Overexpression of p49/STRAP alters cellular cytoskeletal structure and gross anatomy in mice.
ABSTRACT: The protein p49/STRAP (SRFBP1) is a transcription cofactor of serum response factor (SRF) which regulates cytoskeletal and muscle-specific genes.Two conserved domains were found in the p49/STRAP protein. The SRF-binding domain was at its N-terminus and was highly conserved among mammalian species, xenopus and zebrafish. A BUD22 domain was found at its C-terminus in three sequence databases. The BUD22 domain was conserved among mammalian p49/STRAP proteins, and yeast cellular morphogenesis proteins, which is involved in ribosome biogenesis that affects growth rate and cell size. The endogenous p49/SRAP protein was localized mainly in the nucleus but also widely distributed in the cytoplasm, and was in close proximity to the actin. Transfected GFP-p49/STRAP protein co-localized with nucleolin within the nucleolus. Overexpression of p49/STRAP reduced actin content in cultured cells and resulted in smaller cell size versus control cells. Increased expression of p49/STRAP in transgenic mice resulted in newborns with malformations, which included asymmetric abdominal and thoracic cavities, and substantial changes in cardiac morphology. p49/STRAP altered the expression of certain muscle-specific genes, including that of the SRF gene, which is a key regulator of cardiac genes at the developmental, structural and maintenance level and has two SRE binding sites.Since p49/STRAP is a co-factor of SRF, our data suggest that p49/STRAP likely regulates cell size and morphology through SRF target genes. The function of its BUD22 domain warrants further investigation. The observed increase in p49/STRAP expression during cellular aging may contribute to observed morphological changes in senescence.
Project description:Abstract Introduction: Serum response factor (SRF) has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation and senescence. SRF regulates its target genes by binding to the serum response element (SRE or CArG-box) with “CC(A/T)6GG” sequence. SRF interacts with SRF-binding protein(s), including p49/STRAP (SRFBP1), to co-regulate SRF-target genes. Hypothesis: The CArG-sequence exists not only in cytoskeletal genes but also in other genes. Since p49/STRAP, an SRF-binding protein, alters NAD/NADH ratio and affects histone protein deacetylation, we hypothesized that the CArG-sequence may exist in the promoter of sirtuin genes, and that SIRT2 may be regulated by SRF and p49/STRAP. Methods and Results: Using bioinformatic analysis, we found a classic CArG-box sequence in the promoter of SIRT2 gene (accession no. AC011455). Sequencing analysis of five human DNA samples confirmed that all DNA samples had the same CArG-box sequence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that SRF protein indeed bound to P32-labeled SIRT2 promoter probe. A luciferase vector containing the SIRT2 promoter was constructed and used for transfection assays. The SIRT2 gene promoter was activated by SRF and myocardin, but repressed by p49/STRAP. Serum starvation also changed SIRT2 mRNA levels. Conclusion: The SRF protein binds to the SIRT2 gene promoter and regulates SIRT2 gene expression, thus the SIRT2 gene is a SRF-target gene. SIRT2 gene is modulated by p49/STRAP and myocardin through interactions with SRF. The age-associated increases in cardiac SRF and p49/STRAP protein levels likely affect SIRT2 gene expression and induce histone protein deacetylation, thereby contributing to SIRT2-mediated aging in the heart.
Project description:During autophagy, actin filament networks move and remodel cellular membranes to form autophagosomes that enclose and metabolize cytoplasmic contents. Two actin regulators, WHAMM and JMY, participate in autophagosome formation, but the signals linking autophagy to actin assembly are poorly understood. We show that, in nonstarved cells, cytoplasmic JMY colocalizes with STRAP, a regulator of JMY's nuclear functions, on nonmotile vesicles with no associated actin networks. Upon starvation, JMY shifts to motile, LC3-containing membranes that move on actin comet tails. LC3 enhances JMY's de novo actin nucleation activity via a cryptic actin-binding sequence near JMY's N terminus, and STRAP inhibits JMY's ability to nucleate actin and activate the Arp2/3 complex. Cytoplasmic STRAP negatively regulates autophagy. Finally, we use purified proteins to reconstitute LC3- and JMY-dependent actin network formation on membranes and inhibition of network formation by STRAP. We conclude that LC3 and STRAP regulate JMY's actin assembly activities in trans during autophagy.
Project description:The sirtuin proteins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate various cellular functions. Among the seven sirtuins, SIRT2 is predominantly found in the cytoplasm, and is present in a wide range of tissues. Recent studies indicate that SIRT2 plays an important role in metabolic homeostasis. Several studies indicate that SIRT2 is upregulated under serum deprivation conditions. Since the serum response factor gene usually responds rapidly to serum deprivation and/or serum restoration following deprivation, we hypothesized that a common mechanism may serve to regulate both SIRT2 and SRF during serum stimulation. Using a bioinformatics approach, we searched the SRF binding motif in the SIRT2 gene, and found one classic CArG element (CCATAATAGG) in the SIRT2 gene promoter, which was bound to SRF in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Serum deprivation induced SIRT2 expression, while SRF and the SRF binding protein, p49/STRAP, repressed SIRT2 gene expression. SIRT2 gene expression was also repressed by the Rho/SRF inhibitor, CCG-1423. These data demonstrate that the classic SRE element in the SIRT2 gene promoter region is functional and therefore, SIRT2 gene is a downstream target of the Rho/SRF signaling pathway. The increased expression of SRF that was observed in the aged heart may affect SIRT2 gene expression and contribute to altered metabolic status in senescence.
Project description:Serum response factor (SRF) regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg) led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg) resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.
Project description:Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-? and p53 signaling. However, the regulatory mechanism of STRAP activity is not understood. In this study, we report that B-MYB is a new STRAP-interacting protein, and that an amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and an area (amino acids 373-468) between the acidic and conserved regions of B-MYB mediate the B-MYB·STRAP interaction. Functionally, B-MYB enhances STRAP-mediated inhibition of TGF-? signaling pathways, such as apoptosis and growth inhibition, by modulating complex formation between the TGF-? receptor and SMAD3 or SMAD7. Furthermore, coexpression of B-MYB results in a dose-dependent increase in STRAP-mediated stimulation of p53-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via direct interaction. Confocal microscopy showed that B-MYB prevents the normal translocation of SMAD3 in response to TGF-?1 and stimulates p53 nuclear translocation. These results suggest that B-MYB acts as a positive regulator of STRAP.
Project description:We have previously reported the identification of a novel WD-domain protein, STRAP that plays a role in maintenance of mesenchymal morphology by regulating E-cadherin and that enhances tumorigenicity partly by downregulating CDK inhibitor p21(Cip1). However, the functional mechanism of regulation of E-cadherin and p21(Cip1) by STRAP is unknown. Here, we have employed STRAP knock out and knockdown cell models (mouse embryonic fibroblast, human cancer cell lines) to show how STRAP downregulates E-cadherin and p21(Cip1) by abrogating the binding of Sp1 to its consensus binding sites. Moreover, ChIP assays suggest that STRAP recruits HDAC1 to Sp1 binding sites in p21(Cip1) promoter. Interestingly, loss of STRAP can stabilize Sp1 by repressing its ubiquitination in G1 phase, resulting in an enhanced expression of p21(Cip1) by >4.5-fold and cell cycle arrest. Using Bioinformatics and Microarray analyses, we have observed that 87% mouse genes downregulated by STRAP have conserved Sp1 binding sites. In NSCLC, the expression levels of STRAP inversely correlated with that of Sp1 (60%). These results suggest a novel mechanism of regulation of E-cadherin and p21(Cip1) by STRAP by modulating Sp1-dependent transcription, and higher expression of STRAP in lung cancer may contribute to downregulation of E-cadherin and p21(Cip1) and to tumor progression.
Project description:Activation of p53 target genes for tumor suppression depends on the stress-specific regulation of transcriptional coactivator complexes. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is activated upon DNA damage by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and Chk2 kinases and is a key regulator of the p53 response. In addition to antagonizing Mdm2, Strap facilitates the recruitment of p53 coactivators, including JMY and p300. Strap is a predicted TPR-repeat protein, but shows only limited sequence identity with any protein of known structure. To address this and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of Strap activity we determined the crystal structure of the full-length protein at 2.05 Å resolution. The structure of Strap reveals an atypical six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein that also contains an unexpected oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB)-fold domain. This previously unseen domain organization provides an extended superhelical scaffold allowing for protein-protein as well as protein-DNA interaction. We show that both of the TPR and OB-fold domains localize to the chromatin of p53 target genes and exhibit intrinsic regulatory activity necessary for the Strap-dependent p53 response.
Project description:STRAP is a ubiquitous WD40 protein that has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Previous studies suggest that STRAP imparts oncogenic characteristics to cells by promoting ERK and pRb phosphorylation. While these findings suggest that STRAP can activate mitogenic signaling pathways, the effects of STRAP on other MAPK pathways have not been investigated. Herein, we report that STRAP regulates the expression of the c-Jun proto-oncogene in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Loss of STRAP expression results in reduced phospho-c-Jun and total c-Jun but does not significantly reduce the level of two other early response genes, c-Myc and c-Fos. STRAP knockout also decreases expression of the AP-1 target gene, cyclin D1, which is accompanied by a reduction in cell growth. No significant differences in JNK activity or basal c-Jun mRNA levels were observed between wild type and STRAP null fibroblasts. However, proteasomal inhibition markedly increases c-Jun expression in STRAP knockout MEFs and STRAP over-expression decreases the ubiquitylation of c-Jun in 293T cells. Loss of STRAP accelerates c-Jun turnover in fibroblasts and ectopic over-expression of STRAP in STRAP null fibroblasts increases c-Jun expression. Collectively, our findings indicate that STRAP regulates c-Jun stability by decreasing the ubiquitylation and proteosomal degradation of c-Jun.
Project description:Erythropoiesis is regulated at many levels, including control of mRNA translation. Changing environmental conditions, such as hypoxia or the availability of nutrients and growth factors, require a rapid response enacted by the enhanced or repressed translation of existing transcripts. Cold shock domain protein e1 (Csde1/Unr) is an RNA-binding protein required for erythropoiesis and strongly upregulated in erythroblasts relative to other hematopoietic progenitors. The aim of this study is to identify the Csde1-containing protein complexes and investigate their role in post-transcriptional expression control of Csde1-bound transcripts. We show that Serine/Threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (Strap/Unrip), was the protein most strongly associated with Csde1 in erythroblasts. Strap is a WD40 protein involved in signaling and RNA splicing, but its role when associated with Csde1 is unknown. Reduced expression of Strap did not alter the pool of transcripts bound by Csde1. Instead, it altered the mRNA and/or protein expression of several Csde1-bound transcripts that encode for proteins essential for translational regulation during hypoxia, such as Hmbs, eIF4g3 and Pabpc4. Also affected by Strap knockdown were Vim, a Gata-1 target crucial for erythrocyte enucleation, and Elavl1, which stabilizes Gata-1 mRNA. The major cellular processes affected by both Csde1 and Strap were ribosome function and cell cycle control.
Project description:Serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) functions as a regulator of both TGF-? and p53 signaling that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell death in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that STRAP acetylation plays an important role in p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. STRAP is acetylated at lysines 147, 148, and 156 by the acetyltransferases CREB-binding protein (CBP) and that the acetylation is reversed by the deacetylase sirtuin7 (SIRT7). Hypo- or hyperacetylation mutations of STRAP at lysines 147, 148, and 156 (3KR or 3KQ) influence its activation and stabilization of p53. Moreover, following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment, STRAP is mobilized from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and promotes STRAP acetylation. Our finding on the regulation of STRAP links p53 with SIRT7 influencing p53 activity and stability.