Tai chi mind-body exercise in patients with COPD: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressively debilitating condition that is prevalent in the US and worldwide. Patients suffer from progressive dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Physical exercise is beneficial, but conventional pulmonary rehabilitation programs are underutilized. There remains a need for novel interventions that improve symptoms, quality-of-life, and functional capacity. Tai chi is an increasingly popular mind-body exercise that includes physical exercise, breathing training, mindful awareness, and stress management--components that are essential to the self-management of COPD. There are, however, limited data on the effectiveness of tai chi as a therapeutic intervention in this population.The Primary Aims are to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and feasibility of a 12-week tai chi program for patients with COPD. We utilize a randomized controlled trial design, with participants assigned in a 2:1 ratio to either a group tai chi program (N = 63) or a time/attention-matched education control (N = 31). Our primary outcomes are COPD-specific quality-of-life and exercise capacity. Secondary outcomes include dyspnea, mood, functional status, self-efficacy, and lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is done in a subset of patients (N = 50). To explore optimal training duration, a subgroup of patients in tai chi are randomly assigned to complete an additional 12 weeks training (total 24 weeks) (Exploratory Aim 1). To explore the impact of a simplified seated intervention including only a subset of tai chi's training components, a third randomly assigned group (N = 31) receives a 12- week mind-body breathing program (N = 31) (Exploratory Aim 2).Results of the BEAM study (Breathing, Education, Awareness, Movement) will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of tai chi for improving quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with COPD, including information regarding optimal duration. They will also inform the feasibility and potential benefit of an alternative mind-body breathing intervention, and provide insight regarding how isolated mind-body exercise components contribute to the overall effects of tai chi. Should the results be positive, tai chi and related mind-body practices may offer a novel exercise option that is potentially accessible to a large proportion of patients with COPD.This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, ID number NCT01551953. Date of Registration March 1 2012.
Project description:Persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have reduced exercise capacity and levels of physical activity. Supervised, facility-based pulmonary rehabilitation programs improve exercise capacity and reduce dyspnea, but novel long-term strategies are needed to maintain the benefits gained. Mind-body modalities such as Tai Chi which combine aerobic activity, coordination of breathing, and cognitive techniques that alleviate the physical inactivity, dyspnea, and anxiety and depression that are the hallmarks of COPD are promising strategies.We have designed a randomized controlled study to examine whether Tai Chi will maintain exercise capacity in persons with COPD who have recently completed a supervised pulmonary rehabilitation program, compared to standard care. The primary outcome is 6-min walk test distance at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, dyspnea, mood, occurrence of acute exacerbations, engagement in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and exercise adherence. Simultaneously, we are conducting a pilot study of group walking. We will enroll 90 persons who will be randomized to one of three arms in a 2:2:1 ratio: Tai Chi, standard care, or group-based walking.The Long-term Exercise After Pulmonary Rehabilitation (LEAP) study is a novel and clinically relevant trial. We will enroll a well-characterized cohort of persons with COPD and will comprehensively assess physiological and psychosocial outcomes. Results of this study will provide the evidence base for persons with COPD to engage in Tai Chi as a low-cost, long-term modality to sustain physical activity in persons who have completed a standard short-term pulmonary rehabilitation program.This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01998724.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the effectiveness of tai chi interventions compared with aerobic exercise, a current core standard treatment in patients with fibromyalgia, and to test whether the effectiveness of tai chi depends on its dosage or duration. DESIGN:Prospective, randomized, 52 week, single blind comparative effectiveness trial. SETTING:Urban tertiary care academic hospital in the United States between March 2012 and September 2016. PARTICIPANTS:226 adults with fibromyalgia (as defined by the American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 criteria) were included in the intention to treat analyses: 151 were assigned to one of four tai chi groups and 75 to an aerobic exercise group. INTERVENTIONS:Participants were randomly assigned to either supervised aerobic exercise (24 weeks, twice weekly) or one of four classic Yang style supervised tai chi interventions (12 or 24 weeks, once or twice weekly). Participants were followed for 52 weeks. Adherence was rigorously encouraged in person and by telephone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was change in the revised fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQR) scores at 24 weeks compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes included changes of scores in patient's global assessment, anxiety, depression, self efficacy, coping strategies, physical functional performance, functional limitation, sleep, and health related quality of life. RESULTS:FIQR scores improved in all five treatment groups, but the combined tai chi groups improved statistically significantly more than the aerobic exercise group in FIQR scores at 24 weeks (difference between groups=5.5 points, 95% confidence interval 0.6 to 10.4, P=0.03) and several secondary outcomes (patient's global assessment=0.9 points, 0.3 to 1.4, P=0.005; anxiety=1.2 points, 0.3 to 2.1, P=0.006; self efficacy=1.0 points, 0.5 to 1.6, P=0.0004; and coping strategies, 2.6 points, 0.8 to 4.3, P=0.005). Tai chi treatment compared with aerobic exercise administered with the same intensity and duration (24 weeks, twice weekly) had greater benefit (between group difference in FIQR scores=16.2 points, 8.7 to 23.6, P<0.001). The groups who received tai chi for 24 weeks showed greater improvements than those who received it for 12 weeks (difference in FIQR scores=9.6 points, 2.6 to 16.6, P=0.007). There was no significant increase in benefit for groups who received tai chi twice weekly compared with once weekly. Participants attended the tai chi training sessions more often than participants attended aerobic exercise. The effects of tai chi were consistent across all instructors. No serious adverse events related to the interventions were reported. CONCLUSION:Tai chi mind-body treatment results in similar or greater improvement in symptoms than aerobic exercise, the current most commonly prescribed non-drug treatment, for a variety of outcomes for patients with fibromyalgia. Longer duration of tai chi showed greater improvement. This mind-body approach may be considered a therapeutic option in the multidisciplinary management of fibromyalgia. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01420640.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Aging is typically associated with progressive multi-system impairment that leads to decreased physical and cognitive function and reduced adaptability to stress. Due to its capacity to characterize complex dynamics within and between physiological systems, the emerging field of complex systems biology and its array of quantitative tools show great promise for improving our understanding of aging, monitoring senescence, and providing biomarkers for evaluating novel interventions, including promising mind-body exercises, that treat age-related disease and promote healthy aging.<h4>Material and methods</h4>An ongoing, two-arm randomized clinical trial is evaluating the potential of Tai Chi mind-body exercise to attenuate age-related loss of complexity. A total of 60 Tai Chi-naïve healthy older adults (aged 50-79) are being randomized to either six months of Tai Chi training (n=30), or to a waitlist control receiving unaltered usual medical care (n=30). Our primary outcomes are complexity-based measures of heart rate, standing postural sway and gait stride interval dynamics assessed at 3 and 6months. Multiscale entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis are used as entropy- and fractal-based measures of complexity, respectively. Secondary outcomes include measures of physical and psychological function and tests of physiological adaptability also assessed at 3 and 6months.<h4>Discussion</h4>Results of this study may lead to novel biomarkers that help us monitor and understand the physiological processes of aging and explore the potential benefits of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercises for healthy aging.
Project description:Tai Chi mind-body exercise is widely believed to improve mindfulness through incorporating meditative states into physical movements. A growing number of studies indicate that Tai Chi may improve health in knee osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic pain disease and a primary cause of global disability. However, little is known about the contribution of mindfulness to treatment effect of Tai Chi practice. Therefore, our purpose was to investigate the effect of Tai Chi mind-body practice compared to physical therapy (PT) on mindfulness in knee OA. Adults with radiographic-confirmed, symptomatic knee OA were randomized to either 12 weeks (twice weekly) of Tai Chi or PT. Participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) before and after intervention along with commonly-used patient-reported outcomes for pain, physical function, and other health-related outcomes. Among 86 participants (74% female, 48% white, mean age 60 years, 85% at least college educated), mean total FFMQ was 142±17. Despite substantial improvements in pain, function, and other health-related outcomes, each treatment group's total FFMQ did not significantly change from baseline (Tai Chi= 0.76, 95% CI: -2.93, 4.45; PT= 1.80, 95% CI: -2.33, 5.93). The difference in total FFMQ between Tai Chi and PT was not significant (-1.04 points, 95% CI: -6.48, 4.39). Mindfulness did not change after Tai Chi or PT intervention in knee OA, which suggests that Tai Chi may not improve health in knee OA through cultivating mindfulness. Further study is needed to identify underlying mechanisms of effective mind-body interventions among people with knee OA.
Project description:Background Very little research has been done to simultaneously investigate the effects of Tai Chi (TC) on depression and heart rate variability (HRV). This study, therefore, attempted to explore the effects of TC on depression and on HRV parameters. Methods Sixty older individuals with depression score of 10 or above (the Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) were randomly assigned into two groups: TC (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). Participants in the experimental group participated in a 24-week TC training program (three 60-min sessions per week), whereas individuals in the control group maintained their unaltered lifestyle. Depression and HRV were measured using the GDS and digital electrocardiogram at baseline and after the 24-week intervention. Results The TC had produced significant positive chances in depression and some HRV parameters (mean heart rate, RMSSD, HF, LFnorm, and HFnorm) (p < 0.05), whereas these positive results were not observed in the control group. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that TC may alleviate depression of the elderly through modulating autonomous nervous system or HRV parameters. This study adds to a growing body of research showing that TC may be effective in treating depression of the elderly. Tai Chi as a mild to moderate mind-body exercise is suitable for older individuals who suffer from depression.
Project description:Dynamic hyperinflation has important clinical consequences in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Given that most of these patients have respiratory and peripheral muscle weakness, dyspnea and functional exercise capacity may improve as a result of inspiratory muscle training (IMT). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of IMT on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and inspiratory fraction (IF) during exercise in patients with COPD. Daily inspiratory muscle strength and endurance training was performed for 8 weeks in 10 patients with COPD GOLD II and III. Ten patients with COPD II and III served as a control group. Maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax) and endurance time during resistive breathing maneuvers (tlim) served as parameter for inspiratory muscle capacity. Before and after training, the patients performed an incremental symptom limited exercise test to maximum and a constant load test on a cycle ergometer at 75% of the peak work rate obtained in the pretraining incremental test. ET was defined as the duration of loaded pedaling. Following IMT, there was a statistically significant increase in inspiratory muscle performance of the Pimax from 7.75 ± 0.47 to 9.15 ± 0.73 kPa (P < 0.01) and of tlim from 348 ± 54 to 467 ± 58 seconds (P < 0.01). A significant increase in IF, indicating decreased dynamic hyperinflation, was observed during both exercise tests. Further, the ratio of breathing frequency to minute ventilation (bf/V'(E)) decreased significantly, indicating an improved breathing pattern. A significant decrease in perception of dyspnea was also measured. Peak work rate during the incremental cycle ergometer test remained constant, while ET during the constant load test increased significantly from 597.1 ± 80.8 seconds at baseline to 733.6 ± 74.3 seconds (P < 0.01). No significant changes during either exercise tests were measured in the control group. The present study found that in patients with COPD, IMT results in improvement in performance, exercise capacity, sensation of dyspnea, and improvement in the IF prognostic factor.
Project description:Patients with osteoarthritis experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and have limited therapeutic options. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that both acupuncture and Tai Chi mind-body therapies are safe and effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Acupuncture has effects over and above those of 'sham acupuncture' and the most robust evidence to date demonstrates that acupuncture does have short-term benefits and is a reasonable referral option for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress and anxiety and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi may be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. Integrative approaches combine the best of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine to ultimately improve patient care. These modalities may lead to the development of better disease modifying strategies that could improve symptoms and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients.
Project description:Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks.A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and postural control as mediators of fracture risk.Results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of Tai Chi as an intervention for decreasing fracture risk in osteopenic women. They will also inform the feasibility, value and potential limitations related to the use of pragmatic designs for the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercise. If the results are positive, this will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study.This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01039012.
Project description:The default mode network (DMN) plays an importment role in age-related cognitive decline. This study aims to explore the modulation effect of two mind-body interventions (Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin) on DMN in elderly individuals. Participants between 50 and 70 years old were recruited and randomized into a Tai Chi Chuan, Baduanjin, or control group. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision (WMS-CR) and resting state fMRI scans were administered at baseline and following 12 weeks of exercise. Seed-based resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was calculated. We found that: 1) compared to the Baduanjin group, Tai Chi Chuan was significantly associated with increased rsFC between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and right putamen/caudate; 2) Compared to the control group, Tai Chi Chuan increased posterior cingulate cortex rsFC with the right putamen/caudate, while Baduanjin decreased rsFC between the mPFC and orbital prefrontal gyrus/putamen. Baseline mPFC rsFC with orbital prefrontal gyrus was negatively correlated with VRS. These results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin can modulate the DMN, but through different pathways. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying different mind-body interventions may shed light on the development of new methods to prevent age-related diseasesas well as other disorders associated with disrupted DMN.
Project description:Aims and objectives:This study aimed to evaluate Tai Chi group training among patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) aged 70 years and older. Background:Physical activity is recommended for CHF treatment. Tai Chi is found to be beneficial to different patient groups, although few studies focus on older patients with CHF. Design:A mixed methods study. Participants were randomly assigned to Tai Chi training twice a week for 16 weeks (N = 25) or control (N = 20). Quantitative data were collected at baseline, at the end of the training period and 6 months after training, assessing self-rated fatigue and quality of life, natriuretic peptides and physical performance. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with participants (N = 10) in the Tai Chi training group. Results:No statistical differences between the Tai Chi training group and the control group in quality of life or natriuretic peptides was found. After 16 weeks, the training group tended to rate more reduced activity and the control group rated more mental fatigue. Participants in the training group rated increased general fatigue at follow-up compared with baseline. Qualitative interviews showed that Tai Chi training was experienced as a new, feasible and meaningful activity. The importance of the leader and the group was emphasized. Improvements in balance were mentioned and there was no physical discomfort. Conclusion:Tai Chi was experienced as a feasible and meaningful form of physical exercise for patients with CHF aged over 70 years despite lack of achieved health improvement. Further investigations, using feasibility and meaningfulness as outcome variables seems to be useful.