Telomerase activation after recruitment in fission yeast.
ABSTRACT: Current models depict that telomerase recruitment equates to activation. Telomeric DNA-binding proteins and the telomerase accessory proteins coordinate the recruitment of telomerase to the ends of chromosomes in a telomere length- and cell-cycle-dependent manner [1-4]. Recent studies have demonstrated that the telomeric protein TPP1 and its binding protein TIN2 are key proteins for both telomerase recruitment and processivity in mammalian cells [5-7]. Although the precise molecular mechanism of telomerase recruitment has not yet been established, targeted point mutations within the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain of TPP1 have been shown to impair telomerase association and processivity [8-10]. In fission yeast, telomerase is recruited through an interaction between the telomerase subunit Est1 and Ccq1, a component of the Pot1-Tpz1 telomere complex (POT1-TPP1 orthologs) [11-15]. Here, we demonstrate that association of telomerase with telomeres does not engage activity. We describe a mutation of Tpz1 that causes critical telomere shortening despite telomeric accumulation of the telomerase catalytic subunit, Trt1. Furthermore, Est1-directed telomerase association with Ccq1 is transient, and the Est1-Ccq1 interaction does not remain the bridge between telomeres and telomerase. Rather, direct interaction of Trt1 with Tpz1 is critical for telomere elongation. Moreover, Ccq1, which has been well characterized as a telomerase recruiter, is also required for the activation of telomere-associated telomerase. Our findings reveal a layer of telomerase regulation that controls activity after recruitment.
Project description:Tightly controlled recruitment of telomerase, a low-abundance enzyme, to telomeres is essential for regulated telomere synthesis. Recent studies in human cells revealed that a patch of amino acids in the shelterin component TPP1, called the TEL-patch, is essential for recruiting telomerase to telomeres. However, how TEL-patch-telomerase interaction integrates into the overall orchestration of telomerase regulation at telomeres is unclear. In fission yeast, Tel1(ATM)/Rad3(ATR)-mediated phosphorylation of shelterin component Ccq1 during late S phase is involved in telomerase recruitment through promoting the binding of Ccq1 to a telomerase accessory protein Est1. Here, we identify the TEL-patch in Tpz1(TPP1), mutations of which lead to decreased telomeric association of telomerase, similar to the phosphorylation-defective Ccq1. Furthermore, we find that telomerase action at telomeres requires formation and resolution of an intermediate state, in which the cell cycle-dependent Ccq1-Est1 interaction is coupled to the TEL-patch-Trt1 interaction, to achieve temporally regulated telomerase elongation of telomeres.
Project description:In both fission yeast and humans, the shelterin complex plays central roles in regulation of telomerase recruitment, protection of telomeres against DNA damage response factors, and formation of heterochromatin at telomeres. While shelterin is essential for limiting activation of the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATR and ATM at telomeres, these kinases are required for stable maintenance of telomeres. In fission yeast, Rad3ATR and Tel1ATM kinases are redundantly required for telomerase recruitment, since Rad3ATR/Tel1ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 promotes interaction between Ccq1 and the telomerase subunit Est1. However, it remained unclear how protein-protein interactions within the shelterin complex (consisting of Taz1, Rap1, Poz1, Tpz1, Pot1 and Ccq1) contribute to the regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. In this study, we identify domains and amino acid residues that are critical for mediating Tpz1-Ccq1 and Tpz1-Poz1 interaction within the fission yeast shelterin complex. Using separation of function Tpz1 mutants that maintain Tpz1-Pot1 interaction but specifically disrupt either Tpz1-Ccq1 or Tpz1-Poz1 interaction, we then establish that Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction promotes Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation, telomerase recruitment, checkpoint inhibition and telomeric heterochromatin formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Tpz1-Poz1 interaction promotes telomere association of Poz1, and loss of Poz1 from telomeres leads to increases in Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment, and telomeric heterochromatin formation defect. In addition, our studies establish that Tpz1-Poz1 and Tpz1-Ccq1 interactions redundantly fulfill the essential telomere protection function of the shelterin complex, since simultaneous loss of both interactions caused immediate loss of cell viability for the majority of cells and generation of survivors with circular chromosomes. Based on these findings, we suggest that the negative regulatory function of Tpz1-Poz1 interaction works upstream of Rad3ATR kinase, while Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction works downstream of Rad3ATR kinase to facilitate Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:Shelterin, the telomeric protein complex, plays a crucial role in telomere homeostasis. In fission yeast, telomerase is recruited to chromosome ends by the shelterin component Tpz1 and its binding partner Ccq1, where telomerase binds to the 3' overhang to add telomeric repeats. Recruitment is initiated by the interaction of Ccq1 with the telomerase subunit Est1. However, how telomerase is released following elongation remains to be established. Here, we show that Ccq1 also has a role in the suppression of telomere elongation, when coupled with the Clr4 histone H3 methyl-transferase complex and the Clr3 histone deacetylase and nucleosome remodelling complex, SHREC. We have dissected the functions of Ccq1 by establishing a Ccq1-Est1 fusion system, which bypasses the telomerase recruitment step. We demonstrate that Ccq1 forms two distinct complexes for positive and negative telomerase regulation, with Est1 and Clr3 respectively. The negative form of Ccq1 promotes dissociation of Ccq1-telomerase from Tpz1, thereby restricting local telomerase activity. The Clr4 complex also has a negative regulation activity with Ccq1, independently of SHREC. Thus, we propose a model in which Ccq1-Est1 recruits telomerase to mediate telomere extension, whilst elongated telomeric DNA recruits Ccq1 with the chromatin-remodelling complexes, which in turn releases telomerase from the telomere.
Project description:Evolutionarily conserved shelterin complex is essential for telomere maintenance in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Elimination of the fission yeast shelterin subunit Ccq1 causes progressive loss of telomeres due to the inability to recruit telomerase, activates the DNA damage checkpoint, and loses heterochromatin at telomere/subtelomere regions due to reduced recruitment of the heterochromatin regulator complex Snf2/histone deacetylase-containing repressor complex (SHREC). The shelterin subunit Tpz1(TPP1) directly interacts with Ccq1 through conserved C-terminal residues in Tpz1(TPP1), and tpz1 mutants that fail to interact with Ccq1 show telomere shortening, checkpoint activation, and loss of heterochromatin. While we have previously concluded that Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction contributes to Ccq1 accumulation and telomerase recruitment based on analysis of tpz1 mutants that fail to interact with Ccq1, another study reported that loss of Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction does not affect accumulation of Ccq1 or telomerase. Furthermore, it remained unclear whether loss of Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction affects SHREC accumulation at telomeres. To resolve these issues, we identified and characterized a series of ccq1 mutations that disrupt Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction. Characterization of these ccq1 mutants established that Ccq1-Tpz1(TPP1) interaction contributes to optimal binding of the Ccq1-SHREC complex, and is critical for Rad3(ATR)/Tel1(ATM)-dependent Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:Shelterin, a six-member complex, protects telomeres from nucleolytic attack and regulates their elongation by telomerase. Here, we have developed a strategy, called MICro-MS (Mapping Interfaces via Crosslinking-Mass Spectrometry), that combines crosslinking-mass spectrometry and phylogenetic analysis to identify contact sites within the complex. This strategy allowed identification of separation-of-function mutants of fission yeast Ccq1, Poz1, and Pot1 that selectively disrupt their respective interactions with Tpz1. The various telomere dysregulation phenotypes observed in these mutants further emphasize the critical regulatory roles of Tpz1-centered shelterin interactions in telomere homeostasis. Furthermore, the conservation between fission yeast Tpz1-Pot1 and human TPP1-POT1 interactions led us to map a human melanoma-associated POT1 mutation (A532P) to the TPP1-POT1 interface. Diminished TPP1-POT1 interaction caused by hPOT1-A532P may enable unregulated telomere extension, which, in turn, helps cancer cells to achieve replicative immortality. Therefore, our study reveals a connection between shelterin connectivity and tumorigenicity.
Project description:Studies in fission yeast have previously identified evolutionarily conserved shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes, and established Rad3(ATR)/Tel1(ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 as the critical post-translational modification for telomerase recruitment to telomeres. Furthermore, shelterin subunits Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 have been identified as negative regulators of Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. However, it remained unclear how telomere maintenance is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated how loss of Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 affects cell cycle regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomere association of telomerase (Trt1(TERT)), DNA polymerases, Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) checkpoint kinase complex, Tel1(ATM) kinase, shelterin subunits (Tpz1, Ccq1 and Poz1) and Stn1. We further investigated how telomere shortening, caused by trt1? or catalytically dead Trt1-D743A, affects cell cycle-regulated telomere association of telomerase and DNA polymerases. These analyses established that fission yeast shelterin maintains telomere length homeostasis by coordinating the differential arrival of leading (Pol?) and lagging (Pol?) strand DNA polymerases at telomeres to modulate Rad3(ATR) association, Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.
Project description:The conserved shelterin complex caps chromosome ends to protect telomeres and regulate telomere replication. In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shelterin consists of telomeric single- and double-stranded DNA-binding modules Pot1-Tpz1 and Taz1-Rap1 connected by Poz1, and a specific component Ccq1. While individual structures of the two DNA-binding OB folds of Pot1 (Pot1OB1-GGTTAC and Pot1OB2-GGTTACGGT) are available, structural insight into recognition of telomeric repeats with spacers by the complete DNA-binding domain (Pot1DBD) remains an open question. Moreover, structural information about the Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction requires to be revealed for understanding how the specific component Ccq1 of S. pombe shelterin is recruited to telomeres to function as an interacting hub. Here, we report the crystal structures of Pot1DBD-single-stranded-DNA, Pot1372-555-Tpz1185-212 and Tpz1425-470-Ccq1123-439 complexes and propose an integrated model depicting the assembly mechanism of the shelterin complex at telomeres. The structure of Pot1DBD-DNA unveils how Pot1 recognizes S. pombe degenerate telomeric sequences. Our analyses of Tpz1-Ccq1 reveal structural basis for the essential role of the Tpz1-Ccq1 interaction in telomere recruitment of Ccq1 that is required for telomere maintenance and telomeric heterochromatin formation. Overall, our findings provide valuable structural information regarding interactions within fission yeast shelterin complex at 3' ss telomeric overhang.
Project description:Elongation of the telomeric overhang by telomerase is counteracted by synthesis of the complementary strand by the CST complex, CTC1(Cdc13)/Stn1/Ten1. Interaction of budding yeast Stn1 with overhang-binding Cdc13 is increased by Cdc13 SUMOylation. Human and fission yeast CST instead interact with overhang-binding TPP1/POT1. We show that the fission yeast TPP1 ortholog, Tpz1, is SUMOylated. Tpz1 SUMOylation restricts telomere elongation and promotes Stn1/Ten1 telomere association, and a SUMO-Tpz1 fusion protein has increased affinity for Stn1. Our data suggest that SUMO inhibits telomerase through stimulation of Stn1/Ten1 action by Tpz1, highlighting the evolutionary conservation of the regulation of CST function by SUMOylation.
Project description:Telomere elongation through telomerase enables chromosome survival during cellular proliferation. The conserved multifunctional shelterin complex associates with telomeres to coordinate multiple telomere activities, including telomere elongation by telomerase. Similar to the human shelterin, fission yeast shelterin is composed of telomeric sequence-specific double- and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins, Taz1 and Pot1, respectively, bridged by Rap1, Poz1, and Tpz1. Here, we report the crystal structure of the fission yeast Tpz1475-508-Poz1-Rap1467-496 complex that provides the structural basis for shelterin bridge assembly. Biochemical analyses reveal that shelterin bridge assembly is a hierarchical process in which Tpz1 binding to Poz1 elicits structural changes in Poz1, allosterically promoting Rap1 binding to Poz1. Perturbation of the cooperative Tpz1-Poz1-Rap1 assembly through mutation of the "conformational trigger" in Poz1 leads to unregulated telomere lengthening. Furthermore, we find that the human shelterin counterparts TPP1-TIN2-TRF2 also assemble hierarchically, indicating cooperativity as a conserved driving force for shelterin assembly.
Project description:Human shelterin components POT1 and TPP1 form a stable heterodimer that protects telomere ends from ATR-dependent DNA damage responses and regulates telomerase-dependent telomere extension. Mice possess two functionally distinct POT1 proteins. POT1a represses ATR/CHK1 DNA damage responses and the alternative non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway while POT1b regulates C-strand resection and recruits the CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex to telomeres to mediate C-strand fill-in synthesis. Whether POT1a and POT1b are involved in regulating the length of the telomeric G-strand is unclear. Here we demonstrate that POT1b, independent of its CST function, enhances recruitment of telomerase to telomeres through three amino acids in its TPP1 interacting C-terminus. POT1b thus coordinates the synthesis of both telomeric G- and C-strands. In contrast, POT1a negatively regulates telomere length by inhibiting telomerase recruitment to telomeres. The identification of unique amino acids between POT1a and POT1b helps us understand mechanistically how human POT1 switches between end protective functions and promoting telomerase recruitment.