Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.
ABSTRACT: Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 22.214.171.124) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism.
Project description:The ykkC RNA motif was a long-standing orphan riboswitch candidate that has recently been proposed to encompass at least five distinct bacterial riboswitch classes. Most ykkC RNAs belong to the subtype 1 group, which are guanidine-I riboswitches that regulate the expression of guanidine-specific carboxylase and transporter proteins. The remaining ykkC RNAs have been organized into at least four major categories called subtypes 2a-2d. Subtype 2a RNAs are riboswitches that sense the bacterial alarmone ppGpp and typically regulate amino acid biosynthesis genes. Subtype 2b riboswitches sense the purine biosynthetic intermediate PRPP and frequently partner with guanine riboswitches to regulate purine biosynthesis genes. In this study, we examined ykkC subtype 2c RNAs, which are found upstream of genes encoding hydrolase enzymes that cleave the phosphoanhydride linkages of nucleotide substrates. Subtype 2c representatives mostly recognize adenosine and cytidine 5'-diphosphate molecules in either their ribose or deoxyribose forms (ADP, dADP, CDP, and dCDP). Other nucleotide-containing compounds, especially nucleoside 5'-triphosphates, are strongly rejected by some members of this putative riboswitch class. High ligand concentrations in vivo are predicted to turn on expression of hydrolase enzymes, which presumably function to balance cellular nucleotide pools. These results further showcase the striking functional diversity derived from the structural scaffold shared among all ykkC motif RNAs, which has been adapted to sense at least five different types of natural ligands. Moreover, riboswitches for nucleoside diphosphates provide additional examples of the numerous partnerships observed between natural RNA aptamers and nucleotide-derived ligands, including metabolites, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.
Project description:Leishmania amazonensis was found to release nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NdK)-a stable enzyme capable of decreasing extracellular ATP. The release of this enzyme from Leishmania results in its progressive accumulation extracellularly as they replicate, peaking at the stationary phase in vitro. The released NdK is immunoprecipitable and constitutes approximately 40% of its total activities and proteins. The retention of a known cytosolic protein by wild type cells and a fluorescent protein by DsRed transfectants at stationary phase, which release NdK, indicates that this is a spontaneous event, independent of inadvertent cytolysis. Recombinant products of Leishmania NdK prepared were enzymatically and immunologically active. Both recombinant and native Leishmania NdK utilized ATP to produce expected nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of nucleoside diphosphates in excess. Both native and recombinant Leishmania NdK were also found to prevent ATP-induced cytolysis of J774 macrophages in vitro, as determined by assays for lactate dehydrogenase release from these cells and for their mitochondrial membrane potential changes. The results obtained thus suggest that Leishmania NdK not only serves its normal house-keeping and other important functions true to all cells, but also prevents ATP-mediated lysis of macrophages, thereby preserving the integrity of the host cells to the benefit of the parasite.
Project description:The chemical integrity of the nucleotide pool and its homeostasis are crucial for genome stability. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) is a crucial enzyme that carries out reversible conversions from nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) to nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) and deoxynucleoside diphosphate (dNDP) to deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). Guanosine nucleotides (GDP, GTP, dGDP, and dGTP) are highly susceptible to oxidative damage to 8-oxo-GDP (8-O-GDP), 8-O-dGTP, 8-O-GTP, and 8-O-dGTP. MutT proteins in cells hydrolyze 8-O-GTP to 8-O-GMP or 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGMP to avoid its incorporation in nucleic acids. In <i>Escherichia coli</i>, 8-O-dGTP is also known to be hydrolyzed by RibA (GTP cyclohydrolase II). In this study, we show that <i>E. coli</i> NDK catalyzes the conversion of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP or vice versa. However, the rate of NDK-mediated phosphorylation of 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP is about thrice as efficient as the rate of dephosphorylation of 8-O-dGTP to 8-O-dGDP, suggesting an additive role of NDK in net production of 8-O-dGTP in cells. Consistent with this observation, the depletion of NDK (?<i>ndk</i>) in <i>E. coli</i> ?<i>mutT</i> or ?<i>mutT</i> ?<i>ribA</i> strains results in a decrease of A-to-C mutations. These observations suggest that NDK contributes to the physiological load of MutT in <i>E. coli</i> <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), a ubiquitous enzyme, is known for its critical role in homeostasis of cellular nucleotide pools. However, NDK has now emerged as a molecule with pleiotropic effects in DNA repair, protein phosphorylation, gene expression, tumor metastasis, development, and pathogen virulence and persistence inside the host. In this study, we reveal an unexpected role of NDK in genome instability because of its activity in converting 8-O-dGDP to 8-O-dGTP. This observation has important consequences in escalating A-to-C mutations in <i>Escherichia coli</i> The severity of NDK in enhancing these mutations may be higher in the organisms challenged with high oxidative stress, which promotes 8-O-dGDP/8-O-dGTP production.
Project description:The analysis of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus genome revealed the first virus-encoded nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), an enzyme that is central to the synthesis of RNA and DNA, ubiquitous in cellular organisms, and well conserved among the three domains of life. In contrast with the broad specificity of cellular NDKs for all types of ribo- and deoxyribonucleotides, the mimivirus enzyme exhibits a strongly preferential affinity for deoxypyrimidines. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of this unique substrate specificity, we determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus NDK alone and in complex with various nucleotides. As predicted from a sequence comparison with cellular NDKs, the 3D structure of the mimivirus enzyme exhibits a shorter Kpn loop, previously recognized as a main feature of the NDK active site. The structure of the viral enzyme in complex with various nucleotides also pinpointed two residue changes, both located near the active site and specific to the viral NDK, which could explain its stronger affinity for deoxynucleotides and pyrimidine nucleotides. The role of these residues was explored by building a set of viral NDK variants, assaying their enzymatic activities, and determining their 3D structures in complex with various nucleotides. A total of 26 crystallographic structures were determined at resolutions ranging from 2.8 A to 1.5 A. Our results suggest that the mimivirus enzyme progressively evolved from an ancestral NDK under the constraints of optimizing its efficiency for the replication of an AT-rich (73%) viral genome in a thymidine-limited host environment.
Project description:Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), which has the same sequence as oncoprotein (OP) in humans, can induce nucleoside triphosphates in DNA replication by maintenance of the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP's) and is known to be regulated by viral infection in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. This paper describes the relationship between NDK and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The recombinant NDK was produced by a prokaryotic expression system. WSSV copy numbers and mRNA levels of IE1 and VP28 were significantly increased in shrimp injected with recombinant NDK at 72 h after WSSV infection. After synthesizing dsRNA-NDK and confirming the efficacy of NDK silencing, we recorded the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp injected with NDK and dsRNA-NDK. A comparison between the results demonstrated that silencing NDK delayed the death of shrimps. These findings indicate that NDK has an important role influencing the replication of WSSV replication in shrimp. Furthermore, NDK may have potential target as a new therapeutic strategy against WSSV infection in shrimp.
Project description:1. ADP, ATP and GDP inhibited the phosphotransferase activity, the release of cyclic nucleotides from RNA, of ribonuclease. No significant inhibition was elicited by pyrimidine 5'-nucleoside diphosphates, CDP and UDP. 2. Inhibition by ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine, NAD and NADP was insignificant at the concentrations tested. Small inhibition was observed with high concentrations of AMP and only when soluble RNA was the substrate. 3. Inhibition by ADP was found to be ;uncompetitive'. 4. Results seem to indicate that at least for optimum inhibition the polyphosphate of the purine nucleoside is essential. They further suggest that the inhibitor acts by combining with the enzyme only when the enzyme is bound to the substrate.
Project description:Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of tens to hundreds of phosphate (Pi) residues linked by "high-energy" phosphoanhydride bonds as in ATP. PolyP kinases, responsible for the synthesis and utilization of polyP, are divided into two families (PPK1 and PPK2) due to differences in amino acid sequence and kinetic properties. PPK2 catalyzes preferentially polyP-driven nucleotide phosphorylation (utilization of polyP), which is important for the survival of microbial cells under conditions of stress or pathogenesis. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PPK2 family could be divided into three subfamilies (classes I, II, and III). Class I and II PPK2s catalyze nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside monophosphate phosphorylation, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that class III PPK2 catalyzes both nucleoside monophosphate and nucleoside diphosphate phosphorylation, thereby enabling us to synthesize ATP from AMP by a single enzyme. Moreover, class III PPK2 showed broad substrate specificity over purine and pyrimidine bases. This is the first demonstration that class III PPK2 possesses both class I and II activities.
Project description:The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Antibacterial mechanism of daptomycin antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus based on a quantitative bacterial proteome analysis" (Ma et al., 2016) . Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) and 5'-nucleotidase (NT5) are two proteins related to bacterial growth. Here, a bioinformatics analysis was presented to explore NDK and NT5-invovled in the interacting protein network and purine metabolism.
Project description:Most of the proteins carrying the 23-residue MutT-related sequence are capable of hydrolyzing compounds with a general structure of nucleoside diphosphate linked to another moiety X and are called the Nudix hydrolases. Among the 22 human Nudix proteins (identified by the sequence signature), some remain uncharacterized as enzymes without a defined substrate. Here, we reveal that the NUDT18 protein, whose substrate was unknown, can degrade 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-Gua)-containing nucleoside diphosphates to the monophosphates. Because this enzyme is closely related to MTH1 (NUDT1) and MTH2 (NUDT15), we propose that it should be named MTH3. Although these three human proteins resemble each other in their sequences, their substrate specificities differ considerably. MTH1 cleaves 8-oxo-dGTP but not 8-oxo-dGDP, whereas MTH2 can degrade both 8-oxo-dGTP and 8-oxo-dGDP, although the intrinsic enzyme activity of MTH2 is considerably lower than that of MTH1. On the other hand, MTH3 is specifically active against 8-oxo-dGDP and hardly cleaves 8-oxo-dGTP. Other types of oxidized nucleoside diphosphates, 2-hydroxy-dADP and 8-hydroxy-dADP, were also hydrolyzed by MTH3. Another notable feature of the MTH3 enzyme is its action toward the ribonucleotide counterpart. MTH3 can degrade 8-oxo-GDP as efficiently as 8-oxo-dGDP, which is in contrast to the finding that MTH1 and MTH2 show a limited activity against the ribonucleotide counterpart, 8-oxo-GTP. These three enzymes may function together to help maintain the high fidelity of DNA replication and transcription under oxidative stress.
Project description:Nucleoside diphosphate kinases from haloarchaea Haloarcula quadrata (NDK-q) and H. sinaiiensis (NDK-s) are identical except for one out of 154 residues, i.e., Arg(31) in NDK-q and Cys(31) in NDK-s. However, the salt-dependent activity profiles of NDK-q and NDK-s are quite different: the optimal NaCl concentrations of NDK-q and NDK-s are 1 M and 2 M, respectively. We analyzed the relationships of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures and NDK activity of these NDKs at various salt concentrations, and revealed that 1), NDK-q is present as a hexamer under a wide range of salt concentrations (0.2-4 M NaCl), whereas NDK-s is present as a hexamer at an NaCl concentration above 2 M and as a dimer at NaCl concentrations below 1 M; 2), dimeric NDK-s has lower activity than hexameric NDK-s; and 3), dimeric NDK-s has higher helicity than hexameric NDK-s. We also determined the crystal structure of hexameric NDK-q, and revealed that Arg(31) plays an important role in stabilizing the hexamer. Thus the substitution of Arg (as in NDK-q) to Cys (as in NDK-s) at position 31 destabilizes the hexameric assembly, and causes dissociation to less active dimers at low salt concentrations.