PKA compartmentalization via AKAP220 and AKAP12 contributes to endothelial barrier regulation.
ABSTRACT: cAMP-mediated PKA signaling is the main known pathway involved in maintenance of the endothelial barrier. Tight regulation of PKA function can be achieved by discrete compartmentalization of the enzyme via physical interaction with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Here, we investigated the role of AKAPs 220 and 12 in endothelial barrier regulation. Analysis of human and mouse microvascular endothelial cells as well as isolated rat mesenteric microvessels was performed using TAT-Ahx-AKAPis peptide, designed to competitively inhibit PKA-AKAP interaction. In vivo microvessel hydraulic conductivity and in vitro transendothelial electrical resistance measurements showed that this peptide destabilized endothelial barrier properties, and dampened the cAMP-mediated endothelial barrier stabilization induced by forskolin and rolipram. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that TAT-Ahx-AKAPis led to both adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Those effects were paralleled by redistribution of PKA and Rac1 from endothelial junctions and by Rac1 inactivation. Similarly, membrane localization of AKAP220 was also reduced. In addition, depletion of either AKAP12 or AKAP220 significantly impaired endothelial barrier function and AKAP12 was also shown to interfere with cAMP-mediated barrier enhancement. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that AKAP220 interacts not only with PKA but also with VE-cadherin and ß-catenin. Taken together, these results indicate that AKAP-mediated PKA subcellular compartmentalization is involved in endothelial barrier regulation. More specifically, AKAP220 and AKAP12 contribute to endothelial barrier function and AKAP12 is required for cAMP-mediated barrier stabilization.
Project description:A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) have emerged as important regulatory molecules that can compartmentalize cAMP signaling transduced by ?2-adrenergic receptors (?(2)ARs); such compartmentalization ensures speed and fidelity of cAMP signaling and effects on cell function. This study aimed to assess the role of AKAPs in regulating global and compartmentalized ?(2)AR signaling in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Transcriptome and proteomic analyses were used to characterize AKAP expression in ASM. Stable expression or injection of peptides AKAP-IS or Ht31 was used to disrupt AKAP-PKA interactions, and global and compartmentalized cAMP accumulation stimulated by ?-agonist was assessed by radioimmunoassay and membrane-delineated flow through cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, respectively. ASM expresses multiple AKAP family members, with gravin and ezrin among the most readily detected. AKAP-PKA disruption had minimal effects on whole-cell cAMP accumulation stimulated by ?-agonist (EC(50) and B(max)) concentrations, but significantly increased the duration of plasma membrane-delineated cAMP (?=251±51 s for scrambled peptide control vs. 399±79 s for Ht31). Direct PKA inhibition eliminated decay of membrane-delineated cAMP levels. AKAPs coordinate compartmentalized cAMP signaling in ASM cells by regulating multiple elements of ?(2)AR-mediated cAMP accumulation, thereby representing a novel target for manipulating ?(2)AR signaling and function in ASM.
Project description:Adrenergic stimulation of the heart initiates a signaling cascade in cardiac myocytes that increases the concentration of cAMP. Although cAMP elevation may occur over a large area of a target-organ cell, its effects are often more restricted due to local concentration of its main effector, protein kinase A (PKA), through A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The HERG potassium channel, which produces the cardiac rapidly activating delayed rectifying K+ current (I(Kr)), is a target for cAMP/PKA regulation. PKA regulation of the current may play a role in the pathogenesis of hereditary and acquired abnormalities of the channel leading to cardiac arrhythmia. We examined the possible role for AKAP-mediated regulation of HERG channels. Here, we report that the PKA-RII-specific AKAP inhibitory peptide AKAP-IS perturbs the distribution of PKA-RII and diminishes the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of HERG protein. The functional consequence of AKAP-IS is a reversal of cAMP-dependent regulation of HERG channel activity. In further support of AKAP-mediated targeting of kinase to HERG, PKA activity was coprecipitated from HERG expressed in HEK cells. Velocity gradient centrifugation of solubilized porcine cardiac membrane proteins showed that several PKA-RI and PKA-RII binding proteins cosediment with ERG channels. A physical association of HERG with several specific AKAPs with known cardiac expression, however, was not demonstrable in heterologous cotransfection studies. These results suggest that one or more AKAP(s) targets PKA to HERG channels and may contribute to the acute regulation of I(Kr) by cAMP.
Project description:Undifferentiated cells from preantral (PA) follicles respond to high levels of cAMP in a different manner than do differentiated cells from preovulatory (PO) follicles. We hypothesized that this differential response of PA and PO cells to cAMP could be due, in part, to either a difference in the profile of isoforms that comprise the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) holoenzymes and/or a difference in the interaction of PKA with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs). To test these hypotheses, PKA activity, PKA holoenzymes, PKA subunits and AKAPs from PA and PO ovaries were compared. Soluble PKA holoenzymes and regulatory (R) subunits were separated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. PKA R subunits were distinguished by photoaffinity labelling, autophosphorylation, size, isoelectric point and immunoreactivity. AKAPs were identified by RII subunit overlay assays and immunoreactivity. The results showed that extracts from PA and PO ovaries exhibited equivalent PKA holoenzyme profiles and activities, characterized by low levels of PKA type I (PKAI) holoenzyme and two distinct PKAII holoenzyme peaks, one containing only RIIbeta subunits (PKAIIbeta) and one containing both PKAIIbeta and PKAIIalpha holoenzymes. Both PA and PO ovarian extracts also contained PKA catalytic (C)-subunit-free RIalpha, while only PO ovaries exhibited C-subunit-free RIIbeta. Consistent with the elevated levels of C-subunit-free RIIbeta in PO cells, PKA activation in PO cells required higher concentrations of forskolin than that in PA cells. While extracts of PA and PO ovaries exhibited a number of similar AKAPs, including four prominent ones reactive with anti-AKAP-KL antisera (where AKAP-KL is an AKAP especially abundant in kidney and liver), cAMP-agarose affinity chromatography revealed two major differences in AKAP binding to purified R subunits. PO ovaries contained increased levels of AKAP80 (AKAP of 80 kDa) bound selectively to R subunits in DEAE-cellulose peak 2 (comprising PKAIIbeta and RIalpha), but not to R subunits in DEAE-cellulose peak 3 (comprising PKAIIalpha, PKAIIbeta and RIIbeta). PO ovaries also showed increased binding of R subunits to AKAPs reactive with anti-AKAP-KL antisera at 210, 175, 150 and 115 kDa. Thus in PO ovaries, unlike in PA ovaries, the majority of AKAPs are bound to R subunits. These results suggest that altered PKA-AKAP interactions may contribute to the distinct responses of PA and PO follicles to high levels of cAMP, and that higher cAMP levels are required to activate PKA in PO ovaries.
Project description:Protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) influence fundamental cellular processes by directing the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) toward its intended substrates. In this report we describe the identification and characterization of a ternary complex of AKAP220, the PKA holoenzyme, and the IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 2 isoform (IQGAP2) that is enriched at cortical regions of the cell. Formation of an IQGAP2-AKAP220 core complex initiates a subsequent phase of protein recruitment that includes the small GTPase Rac. Biochemical and molecular biology approaches reveal that PKA phosphorylation of Thr-716 on IQGAP2 enhances association with the active form of the Rac GTPase. Cell-based experiments indicate that overexpression of an IQGAP2 phosphomimetic mutant (IQGAP2 T716D) enhances the formation of actin-rich membrane ruffles at the periphery of HEK 293 cells. In contrast, expression of a nonphosphorylatable IQGAP2 T716A mutant or gene silencing of AKAP220 suppresses formation of membrane ruffles. These findings imply that IQGAP2 and AKAP220 act synergistically to sustain PKA-mediated recruitment of effectors such as Rac GTPases that impact the actin cytoskeleton.
Project description:Generation of the second messenger molecule cAMP mediates a variety of cellular responses which are essential for critical cellular processes. In response to elevated cAMP levels, cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates serine and threonine residues on a wide variety of target substrates. In order to enhance the precision and directionality of these signaling events, PKA is localized to discrete locations within the cell by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). The interaction between PKA and AKAPs is mediated via an amphipathic ?-helix derived from AKAPs which binds to a stable hydrophobic groove formed in the dimerization/docking (D/D) domain of PKA-R in an isoform-specific fashion. Although numerous AKAP disruptors have previously been identified that can inhibit either RI- or RII-selective AKAPs, no AKAP disruptors have been identified that have isoform specificity for RI? versus RI? or RII? versus RII?. As a strategy to identify isoform-specific AKAP inhibitors, a library of chemically stapled protein-protein interaction (PPI) disruptors was developed based on the RII-selective AKAP disruptor, STAD-2. An alanine was substituted at each position in the sequence, and from this library it was possible to delineate the importance of longer aliphatic residues in the formation of a region which complements the hydrophobic cleft formed by the D/D domain. Interestingly, lysine residues that were added to both terminal ends of the peptide sequence to facilitate water solubility appear to contribute to isoform specificity for RII? over RII? while having only weak interaction with RI. This work supports current hypotheses on the mechanisms of AKAP binding and highlights the significance of particular residue positions that aid in distinguishing between the RII isoforms and may provide insight into future design of isoform-selective AKAP disruptors.
Project description:Compartmentalization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is coordinated through association with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). A defining characteristic of most AKAPs is a 14- to 18-aa sequence that binds to the regulatory subunits (RI or RII) of the kinase. Cellular delivery of peptides to these regions disrupts PKA anchoring and has been used to delineate a physiological role for AKAPs in the facilitation of certain cAMP-responsive events. Here, we describe a bioinformatic approach that yields an RII-selective peptide, called AKAP-in silico (AKAP-IS), that binds RII with a K(d) of 0.4 nM and binds RI with a K(d) of 277 nM. AKAP-IS associates with the type II PKA holoenzyme inside cells and displaces the kinase from natural anchoring sites. Electrophysiological recordings indicate that perfusion of AKAP-IS evokes a more rapid and complete attenuation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor currents than previously described anchoring inhibitor peptides. Thus, computer-based and peptide array screening approaches have generated a reagent that binds PKA with higher affinity than previously described AKAPs.
Project description:A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs) coordinate complex signaling events by serving as spatiotemporal modulators of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in cells. Although AKAPs organize a plethora of diverse pathways, their cellular roles are often elusive due to the dynamic nature of these signaling complexes. AKAPs can interact with the type I or type II PKA holoenzymes by virtue of high-affinity interactions with the R-subunits. As a means to delineate AKAP-mediated PKA signaling in cells, we sought to develop isoform-selective disruptors of AKAP signaling. Here, we report the development of conformationally constrained peptides named RI-STapled Anchoring Disruptors (RI-STADs) that target the docking/dimerization domain of the type 1 regulatory subunit of PKA. These high-affinity peptides are isoform-selective for the RI isoforms, can outcompete binding by the classical AKAP disruptor Ht31, and can selectively displace RI?, but not RII?, from binding the dual-specific AKAP149 complex. Importantly, these peptides are cell-permeable and disrupt Type I PKA-mediated phosphorylation events in the context of live cells. Hence, RI-STAD peptides are versatile cellular tools to selectively probe anchored type I PKA signaling events.
Project description:Protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) provide spatio-temporal specificity for the omnipotent cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) via high affinity interactions with PKA regulatory subunits (PKA-RI, RII). Many PKA-RII-AKAP complexes are heavily tethered to cellular substructures, whereas PKA-RI-AKAP complexes have remained largely undiscovered. Here, using a cAMP affinity-based chemical proteomics strategy in human heart and platelets, we uncovered a novel, ubiquitously expressed AKAP, termed small membrane (sm)AKAP due to its specific localization at the plasma membrane via potential myristoylation/palmitoylation anchors. In vitro binding studies revealed specificity of smAKAP for PKA-RI (K(d) = 7 nM) over PKA-RII (K(d) = 53 nM) subunits, co-expression of smAKAP with the four PKA R subunits revealed an even more exclusive specificity of smAKAP for PKA-RI?/? in the cellular context. Applying the singlet oxygen-generating electron microscopy probe miniSOG indicated that smAKAP is tethered to the plasma membrane and is particularly dense at cell-cell junctions and within filopodia. Our preliminary functional characterization of smAKAP provides evidence that, like PKA-RII, PKA-RI can be tightly tethered by a novel repertoire of AKAPs, providing a new perspective on spatio-temporal control of cAMP signaling.
Project description:The oncoproteins of the small DNA tumor viruses interact with a plethora of cellular regulators to commandeer control of the infected cell. During infection, adenovirus E1A deregulates cAMP signalling and repurposes it for activation of viral gene expression. We show that E1A structurally and functionally mimics a cellular A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). E1A interacts with and relocalizes protein kinase A (PKA) to the nucleus, likely to virus replication centres, via an interaction with the regulatory subunits of PKA. Binding to PKA requires the N-terminus of E1A, which bears striking similarity to the amphipathic ?-helical domain present in cellular AKAPs. E1A also targets the same docking-dimerization domain of PKA normally bound by cellular AKAPs. In addition, the AKAP like motif within E1A could restore PKA interaction to a cellular AKAP in which its normal interaction motif was deleted. During infection, E1A successfully competes with endogenous cellular AKAPs for PKA interaction. E1A's role as a viral AKAP contributes to viral transcription, protein expression and progeny production. These data establish HAdV E1A as the first known viral AKAP. This represents a unique example of viral subversion of a crucial cellular regulatory pathway via structural mimicry of the PKA interaction domain of cellular AKAPs.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: PKA, a key regulator of cell signaling, phosphorylates a diverse and important array of target molecules and is spatially docked to members of the A-kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) family. AKAR2 is a biosensor which yields a FRET signal in vivo, when phosphorylated by PKA. AKAP5, a prominent member of the AKAP family, docks several signaling molecules including PKA, PDE4D, as well as GPCRs, and is obligate for the propagation of the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade from GPCRs to ERK1,2. RESULTS: Using an AKAR2-AKAP5 fusion "biosensor", we investigated the spatial-temporal activation of AKAP5 undergoing phosphorylation by PKA in response to ?-adrenergic stimulation. The pattern of PKA activation reported by AKAR2-AKAP5 is a more rapid and spatially distinct from those "sensed" by AKAR2-AKAP12. Spatial-temporal restriction of activated PKA by AKAP5 was found to "shape" the signaling response. Phosphatase PDE4D tethered to AKAP5 also later reverses within 60?s elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels stimulated by ?-adrenergic agonist. AKAP12, however, fails to attenuate the rise in cyclic AMP over this time. Fusion of the AKAP5 PDE4D-binding-domain to AKAP12 was found to accelerate a reversal of accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP. CONCLUSION: AKAPs, which are scaffolds with tethered enzymes, can "shape" the temporal and spatial aspects of cell signaling.