Immunologic effects of omalizumab in children with severe refractory atopic dermatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: Severe refractory atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, debilitating condition that is associated with elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and OX40 ligand (OX40L) are important immunologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody indicated for use in allergic asthma, is implicated in regulating allergen presentation by dendritic cells and the T cell response during the effector phases of allergic disease. We investigated if anti-IgE therapy modulates the allergen-specific responses mediated by the TSLP pathway in young patients with severe refractory AD.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 8 patients between the ages of 4 and 22 years (mean = 11.6 years) with severe refractory AD (clinical trials.gov NCT01678092). Serum IgE ranged from 218 to 1,890 (mean = 1,068 IU/ml). Subjects received omalizumab (n = 4) or placebo (n = 4) every 2-4 weeks over 24 weeks using a regimen extrapolated from the package insert. TSLP, TARC, OX40L and other cytokines involved in AD were measured by using cytometric bead arrays.All patients receiving omalizumab had strikingly decreased levels of TSLP, OX40L, TARC (involved in Th2 polarization) and interleukin (IL)-9 compared to placebo. In addition, there was a marked increase in IL-10, a tolerogenic cytokine, in the omalizumab-treated group. Patients on anti-IgE therapy had an improvement in clinical outcomes as measured by the SCORAD system; however, these effects were comparable to improvements in the control group.Anti-IgE therapy with omalizumab decreases levels of cytokines that are involved in Th2 polarization and allergic inflammation, including TSLP, TARC and OX40L.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Administration of the therapeutic anti-IgE antibody omalizumab to patients induces strong increases in IgE antibody levels. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of intranasal administration of major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, omalizumab or placebo on the levels of total and allergen-specific IgE in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS:Based on the fact that intranasal allergen application induces rises of systemic allergen-specific IgE, we performed a double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial in which birch pollen allergic subjects were challenged intranasally with omalizumab, placebo or birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Total and allergen-specific IgE, IgG and basophil sensitivity were measured before and 8 weeks after challenge. For control purposes, total, allergen-specific IgE levels and omalizumab-IgE complexes as well as specific IgG levels were studied in subjects treated subcutaneously with either omalizumab or placebo. Effects of omalizumab on IgE production by IL-4/anti-CD40-treated PBMCs from allergic patients were studied in vitro. RESULTS:Intranasal challenge with Bet v 1 induced increases in Bet v 1-specific IgE levels by a median of 59.2%, and this change differed significantly from the other treatment groups (P = .016). No relevant change in allergen-specific and total IgE levels was observed in subjects challenged with omalizumab. Addition of omalizumab did not enhance IL-4/anti-CD40-induced IgE production in vitro. Significant rises in total IgE (mean IgE before: 131.83 kU/L to mean IgE after: 505.23 kU/L) and the presence of IgE-omalizumab complexes were observed after subcutaneous administration of omalizumab. CONCLUSION:Intranasal administration of allergen induced rises of allergen-specific IgE levels, whereas intranasal administration of omalizumab did not enhance systemic total or allergen-specific IgE levels.
Project description:This study was to explore the role and mechanism of macrophages in pollen-triggered allergic inflammation. A murine model of short ragweed (SRW) pollen-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC), and bone marrow (BM)-macrophages cultures were used. Typical allergic manifestations and TSLP-stimulated Th2 hyperresponse were observed in ocular surface of EAC model in wild-type (WT) mice induced by SRW. The M2 phenotype markers, Arg1, Ym1 and FIZZ1, were highly expressed by conjunctiva and draining cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of WT-EAC mice when compared with controls, as evaluated by RT-qPCR and Immunofluorescent double staining with macrophage marker F4/80. The stimulated expression of TSLPR and OX40L by macrophage was detected in conjunctiva and CLNs by RT-qPCR, double staining, and flow cytometry. M2 macrophages were found to produce TARC and MDC. In contrast, EAC model with TSLPR-/- mice did not show allergic signs and any increase of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13) and M2 markers. In vitro cultures confirmed that SRW extract stimulates expression of TSLPR, OX40L, TARC, MDC, and three M2 markers by BM-macrophages from WT mice, but not from TSLPR-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that SRW pollen primes macrophage polarization toward to M2 phenotype via TSLP/TSLPR/OX40L signaling to amplify allergic inflammation.
Project description:The OX40/OX40L interaction contributes to an optimal T cell response following allergic stimuli and plays an important role in the maintenance and reactivation of memory T effector cells.We tested whether treatment with an anti-OX40L monoclonal antibody (MAb) would inhibit allergen-induced responses in subjects with asthma.Twenty-eight mild, atopic asthmatic subjects were recruited for a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00983658) to compare blockade of OX40L using a humanized anti-OX40L MAb to placebo-administered intravenously in 4 doses over 3 months. Allergen inhalation challenges were carried out 56 and 113 days after the first dose of study drug. The primary outcome variable was the late-phase asthmatic response. Other outcomes included the early-phase asthmatic response, airway hyperresponsiveness, serum IgE levels, blood and sputum eosinophils, safety and tolerability.Treatment with anti-OX40L MAb did not attenuate the early- or late-phase asthmatic responses at days 56 or 113 compared with placebo. In the anti-OX40L MAb treatment group, total IgE was reduced 17% from pre-dosing levels, and sputum eosinophils decreased 75% by day 113 (both P = 0.04). There was no effect of anti-OX40L MAb on airway hyperresponsiveness or blood eosinophils. The frequency of AEs was similar in both groups.Pharmacological activity of anti-OX40L MAb was observed by decreases in serum total IgE and airway eosinophils at 16 weeks post-dosing, but there was no effect on allergen-induced airway responses. It is possible that the treatment duration or dose of antibody was insufficient to impact the airway responses.
Project description:Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) potently induces deregulation of Th2 responses, a hallmark feature of allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis. However, direct downstream in vivo mediators in the TSLP-induced atopic immune cascade have not been identified. In our current study, we have shown that OX40 ligand (OX40L) is a critical in vivo mediator of TSLP-mediated Th2 responses. Treating mice with OX40L-blocking antibodies substantially inhibited immune responses induced by TSLP in the lung and skin, including Th2 inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine secretion, and IgE production. OX40L-blocking antibodies also inhibited antigen-driven Th2 inflammation in mouse and nonhuman primate models of asthma. This treatment resulted in both blockade of the OX40-OX40L receptor-ligand interaction and depletion of OX40L-positive cells. The use of a blocking, OX40L-specific mAb thus presents a promising strategy for the treatment of allergic diseases associated with pathologic Th2 immune responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prevention of IgE-binding to cellular IgE-receptors by anti-IgE (Omalizumab) is clinically effective in allergic asthma, but limited by IgE threshold-levels. To overcome this limitation, we developed a single-use IgE immunoadsorber column (IgEnio). IgEnio is based on a recombinant, IgE-specific antibody fragment and can be used for the specific extracorporeal desorption of IgE. OBJECTIVE:To study safety and efficacy of IgEnio regarding the selective depletion of IgE in a randomized, open-label, controlled pilot trial in patients with allergic asthma and to investigate if IgEnio can bind IgE-Omalizumab immune complexes. METHODS:Fifteen subjects were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (n=10) or to the control group (n=5). Immunoadsorption was done by veno-venous approach, processing the twofold calculated plasma volume during each treatment. A minimum average IgE-depletion of 50% after the last cycle in the intention-to-treat population was defined as primary endpoint. Safety of the treatment was studied as secondary endpoint. In addition, possible changes in allergen-specific sensitivity were investigated, as well as clinical effects by peak flow measurement and symptom-recording. The depletion of IgE-Omalizumab immune complexes was studied in vitro. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02096237) and conducted from December 2013 to July 2014. RESULTS:IgE immunoadsorption with IgEnio selectively depleted 86.2% (±5.1% SD) of IgE until the end of the last cycle (p<0.0001). Removal of pollen allergen-specific IgE was associated with a reduction of allergen-specific basophil-sensitivity and prevented increases of allergen-specific skin-sensitivity and clinical symptoms during pollen seasons. IgEnio also depleted IgE-Omalizumab immune complexes in vitro. The therapy under investigation was safe and well-tolerated. During a total of 81 aphereses, 2 severe adverse events (SAE) were recorded, one of which, an episode of acute dyspnea, possibly was related to the treatment and resolved after administration of antihistamines and corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study indicates that IgE immunoadsorption with IgEnio may be used to treat patients with pollen-induced allergic asthma. Furthermore, the treatment could render allergic patients with highly elevated IgE-levels eligible for the administration of Omalizumab and facilitate the desorption of IgE-Omalizumab complexes. This study was funded by Fresenius Medical Care Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany.
Project description:Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is the initial step of the "atopic march", a progression from AD to asthma, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Selective expression of IL-13 in the skin of mice caused an AD phenotype resembling human AD, and the disorder was associated with enhanced production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in the AD skin with a systemic Th2 immunity. Here we show that IL-13 transgenic mice with AD had significantly enhanced lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) when sensitized and challenged by allergen. In addition, the level of TSLP was significantly higher in acute AD than in chronic AD. Furthermore, elimination of TSLP signaling significantly diminished the allergic asthma responses, immune cell production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13), and serum IgE. These studies indicate that IL-13 induces AD and atopic march via a TSLP dependent mechanism.
Project description:To explore the potential role of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and its downstream molecules in the development of ocular allergic inflammation using a short ragweed (SRW)-induced mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis (AC).BALB/c mice were topically challenged with SRW pollen after they were sensitized with SRW in the footpad. After the last SRW challenge, the corneal epithelium, conjunctiva, and cervical lymph nodes were harvested for total RNA extraction and gene expression by RT and real-time PCR, and whole eye globes were collected to make cryosections for immunohistochemical staining.Repeated topical challenges with SRW allergen generated typical signs of AC in mice. Compared with the untreated controls, TSLP mRNA expression and immunoreactivity were significantly increased in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia of SRW-induced AC mice. CD11c(+) and OX40L(+) immunoreactive cells largely infiltrated the conjunctiva with increased mRNA levels of CD11c, TSLPR, and OX40L detected in the corneal epithelium, conjunctiva, and cervical lymph nodes. CD4(+) Th2 cell infiltration was evidenced by increased levels of mRNA and immunoreactivity of CD4, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in the ocular surface, mainly in the conjunctiva, accompanied by increased expression of OX40, STAT6, and GATA3, in AC mice. The maturation of immature DCs was observed with the use of TSLP containing conditioned media from corneal epithelial cultures exposed to polyI:C, which stimulates TSLP production.This study provides new findings regarding the role of local mucosal epithelial cells in the initiation of ocular allergic inflammation by producing a novel proallergic cytokine, TSLP, which activates dendritic cells to prime Th2 differentiation and allergic inflammation through the TSLP-TSLPR and OX40L-OX40 signaling pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Using a monoclonal antibody with greater affinity for IgE than omalizumab, we examined whether more complete suppression of IgE provided greater pharmacodynamic effects, including suppression of skin prick responses to allergen. OBJECTIVE: To explore the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of QGE031 (ligelizumab), a novel high-affinity humanized monoclonal IgG1? anti-IgE. METHODS: Preclinical assessments and two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials were conducted in atopic subjects. The first trial administered single doses of QGE031 (0.1-10 mg/kg) or placebo intravenously, while the second trial administered two to four doses of QGE031 (0.2- 4 mg/kg) or placebo subcutaneously at 2-week intervals. Both trials included an open-label omalizumab arm. RESULTS: Sixty of 73 (82%) and 96 of 110 (87%) subjects completed the intravenous and subcutaneous studies, respectively. Exposure to QGE031 and its half-life depended on the QGE031 dose and serum IgE level. QGE031 had a biexponential pharmacokinetic profile after intravenous administration and a terminal half-life of approximately 20 days. QGE031 demonstrated dose- and time-dependent suppression of free IgE, basophil Fc?RI and basophil surface IgE superior in extent (free IgE and surface IgE) and duration to omalizumab. At Day 85, 6 weeks after the last dose, skin prick wheal responses to allergen were suppressed by > 95% and 41% in subjects treated subcutaneously with QGE031 (2 mg/kg) or omalizumab, respectively (P < 0.001). Urticaria was observed in QGE031- and placebo-treated subjects and was accompanied by systemic symptoms in one subject treated with 10 mg/kg intravenous QGE031. There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These first clinical data for QGE031, a high-affinity IgG1? anti-IgE, demonstrate that increased suppression of free IgE compared with omalizumab translated to superior pharmacodynamic effects in atopic subjects, including those with high IgE levels. QGE031 may therefore benefit patients unable to receive, or suboptimally treated with, omalizumab.
Project description:Bronchoprovocation challenges use direct or indirect acting stimuli to induce airflow obstruction. Indirect stimuli either non-allergic/non-IgE mediated (e.g. exercise, mannitol) or allergic/IgE mediated (i.e. allergen) trigger mast cells to release bronchoconstricting mediators (e.g. cysteinyl leukotrienes, histamine). Performing repeat challenges within a short timeframe (e.g. 3 h) with non-allergic indirect stimuli results in a diminished, refractory response to the second challenge that is inhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Cross refractoriness occurs between indirect stimuli. It follows that repeat bronchoprovocation with allergen might exhibit refractoriness that might be altered by ibuprofen. We assessed the response to a second allergen challenge performed 24 h after an initial allergen challenge to determine if the response is refractory. If refractoriness developed, the study aimed to determine whether a single dose of ibuprofen would alter the refractory response to the second allergen challenge. In the absence of a refractory response, the study design allowed for the assessment of the effect of ibuprofen on allergen challenge outcomes, including indices of airway inflammation.Thirteen mild atopic asthmatics were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study. Ibuprofen (400 mg) or placebo was administered 1 h prior to the first of two allergen challenges, performed 24 h apart. Blood and sputum eosinophils, airway responsiveness to methacholine and levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide were assessed before and 7 h after each allergen challenge. All data were log transformed and differences in geometric means were analyzed by paired t-tests.After placebo, early asthmatic responses for the two challenges were not significantly different (p = 0.82). A single 400 mg dose of ibuprofen decreased both the early (p = 0.03; n = 12) and late asthmatic responses (p = 0.03; n = 3).Allergen challenges conducted 24 h apart do not exhibit refractoriness. Single dose ibuprofen inhibits early and late asthmatic responses to allergen bronchoprovocation. Ibuprofen should be withheld for at least 24 h prior to investigations utilizing allergen bronchoprovocation. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov #NCT02327234.
Project description:The pathogenesis of asthma, which is an allergic lung disease, is associated with a variety of allergens such as house dust mite, pollen, and mould, IgE containing serum IgE and allergen-specific-IgE, and inflammatory cytokines including thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17. Because aging is an essential factor in the pathogenesis of asthma, we examined biomarkers related to asthmatic subjects depending on age.Physiological indices such as FEV1(forced expiratory capacity in 1 s), FEV1 (% predicted), and FEV1/FVC(forced vital capacity) (%) in asthmatic subjects were lower than those in normal subjects. Total IgE, Der p1 specific IgE, and Der f1 specific IgE were elevated in serum of asthmatics relative to normal individuals. Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 in serum and interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2, RANTES, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?/CCL3 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthmatic subjects were higher than in normal individuals. Upon classification of experimental groups depending on age, physiological indices and Der p1-specific IgE (class) were decreased in middle aged adult and elderly adult groups relative to the young adult group. TARC levels in serum were strongly elevated in the elderly adult group relative to the young adult and the middle aged adult groups. TARC in serum was related to total IgE in serum in the elderly adult group.Taken together, although TARC in serum and BALF is not different between normal and asthmatic individuals, TARC increases in serum of elderly asthmatic subjects. The level of TARC has a positive effect on the level of IgE in the elderly adult group. These findings may help us better understand the relationship of pathogenesis of allergic diseases and aging.