The poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor PJ34 reduces pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after lung transplantation causes alveolar damage, lung edema, and acute rejection. Poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a single-stranded DNA repair enzyme that induces apoptosis and necrosis after DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species. We evaluated tissue protective effects of the PARP inhibitor (PARP-i) PJ34 against pulmonary I/R injury. METHODS: Rats (total n=45) underwent a thoracotomy with left hilar isolation and saline administration (sham group) or thoracotomy with hilar clamping and saline administration (I/R group) or PJ34 administration (PARP-i group). Parameters were measured for 7 days after reperfusion. RESULTS: Pathologic analysis revealed that reperfusion injury was drastically suppressed in the PARP-i group 2 days after reperfusion. Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly decreased in the PARP-i group compared to the I/R group (P<0.05). Accordingly, the wet-to-dry lung ratio in the I/R group was significantly higher compared with the PARP-i group (P=0.025). Four hours after reperfusion, serum tissue necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 were significantly suppressed in the PARP-i group compared with the I/R group (P<0.05). Serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites increased quickly and remained high in the I/R and PARP-i groups from 4 hr until 7 days after reperfusion. Interestingly, the serum biologic antioxidant potential in the PARP-i group was significantly higher than that in the I/R group from day 2 until day 7. CONCLUSION: The PARP-i decreased inflammation and tissue damage caused by pulmonary I/R injury. These beneficial effects of the PARP-i may be correlated with its antioxidative efficacy.
Project description:The effects of acute hyperglycemia on lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and the role of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) signaling in this process are unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: (1) evaluate the impact of acute hyperglycemia on lung IR injury; and (2) determine if RAGE signaling is a mechanism of hyperglycemia-enhanced IR injury. We hypothesized that acute hyperglycemia worsens lung IR injury through a RAGE signaling mechanism. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and RAGE knockout (RAGE (-/-)) mice underwent sham thoracotomy or lung IR (1-h left hilar occlusion and 2-h reperfusion). Acute hyperglycemia was established by dextrose injection 30 minutes before ischemia. Lung injury was assessed by measuring lung function, cytokine expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, leukocyte infiltration, and microvascular permeability via Evans blue dye. Mean blood glucose levels doubled in hyperglycemic mice 30 minutes after dextrose injection. Compared with IR in normoglycemic mice, IR in hyperglycemic mice significantly enhanced lung dysfunction, cytokine expression (TNF-?, keratinocyte chemoattractant, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), leukocyte infiltration, and microvascular permeability. Lung injury and dysfunction after IR were attenuated in normoglycemic RAGE (-/-) mice, and hyperglycemia failed to exacerbate IR injury in RAGE (-/-) mice. Thus, this study demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia exacerbates lung IR injury, whereas RAGE deficiency attenuates IR injury and also prevents exacerbation of IR injury in an acute hyperglycemic setting. These results suggest that hyperglycemia-enhanced lung IR injury is mediated, at least in part, by RAGE signaling, and identifies RAGE as a potential, novel therapeutic target to prevent post-transplant lung IR injury.
Project description:The antineoplastic agent cis-diammineplatinum(II) dichloride (cisplatin, CDDP) is part of the poorly effective standard treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Here, we report a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of CDDP. In conditions in which CDDP alone or either of two PARP inhibitors, PJ34 hydrochloride hydrate or CEP 8983, used as standalone treatments were inefficient in killing NSCLC cells, the combination of CDDP plus PJ34 or that of CDDP plus CEP 8983 were found to kill a substantial fraction of the cells. This cytotoxic synergy could be recapitulated by combining CDDP and the siRNA-mediated depletion of the principal PARP isoform, PARP1, indicating that it is mediated by on-target effects of PJ34 or CEP 8983. CDDP and PARP inhibitors synergized in inducing DNA damage foci, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization leading to cytochrome c release, and dissipation of the inner transmembrane potential, caspase activation, plasma membrane rupture and loss of clonogenic potential in NSCLC cells. Collectively, our results indicate that CDDP can be advantageously combined with PARP inhibitors to kill several NSCLC cell lines, independently from their p53 status. Combined treatment with CDDP and PARP inhibitors elicits the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
Project description:An inherited deficiency in the frataxin protein causes neurodegeneration of the dorsal root ganglia and Friedreich's ataxia (FA). Frataxin deficiency leads to oxidative stress and inflammatory changes in cell and animal models; however, the cause of the inflammatory changes, and especially what causes brain microglial activation is unclear. Here we investigated: 1) the mechanism by which frataxin deficiency activates microglia, 2) whether a brain-localized inflammatory stimulus provokes a greater microglial response in FA animal models, and 3) whether an anti-inflammatory treatment improves their condition. Intracerebroventricular administration of LPS induced higher amounts of microglial activation in the FA mouse model vs controls. We also observed an increase in oxidative damage in the form of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G) and the DNA repair proteins MUTYH and PARP-1 in cerebellar microglia of FA mutant mice. We hypothesized that frataxin deficiency increases DNA damage and DNA repair genes specifically in microglia, activating them. siRNA-mediated frataxin knockdown in microglial BV2 cells clearly elevated DNA damage and the expression of DNA repair genes MUTYH and PARP-1. Frataxin knockdown also induced a higher level of PARP-1 in MEF cells, and this was suppressed in MUTYH-/- knockout cells. Administration of the PARP-1 inhibitor PJ34 attenuated the microglial activation induced by intracerebroventricular injection of LPS. The combined administration of LPS and angiotensin II provoke an even stronger activation of microglia and neurobehavioral impairment. PJ34 treatment attenuated the neurobehavioral impairments in FA mice. These results suggest that the DNA repair proteins MUTYH and PARP-1 may form a pathway regulating microglial activation initiated by DNA damage, and inhibition of microglial PARP-1 induction could be an important therapeutic target in Friedreich's ataxia.
Project description:Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a major complication after lung transplantation. Variable ventilation (VV) has been shown to improve respiratory function and reduce pulmonary histological damage compared to protective volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) in different models of lung injury induced by endotoxin, surfactant depletion by saline lavage, and hydrochloric acid. However, no study has compared the biological impact of VV vs. VCV in lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, which has a complex pathophysiology different from that of other experimental models. Thirty-six animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) ischemia-reperfusion (IR), in which the left pulmonary hilum was completely occluded and released after 30 min; and (2) Sham, in which animals underwent the same surgical manipulation but without hilar clamping. Immediately after surgery, the left (IR-injured) and right (contralateral) lungs from 6 animals per group were removed, and served as non-ventilated group (NV) for molecular biology analysis. IR and Sham groups were further randomized to one of two ventilation strategies: VCV (n = 6/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 2 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4]; or VV, which was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (n = 1200; mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. After 5 min of ventilation and at the end of a 2-h period (Final), respiratory system mechanics and arterial blood gases were measured. At Final, lungs were removed for histological and molecular biology analyses. Respiratory system elastance and alveolar collapse were lower in VCV than VV (mean ± SD, VCV 3.6 ± 1.3 cmH20/ml and 2.0 ± 0.8 cmH20/ml, p = 0.005; median [interquartile range], VCV 20.4% [7.9-33.1] and VV 5.4% [3.1-8.8], p = 0.04, respectively). In left lungs of IR animals, VCV increased the expression of interleukin-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 compared to NV, with no significant differences between VV and NV. Compared to VCV, VV increased the expression of surfactant protein-D, suggesting protection from type II epithelial cell damage. In conclusion, in this experimental lung ischemia-reperfusion model, VV improved respiratory system elastance and reduced lung damage compared to VCV.
Project description:Poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors modify the enzymatic activity of PARP1/2. When certain PARP inhibitors are used either alone or in combination with DNA damage agents they may cause a G2/M mitotic arrest and/or apoptosis in a susceptible genetic context. PARP1 interacts with the cell cycle checkpoint proteins Ataxia Telangectasia Mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) and therefore may influence growth arrest cascades. The PARP inhibitor PJ34 causes a mitotic arrest by an unknown mechanism in certain cell lines, therefore we asked whether PJ34 conditionally activated the checkpoint pathways and which downstream targets were necessary for mitotic arrest. We found that PJ34 produced a concentration dependent G2/M mitotic arrest and differentially affected cell survival in cells with diverse genetic backgrounds. p53 was activated and phosphorylated at Serine15 followed by p21 gene activation through both p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The mitotic arrest was caffeine sensitive and UCN01 insensitive and did not absolutely require p53, ATM or Chk1, while p21 was necessary for maintaining the growth arrest. Significantly, by using stable knockdown cell lines, we found that neither PARP1 nor PARP2 was required for any of these effects produced by PJ34. These results raise questions and cautions for evaluating PARP inhibitor effectiveness, suggesting whether effects should be considered not only on PARP's diverse ADP-ribosylation independent protein interactions but also on homologous proteins that may be producing either overlapping or distinct effect.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury, a form of sterile inflammation, is the leading risk factor for both short-term mortality following pulmonary transplantation and chronic lung allograft dysfunction. While it is well recognized that neutrophils are critical mediators of acute lung injury, processes that guide their entry into pulmonary tissue are not well understood. Here, we found that CCR2+ classical monocytes are necessary and sufficient for mediating extravasation of neutrophils into pulmonary tissue during ischemia-reperfusion injury following hilar clamping or lung transplantation. The classical monocytes were mobilized from the host spleen, and splenectomy attenuated the recruitment of classical monocytes as well as the entry of neutrophils into injured lung tissue, which was associated with improved graft function. Neutrophil extravasation was mediated by MyD88-dependent IL-1? production by graft-infiltrating classical monocytes, which downregulated the expression of the tight junction-associated protein ZO-2 in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Thus, we have uncovered a crucial role for classical monocytes, mobilized from the spleen, in mediating neutrophil extravasation, with potential implications for targeting of recipient classical monocytes to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury in the clinic.
Project description:Ischemia/reperfusion injury is a severe disorder associated with a high mortality. Several antioxidant and pharmacological properties of cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale L.) and its metabolites from different countries have recently been described. It is a medicinal plant with important therapeutic effects. This study aimed to verify the effect of an oral administration of cashew nuts in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Adult male rats were subjected to intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 30 min and then allowing animals to 1 h of reperfusion. Rats subjected to I/R of the gut showed a significant increase in different biochemical markers. In particular, we evaluated lipid peroxidation, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, protein carbonyl content, reactive oxygen species generation and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. Western blot analysis showed the activation of the NRF2 and NF-kB pathways. Increased immunoreactivity to nitrotyrosine, PARP, P-selectin, and ICAM-1 was observed in the ileum of rats subjected to I/R. Administration of cashew nuts (100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the mortality rate, the fall in arterial blood pressure, and oxidative stress and restored the antioxidant enzyme activities by a mechanism involving both NRF2 and NF-kB pathways. Cashew nuts treatments reduced cytokines plasma levels, nitrotyrosine, and PARP expression as well as adhesion molecules expressions. Additionally, cashew nuts decreased the intestinal barrier dysfunction and mucosal damage, the translocation of toxins and bacteria, which leads to systemic inflammation and associated organs injuries in particular of liver and kidney. Our study demonstrates that cashew nuts administration exerts antioxidant and pharmacological protective effects in superior mesenteric artery occlusion-reperfusion shock.
Project description:Activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and signaling through receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are known to independently mediate lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of RAGE specifically on iNKT cells via alveolar macrophage-produced high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is critical for the initiation of lung IR injury. A murine in vivo hilar clamp model was utilized, which demonstrated that RAGE(-/-) mice were significantly protected from IR injury. Treatment of WT mice with soluble RAGE (a decoy receptor), or anti-HMGB1 antibody, attenuated lung IR injury and inflammation, whereas treatment with recombinant HMGB1 enhanced IR injury in WT mice but not RAGE(-/-) mice. Importantly, lung dysfunction, cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration were significantly attenuated after IR in J?18(-/-) mice reconstituted with RAGE(-/-) iNKT cells (versus WT iNKT cells). In vitro studies demonstrated that, after hypoxia-reoxygenation, alveolar macrophage-derived HMGB1 augmented IL-17 production from iNKT cells in a RAGE-dependent manner. These results suggest that HMGB1-mediated RAGE activation on iNKT cells is critical for initiation of lung IR injury and that a crosstalk between macrophages and iNKT cells via the HMGB1/RAGE axis mediates IL-17 production by iNKT cells causing neutrophil infiltration and lung IR injury.
Project description:The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and many other pathological conditions. DNA strand breaks caused by ROS lead to the activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1), the excessive activation of which can result in cell death. We have utilized a model in which 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a nephrotoxic and nephrocarcinogenic metabolite of hydroquinone, causes ROS-dependent cell death in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2), to further elucidate the role of PARP-1 in ROS-dependent cell death. TGHQ-induced ROS generation, DNA strand breaks, hyperactivation of PARP-1, rapid depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, and subsequent nonapoptotic cell death in both a PARP- and Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Thus, inhibition of PARP-1 with PJ34 completely blocked TGHQ-mediated accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers and NAD consumption, and delayed HK-2 cell death. In contrast, chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) with BAPTA completely abrogated TGHQ-induced cell death. Ca(2+) chelation also attenuated PARP-1 hyperactivation. Conversely, inhibition of PARP-1 modulated TGHQ-mediated changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis. Interestingly, PARP-1 hyperactivation was not accompanied by the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the nucleus, a process usually associated with PARP-dependent cell death. Thus, pathways coupling PARP-1 hyperactivation to cell death are likely to be context-dependent, and therapeutic strategies designed to target PARP-1 need to recognize such variability. Our studies provide new insights into PARP-1-mediated nonapoptotic cell death, during which PARP-1 hyperactivation and elevations in intracellular Ca(2+) are reciprocally coupled to amplify ROS-induced nonapoptotic cell death.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) mediated ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) detrimentally impacts liver transplantation and resection. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), an antagonistic protein of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) signaling cascade, was proven to mediate cell death in postischemic cerebral and myocardial tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of 12/15-LOX inhibition on hepatic IRI.Livers of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 60 minutes of partial warm ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion after previous Baicalein administration, an inhibitor of 12/15-LOX. Tissue samples were analyzed by TUNEL assay, Western blot, and spectral photometry.TUNEL labeling showed a significant reduction of hepatic cell death following baicalein pretreatment. Western Blot analysis revealed a significant downregulation of Jun-amino-terminal-kinase (JNK), caspase-3, and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP), besides considerably lowered p44/42-MAP-kinase (ERK1/2) expression after Baicalein administration. A significant elevation of glutathione oxidation was measured in Baicalein pretreated livers.Our data show that inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase causes significant cell death reduction after hepatic ischemia and reperfusion by enhancing glutathione metabolism. We conclude that GPX4-dependent cell death signaling cascade might play a major role in development of hepatic IRI, in which the investigated proteins JNK, caspase-3, ERK1/2, and PARP might contribute to tissue damage.