with and without ORAC. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the predictive value of NCCT markers and SS in patients with ICH under ORAC. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of the database for patients with ICH at a German tertiary stroke center. Inclusion criteria were (1) patients with ICH, (2) oral anticoagulation within the therapeutic range, and (3) NCCT and CTA performed on admission within 6 h after onset of symptoms. We defined a binary outcome: modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ? 3 = good outcome versus mRS > 3 = poor outcome at discharge. The predictive value of each sign was assessed in uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS:Of 129 patients with ICH under ORAC, 76 (58.9%) presented with hypodensities within the hematoma in admission NCCT, 64 (52.7%) presented with an irregular shape of the hematoma, 60 (46.5%) presented with a swirl sign, 49 (38.0%) presented with a black hole sign, and 46 (35.7%) presented with a heterogeneous density of the hematoma. Moreover, 44 (34.1%) patients had a satellite sign, in 20 (15.5%) patients, an island sign was detected, 18 (14.0%) patients were blend-sign positive, and 14 (10.9%) patients presented with a CTA spot sign. Inter-rater agreement was very high for all included characteristics between the two readers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified the presence of black hole sign (odds ratio 10.59; p < 0.001), swirl sign (odds ratio 14.06; p < 0.001), and satellite sign (odds ratio 6.38; p = 0.011) as independent predictors of poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS:The distribution and prognostic value of several NCCT markers and CTA spot sign in ICH patients under ORAC is comparable to those with spontaneous ICH, even though these parameters are partly based on coagulant status. These findings suggest that a similar approach can be used for further research regarding outcome prediction in ICH patients under ORAC and those with spontaneous ICH.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>The spot sign score is a potent predictor of hematoma expansion in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aim to determine the accuracy of this scoring system for the prediction of in-hospital mortality and poor outcome among survivors in patients with primary ICH.<h4>Methods</h4>Three neuroradiologists retrospectively reviewed CT angiograms (CTAs) performed in 573 consecutive patients who presented to our Emergency Department with primary ICH over a 9-year period to determine the presence and scoring of spot signs according to strict criteria. Baseline ICH and intraventricular hemorrhage volumes were independently determined by computer-assisted volumetric analysis. Medical records were independently reviewed for baseline clinical characteristics and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at hospital discharge and 3-month follow-up. Poor outcome among survivors was defined as a mRS > or =4 at 3-month follow-up.<h4>Results</h4>We identified spot signs in 133 of 573 CTAs (23.2%), 11 of which were delayed spot signs (8.3%). The presence of any spot sign increased the risk of in-hospital mortality (55.6%, OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.6 to 5.9, P<0.0001) and poor outcome among survivors at 3-month follow-up (50.8%, OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3, P<0.0014). The spot sign score successfully predicted an escalating risk of both outcome measures. In multivariate analysis, the spot sign score was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.9, P<0.0002) and poor outcome among survivors at 3-month follow-up (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1, P<0.0065).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The spot sign score is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality and poor outcome among survivors in primary ICH.