Diagnostic application of high resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis for children with brain tumors.
ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis is currently used as a first tier test for pediatric brain tumors at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The results from 100 consecutive patients are summarized in the present report. Eighty-seven percent of the tumors had at least one pathogenic copy number alteration. Nineteen of 56 low grade gliomas (LGGs) demonstrated a duplication in 7q34, which resulted in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Chromosome band 7q34 deletions, which resulted in a FAM131B-BRAF fusion, were identified in one pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and one dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT). One ganglioglioma (GG) demonstrated a 6q23.3q26 deletion that was predicted to result in a MYB-QKI fusion. Gains of chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 11, and 20 were seen in a subset of LGGs. Monosomy 6, deletion of 9q and 10q, and an i(17)(q10) were each detected in the medulloblastomas (MBs). Deletions and regions of loss of heterozygosity that encompassed TP53, RB1, CDKN2A/B, CHEK2, NF1, and NF2 were identified in a variety of tumors, which led to a recommendation for germline testing. A BRAF p.Thr599dup or p.V600E mutation was identified by Sanger sequencing in one and five gliomas, respectively, and a somatic TP53 mutation was identified in a fibrillary astrocytoma. No TP53 hot-spot mutations were detected in the MBs. SNP array analysis of pediatric brain tumors can be combined with pathologic examination and molecular analyses to further refine diagnoses, offer more accurate prognostic assessments, and identify patients who should be referred for cancer risk assessment.
Project description:The majority of pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are characterized by constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through various mechanisms including BRAF mutations, inactivation of NF1, and KIAA1549-BRAF and FAM131B-BRAF fusions. The KIAA1549-BRAF fusion typically results from a 2.0?Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. In the present study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based array analysis of three LGGs demonstrated deletions in 7q34 that resulted in a BRAF fusion. Case 1 was likely a pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with three deletions in 7q33q34 and an exon 15-9 KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. SNP array analysis of case 2, a possible dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT), revealed a 2.6?Mb deletion, which included the 5' end of BRAF and extended to the 3' end of FAM131B. In case 3, deletions involving BRAF and FAM131B were observed in both a primary and a recurrent PA. RNA-based sequence analysis of cases 2 and 3 confirmed a fusion between FAM131B exon 2 and BRAF exon 9. The presence of fusion transcripts in these three LGGs highlights the utility of SNP array analysis to identify deletions that are suggestive of fusion proteins. BRAF fusions can result from multiple non-overlapping deletions, suggesting various complex mechanisms of formation.
Project description:Background:The mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracelluar signal-regulated kinases pathway is involved in cell growth and proliferation, and mutations in BRAF have made it an oncogene of interest in pediatric cancer. Previous studies found that BRAF mutations as well as KIAA1549-BRAF fusions are common in intracranial low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Fewer studies have tested for the presence of these genetic changes in spinal LGGs. The aim of this study was to better understand the prevalence of BRAF and other genetic aberrations in spinal LGG. Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 46 spinal gliomas from patients aged 1-25 years from Children's Hospital Colorado (CHCO) and The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids). CHCO utilized a 67-gene panel that assessed BRAF and additionally screened for other possible genetic abnormalities of interest. At SickKids, BRAF V600E was assessed by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. BRAF fusions were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, or NanoString platform. Data were correlated with clinical information. Results:Of 31 samples with complete fusion analysis, 13 (42%) harbored KIAA1549-BRAF. All 13 (100%) patients with confirmed KIAA1549-BRAF survived the entirety of the study period (median [interquartile range] follow-up time: 47 months [27-85 months]) and 15 (83.3%) fusion-negative patients survived (follow-up time: 37.5 months [19.8-69.5 months]). Other mutations of interest were also identified in this patient cohort including BRAF V600E , PTPN11, H3F3A, TP53, FGFR1, and CDKN2A deletion. Conclusion:KIAA1549-BRAF was seen in higher frequency than BRAF V600E or other genetic aberrations in pediatric spinal LGGs and experienced lower death rates compared to KIAA1549-BRAF negative patients, although this was not statistically significant.
Project description:Malignant gliomas are the most common and the deadliest brain malignancies in adults. Despite the lack of a complete understanding of the biology of these tumors, significant advances have been made in the past decades. One of the key discoveries made in the area of malignant gliomas is that these tumors can be induced and maintained by aberrant signaling networks. In this context, the Ras pathway has been extensively exploited, from both basic and translational perspectives. Although somatic oncogenic mutations of Ras genes are frequent in several cancer types, early investigations on gliomas revealed disappointing facts that the Ras mutations are nearly absent in malignant gliomas and that the BRAF mutations are present in a very small percentage of gliomas. Therefore, the observed deregulation of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway in gliomas is attributed to its upstream positive regulators, including, EGFR and PDGFR known to be highly active in the majority of malignant gliomas. In contrast to the initial negative results on the somatic mutations of H-Ras, K-Ras and BRAF, recent breakthrough studies on pediatric low-grade astrocytomas uncovered genetic alterations of the BRAF gene involving copy number gains and rearrangements. The 7q34 rearrangements result in a novel in-frame KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene that possesses constitutive BRAF kinase activity resembling oncogenic BRAF (V600E). In light of the earlier findings and recent breakthroughs, this review summarizes our current understanding of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway in gliomas and the outcome of preclinical and clinical studies that evaluated the efficacy of Ras-targeted therapy in malignant gliomas.
Project description:Ganglioglioma (GG) and pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) represent the most frequent low-grade gliomas (LGG) occurring in paediatric age. LGGs not amenable of complete resection (CR) represent a challenging subgroup where traditional treatments often fail. Activation of the MAP Kinase (MAPK) pathway caused by the BRAFV600E mutation or the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion has been reported in pediatric GG and PA, respectively.We report on a case of BRAFV600E mutated cervicomedullary GG treated with standard chemotherapy and surgery. After multiple relapse, BRAF status was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing showing a BRAFV600E mutation. Treatment with Vemurafenib as single agent was started. For the first time, a radiological and clinical response was obtained after 3 months of treatment and sustained after 6 months.Our experience underline the importance of understanding the driver molecular alterations of LGG and suggests a role for Vemurafenib in the treatment of pediatric GG not amenable of complete surgical resection.
Project description:In the present study, DNA from 28 pediatric low-grade astrocytomas was analyzed using Illumina HumanHap550K single-nucleotide polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays. A novel duplication in chromosome band 7q34 was identified in 17 of 22 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and three of six fibrillary astrocytomas. The 7q34 duplication spans 2.6 Mb of genomic sequence and contains approximately 20 genes, including two candidate tumor genes, HIPK2 and BRAF. There were no abnormalities in HIPK2, and analysis of two mutation hot-spots in BRAF revealed a V600E mutation in only one tumor without the duplication. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the 7q34 copy number change and was suggestive of a tandem duplication. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing revealed a fusion product between KIAA1549 and BRAF. The predicted fusion product includes the BRAF kinase domain and lacks the auto-inhibitory N-terminus. Western blot analysis revealed phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein in tumors with the duplication, consistent with BRAF-induced activation of the pathway. Further studies are required to determine the role of this fusion gene in downstream MAPK signaling and its role in development of pediatric low-grade astrocytomas.
Project description:The molecular foundations of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs)-astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, and oligoastrocytoma-remain less well characterized than those of their fully malignant counterpart, glioblastoma. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) likely represent initiating pathogenic events. However, while IDH mutations appear to dramatically alter cellular epigenomic landscapes, definitive downstream transformative mechanisms have not been characterized. It remains likely, therefore, that additional genomic abnormalities collaborate with IDH mutation to drive oncogenesis in LGG. We performed whole exome sequencing in 4 LGGs, followed by focused resequencing in an additional 28, and found a high incidence of mutations in the ATRX gene (? thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked). ATRX forms a core component of a chromatin remodeling complex active in telomere biology. Mutations in ATRX have been identified in multiple tumor types and appear to cause alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a presumed precursor to genomic instability. In our samples, ATRX mutation was entirely restricted to IDH-mutant tumors, closely correlated with TP53 mutation and astrocytic differentiation, and mutually exclusive with 1p/19q codeletion, the molecular hallmark of oligodendroglioma. Moreover, ATRX mutation was highly enriched in tumors of so-called early progenitor-like transcriptional subclass (~85%), which our prior work has linked to specific cells of origin in the forebrain subventricular zone. Finally, ATRX mutation correlated with ALT, providing a mechanistic link to genomic instability. In summary, our findings both identify ATRX mutation as a defining molecular determinant for a large subset of IDH-mutant gliomas and have direct implications on pathogenic mechanisms across the wide spectrum of LGGs.
Project description:Recent studies of genetic abnormalities in pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have focused on activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway by KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusions in the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) and by rare mutations in elements of the pathway across histopathologically diverse LGGs. This study reports that MYB, an oncogene not previously implicated in gliomagenesis, is activated in a diverse subset of pediatric LGGs. The study cohort comprised 57 pediatric LGGs and a comparative cohort of 59 pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The LGG cohort included 34 PAs and 23 diffuse gliomas; fibrillary astrocytomas (n = 14), oligodendroglial tumors (n = 7), and angiocentric gliomas (n = 2). MYB copy number abnormalities were disclosed using Affymetrix 6.0 SNP arrays and confirmed using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Novel MYB amplifications that upregulate MYB RNA and protein expression were demonstrated in 2/14 diffuse astrocytomas. In addition, focal deletion of the terminal region of MYB was seen in 1 of 2 angiocentric gliomas (AGs). Increased expression of MYB was demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MYB upregulation at the protein level was demonstrated in a proportion of diffuse LGGs (60%), pilocytic astrocytomas (41%), and HGGs (19%), but abnormalities at the genomic level were only a feature of diffuse gliomas. Our data suggest that MYB may have a role in a subset of pediatric gliomas, through a variety of mechanisms in addition to MYB amplification and deletion.
Project description:Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors (LGNTs) are diverse CNS tumors presenting in children and young adults, often with a history of epilepsy. While the genetic profiles of common LGNTs, such as the pilocytic astrocytoma and 'adult-type' diffuse gliomas, are largely established, those of uncommon LGNTs remain to be defined. In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes were the most common genetic alteration in DAs (41 %). A BRAF:p.V600E mutation was present in 35 % of gangliogliomas and 18 % of DAs. Pathogenic alterations in FGFR1/2/3, BRAF, or MYB/MYBL1 occurred in 78 % of the series. Adult-type d-OTs with an IDH1/2 mutation occurred in four adolescents, the youngest aged 15 years at biopsy. Despite a detailed analysis, novel genetic alterations were limited to two fusion genes, EWSR1-PATZ1 and SLMAP-NTRK2, both in gangliogliomas. Alterations in BRAF, FGFR1, or MYB account for most pathogenic alterations in LGNTs, including pilocytic astrocytomas, and alignment of these genetic alterations and cytologic features across LGNTs has diagnostic implications. Additionally, therapeutic options based upon targeting the effects of these alterations are already in clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) form a heterogeneous subgroup of gliomas in adults. Chromosome (chr) arms 1p/19q codeletion and IDH mutation have been shown to be closely associated with oligodendroglial phenotype and better prognosis. We sought to identify relevant biomarkers in non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs. METHODS: We characterized a retrospective series of 126 LGGs using genomic arrays, microsatellite analysis, IDH sequencing, MGMT promoter methylation assay, and p53 expression analysis. RESULTS: Our study confirms that 1p/19q codeletion, mutually exclusive with p53 overexpression, was associated with: (i) better prognosis, (ii) oligodendroglial phenotype, (iii) MGMT promoter methylation, and (iv) IDH mutation. Interestingly, 1p/19q codeleted tumors occur in older patients at diagnosis. Our study shows that non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs can be divided in 5 main genomic subgroups: (i) 11p loss, (ii) 19q loss (iii) 7 gain, (iv) 19 gain, and (v) unclassified. In non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs, we demonstrated that (i) 11p loss is associated with astrocytoma phenotype and has an independent negative prognostic value, and (ii) 19q loss diminished the favorable prognostic value of IDH mutation. Our findings were validated in an independent cohort of 98 LGGs. CONCLUSION: Novel genomic entities and biomarkers have been identified in non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs. Our findings may help to stratify non 1p/19q codeleted LGGs, facilitating future individualization of treatment. Further prospective studies are warranted to support our findings.
Project description:The most common pediatric brain tumors are low-grade gliomas (LGGs). We used whole-genome sequencing to identify multiple new genetic alterations involving BRAF, RAF1, FGFR1, MYB, MYBL1 and genes with histone-related functions, including H3F3A and ATRX, in 39 LGGs and low-grade glioneuronal tumors (LGGNTs). Only a single non-silent somatic alteration was detected in 24 of 39 (62%) tumors. Intragenic duplications of the portion of FGFR1 encoding the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and rearrangements of MYB were recurrent and mutually exclusive in 53% of grade II diffuse LGGs. Transplantation of Trp53-null neonatal astrocytes expressing FGFR1 with the duplication involving the TKD into the brains of nude mice generated high-grade astrocytomas with short latency and 100% penetrance. FGFR1 with the duplication induced FGFR1 autophosphorylation and upregulation of the MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways, which could be blocked by specific inhibitors. Focusing on the therapeutically challenging diffuse LGGs, our study of 151 tumors has discovered genetic alterations and potential therapeutic targets across the entire range of pediatric LGGs and LGGNTs.