Long-term immunogenicity studies of formalin-inactivated enterovirus 71 whole-virion vaccine in macaques.
ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases in Asia during the past decades and no vaccine is available. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (EV71vac) based on B4 subgenotype has previously been developed and found to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses in mice and humans. In this study, we evaluated the long-term immunogenicity and safety of this EV71vac in a non-human primate model. Juvenile macaques were immunized at 0, 3 and 6 weeks either with 10 or 5 µg doses of EV71vac formulated with AlPO4 adjuvant, or PBS as control. During the 56 weeks of studies, no fever nor local redness and swelling at sites of injections was observed in the immunized macaques. After single immunization, 100% seroconversion based on 4-fold increased in neutralization titer (Nt) was detected in EV71vac immunized monkeys but not PBS controls. A dose-dependent IgG antibody response was observed in monkeys receiving EV71vac immunization. The Nt of EV71vac immunized macaques had reached the peak after 3 vaccinations, then decreased gradually; however, the GMT of neutralizing antibody in the EV71vac immunized macaques were still above 100 at the end of the study. Correspondingly, both dose- and time-dependent interferon-? and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in monkeys receiving EV71vac. Interestingly, similar to human responses, the dominant T cell epitopes of macaques were identified mainly in VP2 and VP3 regions. In addition, strong cross-neutralizing antibodies against most EV71 subgenotypes except some C2 and C4b strains, and Coxsackievirus A16 were observed. In summary, our results indicate that EV71vac elicits dose-dependent T-cell and antibody responses in macaques that could be a good animal model for evaluating the long-term immune responses elicited by EV71 vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac) at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16. METHODS:Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses. RESULTS:The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had <8 pre-vaccination neutralization titers (Nt) against the B4 vaccine strain. After the first EV71vac immunization, 95% of vaccinees have >4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (?20% of participants) against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8) against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16. CONCLUSION:EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of various public health issues, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. EV71 causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and is associated with serious neurological disorders in young children. A formalin-inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine (KCDC-HFMDV1-EV71) based on the C4 subgenotype was previously developed and confirmed to be a potential candidate vaccine for prevention of EV71 infection in mice. In this study, an inactivated EV71 vaccine was used for analysis of long-term immunogenicity and efficacy in cynomolgus monkeys, a common nonhuman primate model. The vaccine was immunized three times at 0, 4, and 8 weeks with either 20-?g doses of EV71 candidate vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline as a control. The group immunized with the inactivated EV71 showed significantly increased EV71-specific antibody and serum neutralizing antibody titers at 3 weeks after vaccination and maintained these elevated titers until the end of the experiment (54 weeks after vaccination). The sera from vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys showed a crossreactive neutralizing antibody response to the heterologous subtype of EV71 (B1-4, C1, and C2). These findings suggest that the inactivated EV71 candidate vaccine may be a potential vaccine candidate and valuable tool for the control of HFMD.
Project description:The coxsackie A16 virus (CA16), along with enterovirus 71 (EV71), is a primary pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). To control HFMD, CA16, and EV71 vaccines are needed. In this study, an experimental inactivated CA16 vaccine was prepared using human diploid cells, and the vaccine's immunogenicity was analyzed in mice and rhesus monkeys. The results showed that the neutralizing antibody was developed in a dose-dependent manner, and was sustained for 70 days with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level of 80 to 90 in immunized mouse and for 56 days with GMT of higher than 300 in monkeys. The neutralizing antibody had a cross-neutralizing activity against different viral strains (genotype A and B), and the specific IFN-?-secreting cell response was activated by these virus strains in an ELISPOT assay. This study provides evidence for the potential use of inactivated CA16 as a candidate for use in vaccines.
Project description:Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) infection of macaques exhibits strong similarities to human CMV (HCMV) persistence and pathogenesis. The immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding three RhCMV proteins (a truncated version of glycoprotein B lacking the transmembrane region and endodomain [gBDeltaTM], phosphoprotein 65-2 [pp65-2], and viral interleukin-10 [vIL-10]) was evaluated in rhesus macaques. Two groups of monkeys (four per group) were genetically immunized four times with a mixture of either pp65-2 and gBDeltaTM or pp65-2, vIL-10, and gBDeltaTM. The vaccinees developed anti-gB and anti-pp65-2 antibodies in addition to pp65-2 cellular responses after the second booster immunization, with rapid responses observed with subsequent DNA injections. Weak vIL-10 immune responses were detected in two of the four immunized animals. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in seven monkeys, although titers were weak compared to those observed in naturally infected animals. The immunized monkeys and naïve controls were challenged intravenously with 10(5) PFU of RhCMV. Anamnestic binding and neutralizing antibody responses were observed 1 week postchallenge in the vaccinees. DNA vaccination-induced immune responses significantly decreased peak viral loads in the immunized animals compared to those in the controls. No difference in peak viral loads was observed between the pp65-2/gBDeltaTM DNA- and pp65-2/vIL-10/gBDeltaTM-vaccinated groups. Antibody responses to nonvaccine antigens were lower postchallenge in both vaccine groups than in the controls, suggesting long-term control of RhCMV protein expression. These data demonstrated that DNA vaccines targeting the RhCMV homologues of HCMV gB and pp65 altered the course of acute and persistent RhCMV infection in a primate host.
Project description:High levels of infused anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can completely protect macaque monkeys against mucosal chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. Antibody levels below the protective threshold do not prevent infection but can substantially reduce plasma viremia. To assess if HIV-1/SIV-specific cellular immunity could combine with antibodies to produce sterile protection, we studied the effect of a suboptimal infusion of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies in macaques with active cellular immunity induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2)-adjuvanted DNA immunization. Twenty female macaques were divided into four groups: (i). DNA immunization plus irrelevant antibody, (ii). DNA immunization plus infusion of neutralizing MAbs 2F5 and 2G12, (iii). sham DNA plus 2F5 and 2G12, and (iv). sham DNA plus irrelevant antibody. DNA-immunized monkeys developed CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses as measured by epitope-specific tetramer staining and by pooled peptide ELISPOT assays for gamma interferon-secreting cells. After vaginal challenge, DNA-immunized animals that received irrelevant antibody became SHIV infected but displayed lower plasma viremia than control animals. Complete protection against SHIV challenge occurred in three animals that received sham DNA plus MAbs 2F5 and 2G12 and in two animals that received the DNA vaccine plus MAbs 2F5 and 2G12. Thus, although DNA immunization produced robust HIV-specific T-cell responses, we were unable to demonstrate that these responses contributed to the sterile protection mediated by passive infusion of neutralizing antibodies. These data suggest that although effector T cells can limit viral replication, they are not able to assist humoral immunity to prevent the establishment of initial infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) resulted in hundreds of infections and deaths globally. We aim to assess immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified inactivated Vero-cell SARS vaccine in monkeys. METHODS:The cultures of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) BJ-01 strain infected Vero cells were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Sequential procedures, including ultrafiltration, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, were performed to obtain purified inactivated SARS vaccine. The purified SARS vaccine was analyzed with electron microscope, HPLC and Western blotting. We immunized three groups of cynomolgus macaques fascicularis with adjuvant-containing purified vaccine, purified vaccine and unpurified vaccine, respectively, and a fourth group served as a control. Antibody titers were measured by plaque reduction neutralization test. The vaccinated monkeys were challenged with SARS-CoV BJ-01 strain to observe protective efficacy. Additionally, three groups of rhesus monkeys were immunized with different doses of the purified inactivated SARS vaccine (0.5, 1 and 2mug/time/monkey) on days 0 and 7, and the monkeys were challenged with SARS-CoV GZ-01 strain. We assessed the safety of the SARS vaccine and observed whether the antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) occurred under low levels of neutralizing antibody in rhesus. FINDINGS:The purity of SARS vaccine was 97.6% by HPLC identification and reacted with convalescent sera of SARS patients. The purified SARS vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies and prevented the replication of SARS-CoV in monkeys. Under low levels of neutralizing antibody, no exacerbation of clinical symptoms was observed when the immunized monkeys were challenged with SARS-CoV. In this preliminary animal trial, no side effects were detected when monkeys were immunized with purified SARS vaccine either at normal or large doses. INTERPRETATION:The purified inactivated SARS vaccine could induce high levels of neutralizing antibody, and protect the monkeys from the challenge of SARS-CoV. The SARS vaccine prepared in the study appeared to be safe in monkeys.
Project description:A preventative HIV-1 vaccine is an essential intervention needed to halt the HIV-1 pandemic. Neutralizing antibodies protect against HIV-1 infection in animal models, and thus an approach toward a protective HIV-1 vaccine is to induce broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). One strategy to achieve this goal is to define envelope (Env) evolution that drives bnAb development in infection and to recreate those events by vaccination. In this study, we report the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy in rhesus macaques of an SIV-based integrase defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) expressing sequential gp140 Env immunogens derived from the CH505 HIV-1-infected individual who made the CH103 and CH235 bnAb lineages. Immunization with IDLV expressing sequential CH505 Envs induced higher magnitude and more durable binding and neutralizing antibody responses compared to protein or DNA?+/-?protein immunizations using the same sequential envelopes. Compared to monkeys immunized with a vector expressing Envs alone, those immunized with the combination of IDLV expressing Env and CH505 Env protein demonstrated improved durability of antibody responses at six months after the last immunization as well as lower peak viremia and better virus control following autologous SHIV-CH505 challenge. There was no evidence of vector mobilization or recombination in the immunized and challenged monkeys. Although the tested vaccines failed to induce bnAbs and to mediate significant protection following SHIV-challenge, our results show that IDLV proved safe and successful at inducing higher titer and more durable immune responses compared to other vaccine platforms.
Project description:Immunization with a recombinant form of the protective antigen (rPA) from Bacillus anthracis has been carried out with rhesus macaques. Rhesus macaques immunized with 25 mug or more of B. subtilis-expressed rPA bound to alhydrogel had a significantly increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to rPA compared with macaques receiving the existing licensed vaccine from the United Kingdom (anthrax vaccine precipitated [AVP]), although the isotype profile was unchanged, with bias towards the IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses. Immune macaque sera from all immunized groups contained toxin-neutralizing antibody and recognized all the domains of PA. While the recognition of the N terminus of PA (domains 1 to 3) was predominant in macaques immunized with the existing vaccines (AVP and the U.S. vaccine anthrax vaccine adsorbed), macaques immunized with rPA recognized the N- and C-terminal domains of PA. Antiserum derived from immunized macaques protected macrophages in vitro against the cytotoxic effects of lethal toxin. Passive transfer of IgG purified from immune macaque serum into naive A/J mice conferred protection against challenge with B. anthracis in a dose-related manner. The protection conferred by passive transfer of 500 mug macaque IgG correlated significantly (P = 0.003; r = 0.4) with the titers of neutralizing antibody in donor macaques. Subsequently, a separate group of rhesus macaques immunized with 50 mug of Escherichia coli-derived rPA adsorbed to alhydrogel was fully protected against a target dose of 200 50% lethal doses of aerosolized B. anthracis. These data provide some preliminary evidence for the existence of immune correlates of protection against anthrax infection in rhesus macaques immunized with rPA.
Project description:The enterovirus 71 (EV71) SP70 epitope, derived from amino acids 208?222 of VP1, is a neutralizing epitope. The present study aimed to assess the inter?species differences of the antibodies induced by EV71?based antigens in responses to SP70 mutant peptides. BALB/c mice and Lou/C rats were immunized with EV71 SP70. Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were produced by hybridoma clones. Serum polyclonal antibodies (Pabs) were produced from BALB/c mice and New Zealand white rabbits immunized with recombinant EV71 VP1 (rEV71?VP1) protein or inactivated EV71. Micro?neutralization and immunofluorescence assays were used to evaluate the capacity of the antibodies to bind to EV71. Reactivity of Mabs and Pabs to mutated SP70 were determined by alanine scanning mutagenesis. Furthermore, serums from EV71?infected patients were collected to examine the affinity of SP70 antibody in the serum to mutated SP70, using competitive ELISA. The binding affinity of mouse Mabs to the SP70 epitope was increased by alanine substitution at sites of 210, 212, 213, 214, and 221. The binding affinity of rat Mabs to the SP70 epitope was increased by alanine substitution at sites 210, 217, 219, and 221. Mouse serum Pabs elicited by inactivated EV71 bound wild?type SP70, but lost affinity for mutated peptides. Conversely, rabbit serum Pabs elicited by inactivated EV71 robustly recognized SP70 mutants. Mouse serum Pabs elicited by rEV71?VP1 presented the same trend as mouse Mabs. Mutations at sites 214, 215, and 217 led to loss of recognition by rabbit Pabs elicited by rEV71?VP1, while most mutations did not influence antibody binding. Compared with the wild?type, mutations at the sites 209, 219 and 221 of SP70 lead to increased affinity with the serum antibodies produced by the EV71?infected patients. Antibody responses triggered by inactivated EV71, rEV71?VP1 and EV71 SP70 differed among species in neutralizing capacity and affinity for SP70 mutant peptides.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease, and it sometimes causes severe neurological disease. Development of effective vaccines and animal models to evaluate vaccine candidates are needed. However, the animal models currently used for vaccine efficacy testing, monkeys and neonatal mice, have economic, ethical, and practical drawbacks. In addition, EV71 strains prepared for lethal challenge often develop decreased virulence during propagation in cell culture. To overcome these problems, we used a mouse model expressing human scavenger receptor B2 (hSCARB2) that showed lifelong susceptibility to EV71. We selected virulent EV71 strains belonging to the subgenogroups B4, B5, C1, C2, and C4 and propagated them using a culture method for EV71 without an apparent reduction in virulence. Here, we describe a novel EV71 vaccine efficacy test based on these hSCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice and these virulent viruses. Adult Tg mice were immunized subcutaneously with formalin-inactivated EV71. The vaccine elicited sufficient levels of neutralizing antibodies in the immunized mice. The mice were subjected to lethal challenge with virulent viruses via intravenous injection. Survival, clinical signs, and body weight changes were observed for 2?weeks. Most immunized mice survived without clinical signs or histopathological lesions. The viral replication in immunized mice was much lower than that in nonimmunized mice. Mice immunized with the EV71 vaccine were only partially protected against lethal challenge with coxsackievirus A16. These results indicate that this new model is useful for in vivo EV71 vaccine efficacy testing.IMPORTANCE The development of new vaccines for EV71 relies on the availability of small animal models suitable for in vivo efficacy testing. Monkeys and neonatal mice have been used, but the use of these animals has several drawbacks, including high costs, limited susceptibility, and poor experimental reproducibility. In addition, the related ethical issues are considerable. The new efficacy test based on hSCARB2 Tg mice and virulent EV71 strains propagated in genetically modified cell lines presented here can overcome these disadvantages and is expected to accelerate the development of new EV71 vaccines.