Quality of life in epilepsy: a study of Brazilian adolescents.
ABSTRACT: Our objectives were: to assess the QOL of Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy with a specific QOL assessment tool; to compare the adolescents with epilepsy and healthy adolescents using a generic QOL assessment tool; to correlate the 2 different QOL assessment tools (the generic and the epilepsy-specific); and to correlate QOL scores of the adolescents with epilepsy obtained by both tools with physical, psychological and social variables of the disease.Fifty subjects (case group) attending the outpatient clinic of epilepsy of the Clinics Hospital of UNICAMP, Campinas-SP, answered the Brazilian version of the QOL inventory for adolescents with epilepsy--QOLIE-AD-48 and the QOL Questionnaire--WHOQOL-BREF-Portuguese version. Fifty-one subjects (control group) from public schools in Campinas-SP answered only the WHOQOL-BREF.The results showed that adolescents with epilepsy presented a good score of QOL in both tools; overall scores for both groups with WHOQOL-BREF were good, but a statistically significant difference was seen with regards to the Psychological domain of the WHOQOL-BREF favoring the control group. Significant correlations between QOLIE-AD-48 Total and WHOQOL domains were found. Adolescents that were considered seizure-free (P = 0.001), had good perception of seizure control (P = 0.012) and had not had occurrence of seizures in public places (P = 0.001) presented better QOL scores.Brazilian adolescents with epilepsy may present good QOL scores when they themselves consider the disease as under control; physical, social and especially psychological variables associated to the disease may play an important role in these results. As a generic QOL tool, WHOQOL-BREF was sufficient to allow for a comparison between chronic disease bearers and healthy adolescents and showed that the gap in QOL between both populations is not as extensive as once was thought, probably due to better support and adaptation to the disease.
Project description:The World Health Organization has developed a brief generic questionnaire to assess quality of life, the WHOQOL-BREF. It has been studied in diverse groups, but not specifically in older people. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in healthy older people and to compare the mean profiles of participants with the mean profile obtained in the international validation study of the WHOQOL-BREF. Of the total sample of 262 Swiss French speaking older participants, 122 completed a retest after 2 weeks. The WHOQOL-BREF items demonstrated high test-retest reliability and validity. The WHOQOL-BREF items were differentially related to physical and mental health measures (SF-12 components, morbidity, and depression), thereby demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to the international validation sample of the WHOQOL-BREF, participants of the present study reported higher QOL on 22 of the 26 items. A comparison of item profiles between male and female participants revealed gender differences for two items only (social support and negative feelings). We conclude that the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF items in older adults are good. To consider the 24 specific facets that are assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF appropriately, we recommend using item profiles on the individual and the sample level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both stigma and psychological distress affect quality of life (QOL). This study is an attempt to determine the effects of these two factors on QOL and to explore possible mediation effects between psychological distress and self-stigma in opioid-dependent individuals. METHODS:This cross-sectional study comprised 268 consecutive, treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals who were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF), the Self-Stigma Scale-Short (SSS-S), the Chinese Health Questionnaire-12 (CHQ-12), and the Opiate Treatment Index (OTI). A series of regression models were constructed to determine if the SSS-S and CHQ-12 predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. Moreover, a comparison of the potential mediation effects of psychological distress (as assessed by the CHQ-12) was made between the SSS-S and the WHOQOL-BREF using the Baron and Kenny procedure (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test. RESULTS:The CHQ-12 score was predictive of the scores for the four domains and almost all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF except the item, "Dependence on medical aids." Nonetheless, the SSS-S score predicted three of the four facets of the social QOL after adjustment of the CHQ-12 score. Psychological distress completely mediated the relation between self-stigma and the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, and partially mediated the relationship between self-stigma and social QOL (two-tailed Sobel test: p = 0.02 for each domain). CONCLUSIONS:Psychological distress has a significant impact on the QOL of treated opioid users. It appears to be a core element in reducing the negative effects of self-stigma on aspects of QOL.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and infectious disease hospitals in three Chinese provinces. PARTICIPANTS:Sample of 1100 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). INTERVENTIONS:We recruited 1100 PLWHA to evaluate their quality of life (QOL) using the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of these participants, 57 were randomly selected to repeat the QOL evaluation 2 weeks later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The reliability of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF was assessed in terms of its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct, concurrent, convergent, discriminant and known-group validity were also analysed. In addition, the factorial invariance across genders was assessed. RESULTS:Cronbach's ? coefficient for the overall scale was 0.93. Except for the spirituality domain, which had an ? below 0.70 (0.66), the other five domains showed adequate internal consistency. The test-retest reliability revealed a statistically significant intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.72-0.82 (p<0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis found that the six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit to the data. The instrument showed factorial invariance across gender groups. All domains were significantly correlated with the general items and the SF-36 (p<0.01). The correlation coefficients were >0.40 (r=0.40-0.67), except for the association between the spirituality domain and two general items (QOL: r=0.33; health status: r=0.36). Subjects with lower CD4 counts had lower scores for all domains (p<0.05). Symptomatic participants had significantly lower scores than asymptomatic participants on the physical, psychological and independence domains (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The WHOQOL-HIV BREF revealed good psychometric characteristics among Chinese PLWHA. These findings offer promising support for the use of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF as a measure of QOL among Chinese PLWHA and in cross-cultural comparative studies on QOL.
Project description:Buruli Ulcer is a tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which, due to scarring and contractures can lead to stigma and functional limitations. However, recent advances in treatment, combined with increased public health efforts have the potential to significantly improve disease outcome.To study the Quality of Life (QoL) of former Buruli Ulcer patients who, in the context of a randomized controlled trial, reported early with small lesions (cross-sectional diameter <10 cm), and received a full course of antibiotic treatment.127 Participants of the BURULICO drug trial in Ghana were revisited. All former patients aged 16 or older completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life scale (WHOQOL-BREF). The WHOQOL-BREF was also administered to 82 matched healthy controls. Those younger than 16 completed the Childrens' Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) only.The median (Inter Quartile Range) score on the DLQI was 0 (0-4), indicating good QoL. 85% of former patients indicated no effect, or only a small effect of the disease on their current life. Former patients also indicated good QoL on the physical and psychological domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, and scored significantly higher than healthy controls on these domains. There was a weak correlation between the DLQI and scar size (? = 0.32; p<0.001).BU patients who report early with small lesions and receive 8 weeks of antimicrobial therapy have a good QoL at long-term follow-up. These findings contrast with the debilitating sequelae often reported in BU, and highlight the importance of early case detection.
Project description:There is no disease-specific instrument to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Indian patients with asthma. However, an abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), a generic Hindi HRQoL measure, has been developed and validated in India.To evaluate the WHOQOL-Bref in adult patients with asthma and to test possible modifications to the instrument to improve its psychometric adequacy.Sixty-seven patients with asthma completed the WHOQOL-Bref. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the four domains (physical, psychological, social relationships and environment) of the scale. Overall fit of data to model expectations, appropriate category ordering, presence of differential item functioning, individual item fit and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability were explored for each domain. Item deletion and rescoring were applied to misfitting items to improve overall performance.The overall fit of the WHOQOL-Bref data was adequate. Item 3 (pain prevents doing work) displayed a large positive fit residual value (indicating violation of unidimensionality), resulting in poor construct validity for the physical domain. No item exhibited differential item functioning. Ten items had disordered thresholds. The WHOQOL-Bref was modified by dropping item 3 and rescoring category structures of 16 items. The modified scale had good construct validity for all domains, ordered thresholds for all items and good targeting of items to persons.The WHOQOL-Bref performed inadequately in describing HRQoL in the asthma patients studied. However, when modified by Rasch analysis, the scale proved better than the original scale.
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF, a generic quality of life scale, among older people in Canada and Norway. Very similar data from the Canadian and Norwegian Field Trial data (Canada n = 192; Norway, n = 469) were analyzed and compared. Higher negatively skewed mean scores were found for all WHOQOL-BREF domains in Canada. For both study samples, missing values were highest for the sex item from the social domain. Ceiling effects were found (Canada n = 21; Norway n = 11) primarily among items in the physical and environmental domains. In both study samples, a multitrait multimethod procedure indicated items correlated most strongly with their parent domains; however, equally appreciable correlations were observed between physical, psychological, and environmental items (r = 0.33-0.64; p < 0.01). The social domain had the lowest internal consistency (α = 0.67 Canada, α = 0.55 Norway). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) yielded marginal goodness-of-fit between the hypothesized WHOQOL-BREF measurement model and the sample data as well as differing patterns of domain misspecification. Patterns of correlations (p < 0.01) of WHOQOL-BREF domains with WHOQOL-OLD facets, a global QOL item, the SF-12, and the geriatric depression scale provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Domain scores also significantly discriminated between health and unhealthy populations and presence of morbidity. Empirical support was found, in part, for the construct validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in older adults. Despite some different patterns found in the CFA, possibly due to cultural or sampling differences, it appears that the instrument is reliable, valid, and facilitates cross-cultural comparisons.
Project description:To investigate the distribution, internal consistency reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) in persons with mild to moderate Parkinson disease (PD).Cross-sectional.Movement disorders center.Convenience sample of people with PD (n=96) recruited from a movement disorders center and controls (n=60) recruited from the community (N=156).Not applicable.WHOQOL-BREF.The WHOQOL-BREF domain data were relatively normally distributed, and internal consistency reliability was acceptable (?=.65-.85). Participants with PD reported lower quality of life (QOL) than controls in all except the environment domain, and physical QOL was the most impaired domain in the PD group. Age, fatigue, and physical activity limitations predicted physical QOL; depression, fatigue, and apathy predicted psychological QOL; education, executive dysfunction, and apathy predicted social QOL; and age, education, depression, and apathy predicted environment QOL.The WHOQOL-BREF is a suitable tool to assess QOL in patients with mild to moderate PD. It is relatively normally distributed and internally consistent; effectively discriminates between individuals with and without PD; and correlates with relevant demographic characteristics, PD-related impairments, and activity limitations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:There is evidence to support the correlation between a stronger sense of coherence (SOC) and better perceived quality of life (QOL). However, this association has not been described among Iranian students. METHODS:Students were selected by stratified randomization and demographic data including age, gender, and employment status were collected. SOC was measured using the short-form of the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF questionnaire was used to assess the QOL. Data was collected over one year between 2014 and 2015. RESULTS:A total of 459 students participated in the study. The Cronbach's alpha score in domains of physical health, psychological health, environmental health, social relationships, and WHOQOL-BREF total score were 0.84, 0.83, 0.84, 0.78, and 0.94, respectively. Measured Cronbach's alpha for domains of meaningfulness, manageability, comprehensibility, and SOC-13 total score were 0.68, 0.67, 0.76, and 0.87, respectively. Marital status was not related to SOC whereas married students had significantly higher scores of QOL in the domains of psychological health, social relationships, and environment health (p=0.006, p<0.0001 and p=0.043, respectively). There were significant strong positive relationships between all components of SOC (meaningfulness, manageability, and comprehensibility) and all domains of WHOQOF-BREF (p<0.0001 for all). CONCLUSION:This study shows that SOC and marital status are significant predictors of QOL among Iranian students.
Project description:Accurate measurement of quality of life (QoL) is important for evaluation of autism services and trials of interventions. We undertook psychometric validation of the World Health Organisation measure-WHOQoL-BREF, examined construct validity of the WHO Disabilities module and developed nine additional autism-specific items (ASQoL) from extensive consultation with the autism community. The sample of 309 autistic people was recruited from the Adult Autism Spectrum Cohort-UK. The WHOQoL-BREF had good psychometric properties, including criterion, convergent, divergent and discriminant validity. The WHO Disabilities module showed adequate construct validity and reliability. The ASQoL items form a unitary factor of QoL, with one global item. Future studies can use the WHO measures alongside the ASQoL items to measure QoL of autistic people.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have evaluated the association between quality of life (QoL) and functional activity limitations (FAL) of leprosy patients as determined by the Screening of Activity Limitation and Safety Awareness scale (SALSA). AIM:To identify the association between FALs and the QoL of patients during and post leprosy treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Cross-sectional survey of 104 patients with leprosy followed in specialist reference centres in Sergipe, Brazil, between June and October 2014. QoL was evaluated using the World Health Organization-QoL-BREF (WHOQoL-BREF) questionnaire. The SALSA scale was used to measure FALs. RESULTS:Low SALSA scores were present in 76% of patients. QoL scores were lower for the physical and environmental domains, with median (interquartile range (IQR)) scores of 53.6 (32.1-67.9) and 53.1 (46.9-64.8), respectively. There was a statistical association between increasing SALSA scores and lower QoL as measured by the WHOQoL-BREF. CONCLUSION:Functional limitations are associated with lower QoL in leprosy patients, especially in the physical and environmental WHOQoL-BREF domains.