Understanding of chest pain in microvascular disease proved by cardiac magnetic resonance image (UMPIRE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Microvascular angina (MVA) is characterized by anginal chest pain, an abnormal stress test, and normal coronary arteries on coronary angiography. Although the exact pathogenesis remains unclear, endothelial dysfunction is a contributing factor. To date, there exists no specific therapy for this disease. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor improves the endothelial function and subsequently microvascular circulation. The aim of this study is to identify whether udenafil offers benefits in the treatment of MVA in female patients, who have a perfusion defect in their cardiac magnetic resonance image (CMR), but normal coronary arteries.The 'Understanding of Chest Pain in Microvascular Disease Proved by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Image: (UMPIRE)' trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled trial, designed to evaluate the effect of udenafil on myocardial ischemia and symptoms in female patients with MVA. The myocardial ischemia will be quantified by myocardial stress perfusion defect in CMR. A total of 80 patients with proven perfusion defect in adenosine-stress CMR will be randomly assigned to either the udenafil treatment group (daily dose of 100 mg) or the placebo group for three months. The primary endpoint is >25% improvement in perfusion defect size in adenosine-stress CMR from baseline. The secondary endpoints include <25% improvement in perfusion defect size, chest pain frequency, ST depression in stress test, Duke score in stress test, quality of life (QoL) assessment by SF-36 questionnaire, sexual dysfunction assessment by BISF-W (Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women) self-assessment questionnaire, and biomarkers for endothelial function.The UMPIRE trial is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of udenafil in female MVA patients. If udenafil demonstrates cardioprotective effects, it may provide a novel therapeutic option to reduce myocardial ischemia and improve cardiac function in female MVA patients.Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01769482 (registered on 20 November 2012).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Novel cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) stress T1 mapping can detect ischemia and myocardial blood volume changes without contrast agents and may be a more comprehensive ischemia biomarker than myocardial blood flow. OBJECTIVES:This study describes the performance of the first prospective validation of stress T1 mapping against invasive coronary measurements for detecting obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD), defined by fractional flow reserve (FFR <0.8), and coronary microvascular dysfunction, defined by FFR ?0.8 and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR ?25 U), compared with first-pass perfusion imaging. METHODS:Ninety subjects (60 patients with angina; 30 healthy control subjects) underwent CMR (1.5- and 3-T) to assess left ventricular function (cine), ischemia (adenosine stress/rest T1 mapping and perfusion), and infarction (late gadolinium enhancement). FFR and IMR were assessed ?7 days post-CMR. Stress and rest images were analyzed blinded to other information. RESULTS:Normal myocardial T1 reactivity (?T1) was 6.2 ± 0.4% (1.5-T) and 6.2 ± 1.3% (3-T). Ischemic viable myocardium downstream of obstructive CAD showed near-abolished T1 reactivity (?T1 = 0.7 ± 0.7%). Myocardium downstream of nonobstructive coronary arteries with microvascular dysfunction showed less-blunted T1 reactivity (?T1 = 3.0 ± 0.9%). Stress T1 mapping significantly outperformed gadolinium-based first-pass perfusion, including absolute quantification of myocardial blood flow, for detecting obstructive CAD (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.97 ± 0.02 vs. 0.91 ± 0.03, respectively; p < 0.001). A ?T1 of 1.5% accurately detected obstructive CAD (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 95%; p < 0.001), whereas a less-blunted ?T1 of 4.0% accurately detected microvascular dysfunction (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve: 0.95 ± 0.03; sensitivity: 94%; specificity: 94%: p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CMR stress T1 mapping accurately detected and differentiated between obstructive epicardial CAD and microvascular dysfunction, without contrast agents or radiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In patients with angina and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD), confirming symptoms due to coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) remains challenging. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion with high spatial resolution and is widely used for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVES:The goal of this study was to validate CMR for diagnosing microvascular angina in patients with NOCAD, compared with patients with obstructive CAD and correlated to the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) during invasive coronary angiography. METHODS:Fifty patients with angina (65 ± 9 years of age) and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects underwent adenosine stress CMR (1.5- and 3-T) to assess left ventricular function, inducible ischemia (myocardial perfusion reserve index [MPRI]; myocardial blood flow [MBF]), and infarction (late gadolinium enhancement). During subsequent angiography within 7 days, 28 patients had obstructive CAD (fractional flow reserve [FFR] ?0.8) and 22 patients had NOCAD (FFR >0.8) who underwent 3-vessel IMR measurements. RESULTS:In patients with NOCAD, myocardium with IMR <25 U had normal MPRI (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. controls 2.0 ± 0.3; p = 0.49); myocardium with IMR ?25 U had significantly impaired MPRI, similar to ischemic myocardium downstream of obstructive CAD (1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 0.4; p = 0.61). An MPRI of 1.4 accurately detected impaired perfusion related to CMD (IMR ?25 U; FFR >0.8) (area under the curve: 0.90; specificity: 95%; sensitivity: 89%; p < 0.001). Impaired MPRI in patients with NOCAD was driven by impaired augmentation of MBF during stress, with normal resting MBF. Myocardium with FFR >0.8 and normal IMR (<25 U) still had blunted stress MBF, suggesting mild CMD, which was distinguishable from control subjects by using a stress MBF threshold of 2.3 ml/min/g with 100% positive predictive value. CONCLUSIONS:In angina patients with NOCAD, CMR can objectively and noninvasively assess microvascular angina. A CMR-based combined diagnostic pathway for both epicardial and microvascular CAD deserves further clinical validation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preliminary semi-quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion studies have demonstrated reduced myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) in patients with angina and risk factors for microvascular disease (MVD), however fully quantitative CMR has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether fully quantitative CMR identifies reduced MPR in this population, and to investigate the relationship between epicardial atherosclerosis, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), extracellular volume (ECV), and perfusion. METHODS:Forty-six patients with typical angina and risk factors for MVD (females, or males with diabetes or metabolic syndrome) who had no obstructive coronary artery disease by coronary angiography and 20 healthy control subjects underwent regadenoson stress CMR perfusion imaging using a dual-sequence quantitative spiral pulse sequence to quantify MPR. Subjects also underwent T1 mapping to quantify ECV, and computed tomographic (CT) coronary calcium scoring to assess atherosclerosis burden. RESULTS:In patients with risk factors for MVD, both MPR (2.21 [1.95,2.69] vs. 2.93 [2.763.19], p?<?0.001) and stress myocardial perfusion (2.65?±?0.62 ml/min/g, vs. 3.17?±?0.49 ml/min/g p?<?0.002) were reduced as compared to controls. These differences remained after adjusting for age, left ventricular (LV) mass, body mass index (BMI), and gender. There were no differences in native T1 or ECV between subjects and controls. CONCLUSIONS:Stress myocardial perfusion and MPR as measured by fully quantitative CMR perfusion imaging are reduced in subjects with risk factors for MVD with no obstructive CAD as compared to healthy controls. Neither myocardial hypertrophy nor fibrosis accounts for these differences.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes macro- and microvasculopathy, but data on cardiac microvascular changes in large animals are scarce. We sought to determine the effect of DM on macro- and microvascular changes in diabetic pigs and humans. METHODS:Eight domestic pigs (4 with type I diabetes and 4 controls) underwent coronary angiography with optical coherence tomography (OCT; at baseline and 1 and 2 months), coronary computed tomography angiography, cardiac magnet resonance (CMR) imaging, and histologic examination. RESULTS:The diabetic pigs had more irregular capillaries with acellular capillaries and a smaller capillary diameter (11.7 ± 0.33 μm vs. 13.5 ± 0.53 μm; P < 0.001) than those of the control pigs. The OCT showed no significant epicardial stenosis in either group; however diabetic pigs had a greater intima-media thickness. CMR results showed that diabetic pigs had a lower relative upslope at rest (31.3 ± 5.9 vs. 37.9 ± 8.1; P = 0.011) and during stress (18.0 ± 3.0 vs. 21.6 ± 2.8; P = 0.007) than the control pigs, implying decreased myocardial perfusion. Among the 79 patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction, 25 had diabetes and they had lower myocardial perfusion on CMR as well. CONCLUSION:DM causes microvascular remodeling and a decrease in myocardial perfusion in large animals at a very early stage of the disease course. Early and effective interventions are necessary to interrupt the progression of vascular complications in diabetic patients.
Project description:Myocardial perfusion imaging during hyperaemic stress is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS), strain rate (GLSR), myocardial early (E') and late diastolic velocities (A') with adenosine stress first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging.44 patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent CMR imaging. The CMR imaging protocol included: rest/stress horizontal long-axis (HLA) cine, rest/stress first-pass adenosine perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement imaging. Rest and stress HLA cine CMR images were analysed using feature-tracking software for the assessment of myocardial deformation. The presence of perfusion defects was scored on a binomial scale. In patients with hyperaemia-induced perfusion defects, rest global longitudinal strain GLS (-16.9 ± 3.7 vs. -19.6 ± 3.4; p-value = 0.02), E' (-86 ± 22 vs. -109 ± 38; p-value = 0.02), GLSR (69 ± 31 vs. 93 ± 38; p-value = 0.01) and stress GLS (-16.5 ± 4 vs. -21 ± 3.1; p < 0.001) were significantly reduced when compared with patients with no perfusion defects. Stress GLS was the strongest independent predictor of perfusion defects (odds ratio 1.43 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.78, p-value <0.001). A threshold of -19.8% for stress GLS demonstrated 78% sensitivity and 73% specificity for the presence of hyperaemia-induced perfusion defects.At peak myocardial hyperaemic stress, GLS is reduced in the presence of a perfusion defect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. This reduction is most likely caused by reduced endocardial blood flow at maximal hyperaemia because of transmural redistribution of blood flow in the presence of significant coronary stenosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early detection of subclinical myocardial dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is essential for recommending therapeutic interventions that can prevent or reverse heart failure, thereby improving the prognosis in such patients. This study aims to quantitatively evaluate left ventricular (LV) myocardial deformation and perfusion using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to investigate the association between LV subclinical myocardial dysfunction and coronary microvascular perfusion. METHODS:We recruited 71 T2DM patients and 30 healthy individuals as controls who underwent CMR examination. The T2DM patients were subdivided into two groups, namely the newly diagnosed DM group (n?=?31, patients with diabetes for???5 years) and longer-term DM group (n?=?40, patients with diabetes?>?5 years). LV deformation parameters, including global peak strain (PS), peak systolic strain rate, and peak diastolic strain rate (PSDR), and myocardial perfusion parameters such as upslope, time to maximum signal intensity (TTM), and max signal intensity (Max SI, were measured and compared among the three groups. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between LV deformation and perfusion parameters. RESULTS:Pooled data from T2DM patients showed a decrease in global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial PDSR compared to healthy individuals, apart from lower upslope. In addition, increased TTM and reduced Max SI were found in the longer-term diabetics compared to the normal subjects (p?<?0.017 for all). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that T2DM was independently associated with statistically significant CMR parameters, except for TTM (??=?0.137, p?=?0.195). Further, longitudinal PDSR was significantly associated with upslope (r?=?-?0.346, p?=?0.003) and TTM (r?=?0.515, p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our results imply that a contrast-enhanced 3.0T CMR can detect subclinical myocardial dysfunction and impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion in the early stages of T2DM, and that the myocardial dysfunction is associated with impaired coronary microvascular perfusion.
Project description:In women receiving evaluation for suspected ischemic symptoms, a "normal" diagnosis is five times more common than it is in men. These women are often labeled as having cardiac syndrome X, also known as microvascular angina (MVA). MVA is defined as angina pectoris caused by abnormalities of the small coronary arteries, and is characterized by effort chest pain and evidence of myocardial ischemia with a non-invasive stress test, although the coronary arteries can appear normal or near normal by angiography. MVA patients are often neglected due to the assumption of a good prognosis. However, MVA has important prognostic implications and a proper diagnosis is necessary in order to relieve the patients' symptoms and improve clinical outcomes. The coronary microvasculature cannot be directly imaged using coronary angiography, due to the small diameter of the vessels; therefore, the coronary microvascular must be assessed functionally. Treatment of MVA initially includes standard anti-ischemic drugs (?-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates), although control of symptoms is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MVA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To develop a new method for the cardiac MR (CMR) quantification of peri-infarct ischaemia using fused perfusion and delayed-enhanced images and to evaluate this method using quantitative single photon emission CT (SPECT) imaging as a reference. METHODS: 40 patients presenting with peri-infarct ischaemia on a routine stress (99m)Tc-SPECT imaging were recruited. Within 8 days of the SPECT study, myocardial perfusion was evaluated using stress adenosine CMR. Using fused perfusion and delayed-enhanced images, peri-infarct ischaemia was quantified as the percentage of myocardium with stress-induced perfusion defect that was adjacent to and larger than a scar. This parameter was compared with both the percent myocardium ischaemia (SD%) and the ischaemic total perfusion deficit (TPD). The diagnostic performance of CMR in detection of significant coronary artery stenosis (of ≥70%) was also determined. RESULTS: On SPECT imaging, in addition to peri-infarct ischaemia, reversible perfusion abnormalities were detected in a remote zone in seven patients. In the 33 patients presenting with only peri-infarct ischaemia, the agreement between CMR peri-infarct ischaemia and both SD% and ischaemic TPD was excellent [intraclass coefficient of correlation (ICC) = 0.969 and ICC = 0.877, respectively]. CMR-defined peri-infarct ischaemia for the detection of a significant coronary artery stenosis showed an areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.856 (95% confidence interval, 0.680-0.939). The best cut-off value was 8.1% and allowed a 72% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 60% negative predictive value and 97% positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: This proof-of-concept study shows that CMR imaging has the potential as a test for quantification of peri-infarct ischaemia. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This study demonstrates the proof of concept of a commonly known intuitive idea, that is, evaluating the peri-infarct ischaemic burden by subtracting delayed enhancement from first-pass perfusion imaging on CMR.
Project description:Non-invasive assessment of myocardial ischaemia is a cornerstone of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using positron emission tomography (PET) is the current reference standard for non-invasive quantification of myocardial ischaemia. Dynamic myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers an alternative to PET and a recently developed method with automated inline perfusion mapping has shown good correlation of MBF values between CMR and PET. This study assessed the repeatability of myocardial perfusion mapping by CMR in healthy subjects.Forty-two healthy subjects were recruited and underwent adenosine stress and rest perfusion CMR on two visits. Scans were repeated with a minimum interval of 7 days. Intrastudy rest and stress MBF repeatability were assessed with a 15-min interval between acquisitions. Interstudy rest and stress MBF and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) were measured for global myocardium and regionally for coronary territories and slices.There was no significant difference in intrastudy repeated global rest MBF (0.65?±?0.13 ml/g/min vs 0.62?±?0.12 ml/g/min, p?=?0.24, repeatability coefficient (RC) =24%) or stress (2.89?±?0.56 ml/g/min vs 2.83?±?0.64 ml/g/min, p?=?0.41, RC?=?29%) MBF. No significant difference was seen in interstudy repeatability for global rest MBF (0.64?±?0.13 ml/g/min vs 0.64?±?0.15 ml/g/min, p?=?0.80, RC?=?32%), stress MBF (2.71?±?0.61 ml/g/min vs 2.55?±?0.57 ml/g/min, p?=?0.12, RC?=?33%) or MPR (4.24?±?0.69 vs 3.73?±?0.76, p?=?0.25, RC?=?36%). Regional repeatability was good for stress (RC?=?30-37%) and rest MBF (RC?=?32-36%) but poorer for MPR (RC?=?35-43%). Within subject coefficient of variation was 8% for rest and 11% for stress within the same study, and 11% for rest and 12% for stress between studies.Fully automated, inline, myocardial perfusion mapping by CMR shows good repeatability that is similar to the published PET literature. Both rest and stress MBF show better repeatability than MPR, particularly in regional analysis.
Project description:Coronary microvascular resistance is increasingly measured as a predictor of clinical outcomes, but there is no accepted gold-standard measurement. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of 2 invasive indices of microvascular resistance, Doppler-derived hyperemic microvascular resistance (hMR) and thermodilution-derived index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), at predicting microvascular dysfunction. A total of 54 patients (61?±?10 years) who underwent cardiac catheterization for stable coronary artery disease (n?=?10) or acute myocardial infarction (n?=?44) had simultaneous intracoronary pressure, Doppler flow velocity and thermodilution flow data acquired from 74 unobstructed vessels, at rest and during hyperemia. Three independent measurements of microvascular function were assessed, using predefined dichotomous thresholds: (1) coronary flow reserve (CFR), the average value of Doppler- and thermodilution-derived CFR; (2) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived myocardial perfusion reserve index; and (3) CMR-derived microvascular obstruction. hMR correlated with IMR (rho?=?0.41, p?<0.0001). hMR had better diagnostic accuracy than IMR to predict CFR (area under curve [AUC] 0.82 vs 0.58, p?<0.001, sensitivity and specificity 77% and 77% vs 51% and 71%) and myocardial perfusion reserve index (AUC 0.85 vs 0.72, p?=?0.19, sensitivity and specificity 82% and 80% vs 64% and 75%). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the AUCs of hMR and IMR at predicting extensive microvascular obstruction were 0.83 and 0.72, respectively (p?=?0.22, sensitivity and specificity 78% and 74% vs 44% and 91%). We conclude that these 2 invasive indices of coronary microvascular resistance only correlate modestly and so cannot be considered equivalent. In our study, the correlation between independent invasive and noninvasive measurements of microvascular function was better with hMR than with IMR.