Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the periplasmic domain of FliP, an integral membrane component of the bacterial flagellar type III protein-export apparatus.
ABSTRACT: The bacterial flagellar proteins are transported via a specific export apparatus to the distal end of the growing structure for their self-assembly. FliP is an essential membrane component of the export apparatus. FliP has an N-terminal signal peptide and is predicted to have four transmembrane (TM) helices and a periplasmic domain (FliPP) between TM-2 and TM-3. In this study, FliPP from Thermotoga maritima (TmFliPP) and its selenomethionine derivative (SeMet-TmFliPP) were purified and crystallized. TmFliPP formed a homotetramer in solution. Crystals of TmFliPP and SeMet-TmFliPP were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. These two crystals grew in the hexagonal space group P6222 or P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 114.9, c = 193.8 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected from crystals of TmFliPP and SeMet-TmFliPP to 2.4 and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively.
Project description:During assembly of the bacterial flagellum, protein subunits that form the exterior structures are exported through a specialized secretion apparatus energized by the proton gradient. This category of protein transport, together with the similar process that occurs in the injectisomes of gram-negative pathogens, is termed type-III secretion. The membrane-embedded part of the flagellar export apparatus contains five essential proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ and FliR. Here, we have undertaken a variety of experiments that together support the proposal that the protein-conducting conduit is formed primarily, and possibly entirely, by FliP. Chemical modification experiments demonstrate that positions near the center of certain FliP trans-membrane (TM) segments are accessible to polar reagents. FliP expression sensitizes cells to a number of chemical agents, and mutations at predicted channel-facing positions modulate this effect. Multiple assays are used to show that FliP suffices to form a channel that can conduct a variety of medium-sized, polar molecules. Conductance properties are strongly modulated by mutations in a methionine-rich loop that is predicted to lie at the inner mouth of the channel, which might form a gasket around cargo molecules undergoing export. The results are discussed in the framework of an hypothesis for the architecture and action of the cargo-conducting part of the type-III secretion apparatus.
Project description:The bacterial flagellar proteins are translocated into the central channel of the flagellum by a specific protein-export apparatus for self-assembly at the distal growing end. FliH and FliI are soluble components of the export apparatus and form an FliH2-FliI heterotrimer in the cytoplasm. FliI is an ATPase and the FliH2-FliI complex delivers export substrates from the cytoplasm to an export gate made up of six integral membrane proteins of the export apparatus. In this study, an FliHC fragment consisting of residues 99-235 was co-purified with FliI and the FliHC2-FliI complex was crystallized. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique with PEG 400 as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=133.7, b=147.3, c=164.2?Å, and diffracted to 3.0?Å resolution.
Project description:Nitroalkane oxidase (NAO) is a flavin-dependent enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones, nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. In order to better understand the structure and function of this enzyme, NAO from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified and crystallized as a native and a selenomethionine-substituted (SeMet) enzyme. Both crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å and belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2₁, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.06, b = 55.43, c = 87.74 Å, β = 96.56° for native NAO and a = 69.89, b = 54.83, c = 88.20 Å, β = 95.79° for SeMet NAO. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit in both crystals, the Matthews coefficients (VM) for native and SeMet NAO were calculated to be 2.30 and 2.48 Å³ Da⁻¹, with estimated solvent contents of 46.50 and 50.37%, respectively.
Project description:White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major shrimp pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP24 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV. In order to facilitate purification, crystallization and structure determination, the predicted N-terminal transmembrane region of approximately 26 amino acids was truncated from VP24 and several mutants were prepared to increase the proportion of selenomethionine (SeMet) residues for subsequent structural determination using the SAD method. Truncated VP24, its mutants and the corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified, and the native and SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of VP24 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1?M Tris-HCl pH 8.5, 2.75?M ammonium acetate with a drop volume ratio of two parts protein solution to one part reservoir solution. Notably, ATP was added as a critical additive to the drop with a final concentration of 10?mM. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP24 mutant diffracted to 3.0?Å resolution and those of the native diffracted to 2.4?Å resolution; the crystals belonged to space group I213, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 140?Å.
Project description:Bag2, an atypical member of the Bag family of Hsp70 co-chaperones, acts as both an Hsp70 nucleotide-exchange factor and an inhibitor of the Hsp70-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein). The amino-terminal domain of Bag2 (Bag2-NTD), which is required for inhibition of CHIP, has no sequence homologs in the PDB. Native and selenomethionyl (SeMet) forms of Bag2-NTD were crystallized by hanging-drop vapor diffusion. Native Bag2-NTD crystals diffracted to 2.27 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 75.5, b = 84.7, c = 114.1 Å. SeMet Bag2-NTD crystals diffracted to 3.10 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 53.3, c = 86.7 Å. Phases for the SeMet Bag2-NTD crystal were solved by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Initial phasing and model building using the 3.10 Å resolution SeMet Bag2-NTD data set suggested that Bag2-NTD forms a dimer and adopts a fold distinct from those of any domains annotated in the Pfam or SMART domain databases.
Project description:Colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) is one of the virulence factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that forms the long, thin, proteinaceous fibres of type IV pili through assembly of its major and minor subunits CofA and CofB, respectively. The crystal structure of CofA has recently been reported; however, the lack of structural information for CofB, the largest among the known type IV pilin subunits, hampers a comprehensive understanding of CFA/III pili. In this study, constructs of wild-type CofB with an N-terminal truncation and the corresponding SeMet derivative were cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.97, c = 364.57 Å for the wild-type construct and a = b = 103.47, c = 362.08 Å for the SeMet-derivatized form. Although the diffraction quality of these crystals was initially very poor, dehydration of the crystals substantially improved the resolution limit from ? 4.0 to ? 2.0 Å. The initial phase was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) method using a dehydrated SeMet CofB crystal, which resulted in an interpretable electron-density map.
Project description:Thyroid hormone responsive protein (Thrsp, also known as Spot 14 and S14) is a carbohydrate-inducible and thyroid-hormone-inducible nuclear protein specific to liver, adipose and lactating mammary tissues. Thrsp functions to activate genes encoding fatty-acid synthesis enzymes. Recent studies have shown that in some cancers human Thrsp (hS14) localizes to the nucleus and is amplified, suggesting that it plays a role in the regulation of lipogenic enzymes during tumourigenesis. Thrsp, a member of the Spot 14 superfamily, is an acidic homodimeric protein with no sequence similarity to other mammalian gene products and its biochemical function is elusive. To shed light on the structure-function relationship of this protein, human Thrsp was crystallized. Recombinant human Thrsp (hThrsp), the N-terminally truncated human Thrsp(10-146) (hThrsp9) and their selenomethionyl (SeMet) derivatives were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Diffraction-quality crystals were grown at 293?K using Li(2)SO(4) as a precipitant. Using synchrotron radiation, data for the hThrsp SeMet derivative, hThrsp9 and its SeMet derivative were collected to 4.0, 3.0 and 3.6?Å resolution, respectively, at 100?K. The crystals of full-length hThrsp and its SeMet derivative belonged to space group P4(1)2(1)2, with approximate unit-cell parameters a = b = 123.9, c = 242.1?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90.0°. In contrast, the crystals of the truncated hThrsp9 and its SeMet derivative belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with approximate unit-cell parameters a = 91.6, b = 100.8, c = 193.7?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90.0°. A molecular-replacement solution calculated using a murine Spot 14 structure as a search model indicated the presence of six molecules per asymmetric unit, comprising three hThrsp homodimers.
Project description:Terpenoids are a large and highly diverse group of natural products, with the most chemically diverse pool of structures. Terpene synthase is the key enzyme in the process of terpenoid synthesis. In this paper, the first diterpene synthase (CYC) of bacterial origin was successfully crystallized. Native and SeMet-derivative crystals diffracted to 1.75 and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively. The native crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 59.10, b = 101.73, c = 108.93 Å, and contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. The SeMet-derivative crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.64, b = 109.47, c = 58.73 Å, β = 119.35°, and had two molecules per asymmetric unit.
Project description:The assembly process of the bacterial flagellum is coupled to flagellar gene expression. FliT acts not only as a flagellar type III substrate-specific export chaperone for the filament-capping protein FliD but also as a negative regulator that suppresses flagellar gene expression through its specific interaction with the master regulator FlhD(4)C(2) complex. In this study, FliT of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of SeMet FliT were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique with potassium/sodium tartrate as the precipitant. The crystals grew in the trigonal space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21 and diffracted to 3.2 A resolution. The anomalous difference Patterson map of the SeMet FliT crystal showed significant peaks in its Harker sections, indicating the usefulness of the derivative data for structure determination.
Project description:The CsgC protein is a component of the curli system in Escherichia coli. Reported here is the successful incorporation of selenocysteine (SeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) into recombinant CsgC, yielding derivatized crystals suitable for structural determination. Unlike in previous reports, a standard autotrophic expression strain was used and only single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) data were required for successful phasing. The level of SeCys/SeMet incorporation was estimated by mass spectrometry to be about 80%. The native protein crystallized in two different crystal forms (form 1 belonging to space group C222(1) and form 2 belonging to space group C2), which diffracted to 2.4 and 2.0?Å resolution, respectively, whilst Se-derivatized protein crystallized in space group C2 and diffracted to 1.7?Å resolution. The Se-derivatized crystals are suitable for SAD structure determination using only the anomalous signal derived from the SeCys residues. These results extend the usability of SeCys labelling to more general and less favourable cases, rendering it a suitable alternative to traditional phasing approaches.