Cadherin 6 has a functional role in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Thrombosis occurs at sites of vascular injury when platelets adhere to subendothelial matrix proteins and to each other. Platelets express many surface receptor proteins, the function of several of these remains poorly characterized. Cadherin 6 is expressed on the platelet surface and contains an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid motif, suggesting that it might have a supportive role in thrombus formation. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of cadherin 6 in platelet function. METHODS AND RESULTS:Platelet aggregation was inhibited by both antibodies and exogenous soluble cadherin 6. Platelet adhesion to immobilized cadherin 6 was inhibited by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine tetrapeptides. Antibodies to ?(IIb)?(3) inhibited platelet adhesion to cadherin 6. Because platelet aggregation occurs in fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor double-deficient mice, we investigated whether cadherin 6 is an alternative ligand for the integrin ?(IIb)?(3). Platelet aggregation in fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor double-deficient mice was significantly inhibited by an antibody to cadherin 6. In flow-based assays, inhibition of cadherin 6 caused a marked reduction in thrombus formation in both human and mouse blood. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the role of cadherin 6 as a novel ligand for ?(IIb)?(3) and highlights its function in thrombus formation.
Project description:In this study we have examined the mechanism of platelet aggregation under physiological flow conditions using an in vitro flow-based platelet aggregation assay and an in vivo rat thrombosis model. Our studies demonstrate an unexpected complexity to the platelet aggregation process in which platelets in flowing blood continuously tether, translocate, and/or detach from the luminal surface of a growing platelet thrombus at both arterial and venous shear rates. Studies of platelets congenitally deficient in von Willebrand factor (vWf) or integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) demonstrated a key role for platelet vWf in mediating platelet tethering and translocation, whereas integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) mediated cell arrest. Platelet aggregation under flow appears to be a multistep process involving: (a) exposure of vWf on the surface of immobilized platelets; (b) a reversible phase of platelet aggregation mediated by the binding of GPIbalpha on the surface of free-flowing platelets to vWf on the surface of immobilized platelets; and (c) an irreversible phase of aggregation dependent on integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). Studies of platelet thrombus formation in vivo demonstrate that this multistep adhesion mechanism is indispensable for platelet aggregation in arterioles and also appears to promote platelet aggregate formation in venules. Together, our studies demonstrate an important role for platelet vWf in initiating the platelet aggregation process under flow and challenge the currently accepted view that the vWf-GPIbalpha interaction is exclusively involved in initiating platelet aggregation at elevated shear rates.
Project description:The regulated ability of integrin ?IIb?3 to bind fibrinogen plays a crucial role in platelet aggregation, adhesion, and hemostasis. Employing an optical-trap-based electronic force clamp, we studied the thermodynamics and kinetics of ?IIb?3-fibrinogen bond formation and dissociation under constant unbinding forces, mimicking the forces of physiologic blood shear on a thrombus. The distribution of bond lifetimes was bimodal, indicating that the ?IIb?3-fibrinogen complex exists in two bound states with different mechanical stability. The ?IIb?3 antagonist, abciximab, inhibited binding without affecting the unbinding kinetics, whereas Mn²(+) biased the ?IIb?3-fibrinogen complex to the strong bound state with reduced off-rate. The average bond lifetimes decreased exponentially with increasing pulling force from ?5 pN to 50 pN, suggesting that in this force range the ?IIb?3-fibrinogen interactions are classical slip bonds. We found no evidence for catch bonds, which is consistent with the known lack of shear-enhanced platelet adhesion on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. Taken together, these data provide important quantitative and qualitative characteristics of ?IIb?3-fibrinogen binding and unbinding that underlie the dynamics of platelet adhesion and aggregation in blood flow.
Project description:The inhibitory properties of a panel of snake-venom-derived RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) proteins, including the disintegrins kistrin, elegantin and albolabrin, and the neurotoxin homologue dendroaspin, were investigated in a platelet-adhesion assay using three immobilized ligands of the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (alpha IIb beta 3), namely fibrinogen, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF). The snake-venom proteins preferentially inhibited the adhesion of ADP-treated platelets to one or more of the immobilized ligands. Kistrin and dendroaspin exhibited similar inhibitory characteristics, abrogating platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and vWF at nanomolar concentrations, but poorly inhibiting adhesion to fibronectin. Kistrin and dendroaspin share little overall amino-acid-sequence identity, but a considerable level of sequence similarity exists around the RGD tripeptide. Synthetic cyclic peptides corresponding to these regions of kistrin and dendroaspin inhibited platelet adhesion to both fibrinogen and fibronectin with approximately equal potency, but were 100-fold weaker antagonists of the interactions of the alpha IIb beta 3 complex with fibrinogen than their parent proteins. The disintegrins elegantin and albolabrin, which share approx. 60% overall amino-acid-sequence similarity with kistrin but have different residues around the RGD tripeptide, exhibited different antagonistic preferences. Elegantin inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF and fibronectin, but was significantly less effective at disrupting adhesion to fibrinogen. Albolabrin selectively inhibited platelet adhesion to immobilized vWF and was less effective with fibrinogen and fibronectin as adhesive ligands. In contrast with the behaviour of these venom proteins, the adhesion of ADP-treated platelets to immobilized fibrinogen, fibronectin and vWF was inhibited non-selectively by a range of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for the alpha IIb beta 3 complex. These observations, therefore, define antagonistic preferences in this panel of venom proteins towards the interactions of the alpha IIb beta 3 complex with three immobilized glycoprotein ligands.
Project description:The currently available antithrombotic agents target the interaction of platelet integrin ?IIb?3 (GPIIb-IIIa) with fibrinogen during platelet aggregation. Platelets also bind fibrin formed early during thrombus growth. It was proposed that inhibition of platelet-fibrin interactions may be a necessary and important property of ?IIb?3 antagonists; however, the mechanisms by which ?IIb?3 binds fibrin are uncertain. We have previously identified the ?370-381 sequence (P3) in the ?C domain of fibrinogen as the fibrin-specific binding site for ?IIb?3 involved in platelet adhesion and platelet-mediated fibrin clot retraction. In the present study, we have demonstrated that P3 can bind to several discontinuous segments within the ?IIb ?-propeller domain of ?IIb?3 enriched with negatively charged and aromatic residues. By screening peptide libraries spanning the sequence of the ?IIb ?-propeller, several sequences were identified as candidate contact sites for P3. Synthetic peptides duplicating these segments inhibited platelet adhesion and clot retraction but not platelet aggregation, supporting the role of these regions in fibrin recognition. Mutant ?IIb?3 receptors in which residues identified as critical for P3 binding were substituted for homologous residues in the I-less integrin ?M?2 exhibited reduced cell adhesion and clot retraction. These residues are different from those that are involved in the coordination of the fibrinogen ?404-411 sequence and from auxiliary sites implicated in binding of soluble fibrinogen. These results map the binding of fibrin to multiple sites in the ?IIb ?-propeller and further indicate that recognition specificity of ?IIb?3 for fibrin differs from that for soluble fibrinogen.
Project description:von Willebrand disease type 2B (vWD-type 2B) is characterized by gain-of-function mutations in von Willebrand factor (vWF) that enhance its binding to the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex on platelets. Patients with vWD-type 2B have a bleeding tendency that is linked to loss of vWF multimers and/or thrombocytopenia. In this study, we uncovered evidence that platelet dysfunction is a third possible mechanism for bleeding tendency. We found that platelet aggregation, secretion, and spreading were diminished due to inhibition of integrin ?IIb?3 in platelets from mice expressing a vWD-type 2B-associated vWF (vWF/p.V1316M), platelets from a patient with the same mutation, and control platelets pretreated with recombinant vWF/p.V1316M. Impaired platelet function coincided with reduced thrombus growth. Further, ?IIb?3 activation and activation of the small GTPase Rap1 were impaired by vWF/p.V1316M following exposure to platelet agonists (thrombin, ADP, or convulxin). Conversely, thrombin- or ADP-induced Ca2+ store release, which is required for ?IIb?3 activation, was normal, indicating that vWF/p.V1316M acts downstream of Ca2+ release and upstream of Rap1. We found normal Syk phosphorylation and PLC?2 activation following collagen receptor signaling, further implying that vWF/p.V1316M acts directly on or downstream of Ca2+ release. These data indicate that the vWD-type 2B mutation p.V1316M is associated with severe thrombocytopathy, which likely contributes to the bleeding tendency in vWD-type 2B.
Project description:Patients referred for evaluation of bleeding symptoms occasionally have a prolonged platelet function analyser (PFA) closure time, without evidence for von Willebrand disease or impaired platelet aggregation. The aim of this study was to establish a shear-dependent platelet function defect in these patients. Patients were included based on high bleeding score and prior PFA prolongation. Common tests of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and platelet function and exome sequencing were performed. Microfluidic analysis of shear-dependent collagen-induced whole-blood thrombus formation was performed. In 14 PFA-only patients, compared to healthy volunteers, microfluidic tests showed significantly lower platelet adhesion and thrombus formation parameters. This was accompanied by lower integrin activation, phosphatidylserine exposure and P-selectin expression. Principal components analysis indicated VWF as primary explaining variable of PFA prolongation, whereas conventional platelet aggregation primarily explained the reduced thrombus parameters under shear. In five patients with severe microfluidic abnormalities, conventional platelet aggregation was in the lowest range of normal. No causal variants in Mendelian genes known to cause bleeding or platelet disorders were identified. Multiparameter assessment of whole-blood thrombus formation under shear indicates single or combined effects of low-normal VWF and low-normal platelet aggregation in these patients, suggesting a shear-dependent platelet function defect, not detected by static conventional haemostatic tests.
Project description:HNG, a highly potent mutant of the anti-Alzheimer peptide-humanin, has been shown to protect against ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the underlying mechanism related to platelet activation remains unknown. We proposed that HNG has an effect on platelet function and thrombus formation. In this study, platelet aggregation, granule secretion, clot retraction, integrin activation and adhesion under flow conditions were evaluated. In mice receiving HNG or saline, cremaster arterial thrombus formation induced by laser injury, tail bleeding time and blood loss were recorded. Platelet microtubule depolymerization was evaluated using immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that HNG inhibited platelet aggregation, P-selectin expression, ATP release, and ?IIb ?3 activation and adhesion under flow conditions. Mice receiving HNG had attenuated cremaster arterial thrombus formation, although the bleeding time was not prolonged. Moreover, HNG significantly inhibited microtubule depolymerization, enhanced tubulin acetylation in platelets stimulated by fibrinogen or microtubule depolymerization reagent, nocodazole, and inhibited AKT and ERK phosphorylation downstream of HDAC6 by collagen stimulation. Therefore, our results identified a novel role of HNG in platelet function and thrombus formation potentially through stabilizing platelet microtubules via tubulin acetylation. These findings suggest a potential benefit of HNG in the management of cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Mice lacking both of the best-known platelet ligands, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, can still form occlusive thrombi in injured arterioles. The platelets of these animals accumulate excessive amounts of fibronectin (FN). These observations led us to examine the contribution of plasma FN (pFN) to thrombus formation. Inactivation of the FN gene in FN conditional knockout mice reduced pFN levels to <2% and platelet FN to approximately 20% of the levels in similarly treated control mice. The mice were then observed in a model of arterial injury to evaluate their capacity to form thrombi. The deficiency of pFN did not affect the initial platelet adhesion, but a delay of several minutes in thrombus formation was observed in the arterioles of pFN-deficient mice as compared with control mice. The thrombi that formed in the absence of pFN were stably anchored to the vessel wall but continuously shed platelets or small platelet clumps, thus slowing their growth significantly; the platelet/platelet cohesion was apparently diminished. Consequently the occlusion of pFN-deficient vessels was delayed, with the majority of vessels remaining patent at the end of the 40-min observation period. We conclude that, in addition to von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, FN plays a significant role in thrombus initiation, growth, and stability at arterial shear rates and that deficiency in each of the three platelet ligands has its own specific impact on platelet plug formation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Multimerin 1 (human: MMRN1, mouse: Mmrn1) is a homopolymeric, adhesive, platelet and endothelial protein that binds to von Willebrand factor and enhances platelet adhesion to fibrillar collagen ex vivo.<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine the impact of Mmrn1 deficiency on platelet adhesive function, and the molecular motifs in fibrillar collagen that bind MMRN1 to enhance platelet adhesion.<h4>Methods</h4>Mmrn1-deficient mice were generated and assessed for altered platelet adhesive function. Collagen Toolkit peptides, and other triple-helical collagen peptides, were used to identify multimerin 1 binding motifs and their contribution to platelet adhesion.<h4>Results</h4>MMRN1 bound to conserved GPAGPOGPX sequences in collagens I, II, and III (including GPAGPOGPI, GPAGPOGPV, and GPAGPOGPQ) that enhanced activated human platelet adhesion to collagen synergistically with other triple-helical collagen peptides (P < .05). Mmrn1<sup>-/-</sup> and Mmrn1<sup>+/-</sup> mice were viable and fertile, with complete and partial platelet Mmrn1 deficiency, respectively. Relative to wild-type mice, Mmrn1<sup>-/-</sup> and Mmrn1<sup>+/-</sup> mice did not have overt bleeding, increased median bleeding times, or increased wound blood loss (P ? .07); however, they both showed significantly impaired platelet adhesion and thrombus formation in the ferric chloride injury model (P ? .0003). Mmrn1<sup>-/-</sup> platelets had impaired adhesion to GPAGPOGPX peptides and fibrillar collagen (P ? .03) and formed smaller aggregates than wild-type platelets when captured onto collagen, triple-helical collagen mimetic peptides, von Willebrand factor, or fibrinogen (P ? .008), despite preserved, low shear, and high shear aggregation responses.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Multimerin 1 supports platelet adhesion and thrombus formation and binds to highly conserved, GPAGPOGPX motifs in fibrillar collagens that synergistically enhance platelet adhesion.
Project description:Delphinidin-3-glucoside (Dp-3-g) is one of the predominant bioactive compounds of anthocyanins in many plant foods. Although several anthocyanin compounds have been reported to be protective against cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the direct effect of anthocyanins on platelets, the key players in atherothrombosis, has not been studied. The roles of Dp-3-g in platelet function are completely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Dp-3-g on platelet activation and several thrombosis models in vitro and in vivo. We found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited human and murine platelet aggregation in both platelet-rich plasma and purified platelets. It also markedly reduced thrombus growth in human and murine blood in perfusion chambers at both low and high shear rates. Using intravital microscopy, we observed that Dp-3-g decreased platelet deposition, destabilized thrombi, and prolonged the time required for vessel occlusion. Dp-3-g also significantly inhibited thrombus growth in a carotid artery thrombosis model. To elucidate the mechanisms, we examined platelet activation markers via flow cytometry and found that Dp-3-g significantly inhibited the expression of P-selectin, CD63, CD40L, which reflect platelet ?- and ?-granule release, and cytosol protein secretion, respectively. We further demonstrated that Dp-3-g downregulated the expression of active integrin ?IIb?3 on platelets, and attenuated fibrinogen binding to platelets following agonist treatment, without interfering with the direct interaction between fibrinogen and integrin ?IIb?3. We found that Dp-3-g reduced phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which may contribute to the observed inhibitory effects on platelet activation. Thus, Dp-3-g significantly inhibits platelet activation and attenuates thrombus growth at both arterial and venous shear stresses, which likely contributes to its protective roles against thrombosis and CVDs.