Causal variation in yeast sporulation tends to reside in a pathway bottleneck.
ABSTRACT: There has been extensive debate over whether certain classes of genes are more likely than others to contain the causal variants responsible for phenotypic differences in complex traits between individuals. One hypothesis states that input/output genes positioned in signal transduction bottlenecks are more likely than other genes to contain causal natural variation. The IME1 gene resides at such a signaling bottleneck in the yeast sporulation pathway, suggesting that it may be more likely to contain causal variation than other genes in the sporulation pathway. Through crosses between natural isolates of yeast, we demonstrate that the specific causal nucleotides responsible for differences in sporulation efficiencies reside not only in IME1 but also in the genes that surround IME1 in the signaling pathway, including RME1, RSF1, RIM15, and RIM101. Our results support the hypothesis that genes at the critical decision making points in signaling cascades will be enriched for causal variants responsible for phenotypic differences.
Project description:Our understanding of the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity is limited by the paucity of examples in which multiple, interacting loci have been identified. We show that natural variation in the efficiency of sporulation, the program in yeast that initiates the sexual phase of the life cycle, between oak tree and vineyard strains is due to allelic variation between four nucleotide changes in three transcription factors: IME1, RME1, and RSF1. Furthermore, we identified that selection has shaped quantitative variation in yeast sporulation between strains. These results illustrate how genetic interactions between transcription factors are a major source of phenotypic diversity within species.
Project description:Yeast sporulation efficiency is a quantitative trait and is known to vary among experimental populations and natural isolates. Some studies have uncovered the genetic basis of this variation and have identified the role of sporulation genes (IME1, RME1) and sporulation-associated genes (FKH2, PMS1, RAS2, RSF1, SWS2), as well as non-sporulation pathway genes (MKT1, TAO3) in maintaining this variation. However, these studies have been done mostly in experimental populations. Sporulation is a response to nutrient deprivation. Unlike laboratory strains, natural isolates have likely undergone multiple selections for quick adaptation to varying nutrient conditions. As a result, sporulation efficiency in natural isolates may have different genetic factors contributing to phenotypic variation. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the genetically and environmentally diverse SGRP collection, we have identified genetic loci associated with sporulation efficiency variation in a set of sporulation and sporulation-associated genes. Using two independent methods for association mapping and correcting for population structure biases, our analysis identified two linked clusters containing 4 non-synonymous mutations in genes - HOS4, MCK1, SET3, and SPO74. Five regulatory polymorphisms in five genes such as MLS1 and CDC10 were also identified as putative candidates. Our results provide candidate genes contributing to phenotypic variation in the sporulation efficiency of natural isolates of yeast.
Project description:We study the effect of four QTN in RME1, IME1 & RSF1 that are causative for variation in sporulation efficiency. We investigate the relationship between genotype, gene expression and phenotype and whether the amount of gene expression variation explained by the sporulation QTN is predictive of the amount of phenotypic variation explained by them. RNA-Seq analysis of 4 replicates each of 16 allele replacement panel strains containing all combinations of the four sporulation QTN after 2 hours in sporulation medium.
Project description:Two signals are required for meiosis and spore formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: starvation and the MAT products a1 and alpha 2, which determine the a/alpha cell type. These signals lead to increased expression of the IME1 (inducer of meiosis) gene, which is required for sporulation and sporulation-specific gene expression. We report here the sequence of the IME1 gene and the consequences of IME1 expression from the GAL1 promoter. The deduced IME1 product is a 360-amino-acid protein with a tyrosine-rich C-terminal region. Expression of PGAL1-IME1 in vegetative a/alpha cells led to moderate accumulation of four early sporulation-specific transcripts (IME2, SPO11, SPO13, and HOP1); the transcripts accumulated 3- to 10-fold more after starvation. Two sporulation-specific transcripts normally expressed later (SPS1 and SPS2) did not accumulate until PGAL1-IME1 strains were starved, and the intact IME1 gene was not activated by PGAL1-IME1 expression. In a or alpha cells, which lack alpha 2 or a1, expression of PGAL1-IME1 led to the same pattern of IME2 and SPO13 expression as in a/alpha cells, as measured with ime2::lacZ and spo13::lacZ fusions. Thus, in wild-type strains, the increased expression of IME1 in starved a/alpha cells can account entirely for cell type control, but only partially for nutritional control, of early sporulation-specific gene expression. PGAL1-IME1 expression did not cause growing cells to sporulate but permitted efficient sporulation of amino acid-limited cells, which otherwise sporulated poorly. We suggest that IME1 acts primarily as a positive regulator of early sporulation-specific genes and that growth arrest is an independent prerequisite for execution of the sporulation program.
Project description:Yeast cells enter and undergo gametogenesis relatively asynchronously, making it technically challenging to perform stage-specific genomic and biochemical analyses. Cell-to-cell variation in the expression of the master regulator of entry into sporulation IME1, has been implicated to be the underlying cause of asynchronous sporulation. Here we find that timing of IME1 expression is of critical importance for inducing cells to undergo sporulation synchronously. When we force expression of IME1 from an inducible promoter in cells incubated in sporulation medium for two hours, the vast majority of cells exhibit synchrony during pre-meiotic DNA replication and meiotic divisions. Inducing IME1 expression too early or too late affects the synchrony of sporulation. Surprisingly, our approach for synchronous sporulation does not require growth in acetate containing medium, but can be achieved in cells grown in rich medium until saturation. Our system solely requires IME1 because the expression of the N6-methyladenosine methyltransferase IME4, another key regulator of early sporulation, is controlled by IME1 itself. The approach described here can be easily combined with other stage specific synchronization methods, and thereby applied to study specific stages of sporulation or the complete sporulation program.
Project description:Cell fate choices are tightly controlled by the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic signals, and gene regulatory networks. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the decision to enter into gametogenesis or sporulation is dictated by mating type and nutrient availability. These signals regulate the expression of the master regulator of gametogenesis, IME1. Here we describe how nutrients control IME1 expression. We find that protein kinase A (PKA) and target of rapamycin complex I (TORC1) signalling mediate nutrient regulation of IME1 expression. Inhibiting both pathways is sufficient to induce IME1 expression and complete sporulation in nutrient-rich conditions. Our ability to induce sporulation under nutrient rich conditions allowed us to show that respiration and fermentation are interchangeable energy sources for IME1 transcription. Furthermore, we find that TORC1 can both promote and inhibit gametogenesis. Down-regulation of TORC1 is required to activate IME1. However, complete inactivation of TORC1 inhibits IME1 induction, indicating that an intermediate level of TORC1 signalling is required for entry into sporulation. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor Tup1 binds and represses the IME1 promoter when nutrients are ample, but is released from the IME1 promoter when both PKA and TORC1 are inhibited. Collectively our data demonstrate that nutrient control of entry into sporulation is mediated by a combination of energy availability, TORC1 and PKA activities that converge on the IME1 promoter.
Project description:The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/? but not haploid MATa or MAT? cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating-type control of sporulation. In MATa or MAT? haploids, expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4 allows cells expressing the haploid mating type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/? diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/? diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating-type control of gametogenesis in yeast.
Project description:Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that is essential for sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles that play important roles in reproduction, though the detailed mechanism by which the mitochondrial respiratory chain functions during meiosis remains elusive. Here, we show that components of the respiratory chain (Complexes I-V) play essential roles in meiosis initiation during the sporulation of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Any functional defects in the Complex I component Ndi1p resulted in the abolishment of sporulation. Further studies revealed that respiratory deficiency resulted in the failure of premeiotic DNA replication due to insufficient IME1 expression. In addition, respiration promoted the expression of RIM101, whose product inhibits Smp1p, a negative transcriptional regulator of IME1, to promote meiosis initiation. In summary, our studies unveiled the close relationship between mitochondria and sporulation, and uncover a novel meiosis initiation pathway that is regulated by the respiratory chain.
Project description:Glc7p is an essential serine/threonine type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a role in many processes including cell cycle progression, sporulation, glycogen accumulation, translation initiation, and glucose repression. Two hallmarks of PP1 enzymes are very high amino acid sequence conservation and association of the catalytic subunit with a variety of noncatalytic, regulatory subunits. We tested the hypothesis that PP1 sequence conservation was the result of each PP1 residue playing a role in multiple intermolecular interactions. Analysis of 24 glc7 mutants, isolated primarily by their glycogen accumulation traits, revealed that every mutated Glc7p residue altered many noncatalytic subunit affinities and conferred unselected sporulation traits to various degrees. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that Glc7p affinity for the glycogen-binding noncatalytic subunit Gac1p was not the only parameter that determines the glycogen accumulation by a glc7 mutant. Sds22p is one Glc7p noncatalytic subunit that is essential for mitotic growth. Surprisingly, several mutant Glc7p proteins had undetectable affinity for Sds22p, yet grew apparently normally. The characterization of glc7 diploid sporulation revealed that Glc7p has at least two meiotic roles. Premeiotic DNA synthesis was undetectable in glc7 mutants with the poorest sporulation. In the glc7 diploids examined, expression of the meiotic inducer IME1 was proportional to the glc7 diploid sporulation frequency. Moreover, IME1 hyperexpression could not suppress glc7 sporulation traits. The Glc7p/Gip1p holoenzyme may participate in completion of meiotic divisions or spore packaging because meiotic dyads predominate when some glc7 diploids sporulate.
Project description:Quiescence and gametogenesis represent two distinct survival strategies in response to nutrient starvation in budding yeast. Precisely how environmental signals are sensed by yeast cells to trigger quiescence and gametogenesis is not fully understood. A conserved signalling module consisting of Greatwall kinase, Endosulfine and Protein Phosphatase PP2ACdc55 proteins regulates entry into mitosis in Xenopus egg extracts and meiotic maturation in flies. We report here that an analogous signalling module consisting of the serine-threonine kinase Rim15, the Endosulfines Igo1 and Igo2 and the Protein Phosphatase PP2ACdc55, regulates entry into both quiescence and gametogenesis in budding yeast. PP2ACdc55 inhibits entry into gametogenesis and quiescence. Rim15 promotes entry into gametogenesis and quiescence by converting Igo1 into an inhibitor of PP2ACdc55 by phosphorylating at a conserved serine residue. Moreover, we show that the Rim15-Endosulfine-PP2ACdc55 pathway regulates entry into quiescence and gametogenesis by distinct mechanisms. In addition, we show that Igo1 and Igo2 are required for pre-meiotic autophagy but the lack of pre-meiotic autophagy is insufficient to explain the sporulation defect of igo1? igo2? cells. We propose that the Rim15-Endosulfine-PP2ACdc55 signalling module triggers entry into quiescence and gametogenesis by regulating dephosphorylation of distinct substrates.