Overexpression of mouse angiotensinogen in renal proximal tubule causes salt-sensitive hypertension in mice.
ABSTRACT: The role of proximal tubule (PT) angiotensinogen (AGT) in modulating blood pressure has previously been examined using mice expressing PT human AGT and human renin, or rat AGT. These animals are hypertensive; however, the question remains whether alterations in mouse PT AGT alone affects arterial pressure.Mouse AGT cDNA was knocked-in to the endogenous kidney androgen protein (KAP) gene using an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-based strategy.The KAP-mAGT animals showed kidney-specific KAP-AGT mRNA expression; renal in situ hybridization detected KAP-AGT mRNA only in PT. Urinary AGT was markedly increased in KAP-mAGT mice. On a high Na diet, radiotelemetric arterial pressure showed a systolic pressure elevation; no significant difference in arterial pressure was observed on a normal diet. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) was reduced in KAP-mAGT animals given a high Na diet, but was not different between mouse lines during normal Na intake. Plasma AGT concentration was not altered by overexpression of PT mouse AGT.In summary, PT overexpression of mouse AGT leads to salt-sensitive hypertension without recruitment of the systemic renin-angiotensin system.
Project description:This study was performed in transgenic mice to test the hypothesis that the selective intrarenal overproduction of ANG II increases intrarenal mouse (m) angiotensinogen (AGT) expression. We used the following three groups: 1) single transgenic mice (group A, n = 14) expressing human (h) AGT only in the kidney, 2) double-transgenic mice (group D, n = 13) expressing human renin systemically in addition to hAGT only in the kidney, and 3) wild-type (group W, n = 12) mice. Exogenous hAGT protein is inactive in group A because endogenous mouse renin cannot cleave hAGT to ANG I because of a high species specificity. All mice were monitored from 12 to 18 wk of age. Systolic blood pressure progressively increased from 116 +/- 5 mmHg (12 wk) to 140 +/- 7 (18 wk) in group D. This increase was not observed in groups A or W. Intrarenal hAGT levels were similar in groups A and D; however, hAGT was not detectable in kidneys of group W. Kidney ANG II levels were increased in group D (216 +/- 43 fmol/g) compared with groups A (117 +/- 16) and W (118 +/- 17). However, plasma ANG II concentrations were similar among the three groups. Endogenous renal mAGT mRNA was increased significantly in group D (1.46 +/- 0.19, ratio) compared with groups A (0.97 +/- 0.12) and W (1.00 +/- 0.08). Endogenous renal mAGT protein was also significantly increased in group D compared with groups A and W. Interstitial collagen-positive area, interstitial macrophage/monocyte infiltration, and afferent arteriolar wall thickness were increased significantly in group D compared with groups A and W. These data indicate for the first time that the selective stimulation of intrarenal production of ANG II from hAGT augments endogenous intrarenal mAGT mRNA and protein expression.
Project description:The role of intranephron angiotensinogen (AGT) in blood pressure (BP) regulation is not fully understood. Previous studies showed that proximal tubule-specific overexpression of AGT increases BP, whereas proximal tubule-specific deletion of AGT did not alter BP. The latter study may not have completely eliminated nephron AGT production; in addition, BP was only assessed on a normal salt diet. To evaluate this issue in greater detail, we developed mice with inducible nephron-wide AGT deletion. Mice were generated which were hemizygous for the Pax8-rtTA and LC-1 transgenes and homozygous for loxP-flanked AGT alleles to achieve nephron-wide AGT disruption after doxycycline induction. Compared to controls, AGT knockout (KO) mice demonstrated markedly reduced renal AGT immunostaining, mRNA, and protein levels; unexpectedly AGT KO mice had reduced AGT mRNA levels in the liver along with 50% reduction in plasma AGT levels. BP was significantly lower in the AGT KO mice compared to controls fed a normal, low, or high Na(+) intake, with the highest BP reduction on a low Na(+) diet. Regardless of Na(+) intake, AGT KO mice had higher plasma renin concentration (PRC) and markedly reduced urinary AGT levels compared to controls. Following angiotensin-II (Ang-II) infusion, AGT KO mice demonstrated an attenuated hypertensive response despite similar suppression of PRC in the two groups. Taken together, these data suggest that nephron-derived AGT may be involved in Ang-II-dependent hypertension, however, a clear role for nephron-derived AGT in physiological BP regulation remains to be determined.
Project description:Renin cleavage of angiotensinogen (AGT) releases angiotensin I (AngI) in the initial step of producing all angiotensin peptides. It has been suggested recently that redox regulation of a disulfide bond in AGT involving Cys18-Cys137 may be important to its renin cleavage efficiency in vivo. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction in a mouse model by comparing AngII production and AngII-dependent functions in mice expressing wild-type AGT versus a mutated form of AGT lacking the disulfide bond. Wild-type (hepAGT+/+) and hepatocyte-specific AGT-deficient (hepAGT-/-) littermates were developed in an low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- background. hepAGT+/+ mice were injected intraperitoneally with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector containing a null insert. hepAGT-/- mice were injected with AAV containing a null insert, wild-type AGT or Cys18Ser and Cys137Ser mutated AGT. Two weeks after AAV injection, mice were fed a Western diet for 12 weeks. Administration of AAV containing either form of AGT led to similar plasma AGT concentrations in hepAGT-/- mice. High plasma renin concentrations in hepAGT-/- mice were suppressed equally by both forms of AGT, which were accompanied by comparable increases of plasma AngII concentrations similar to hepAGT+/+ mice. AAV-driven expression of both forms of AGT led to equivalent increases of systolic blood pressure and augmentation of atherosclerotic lesion size in hepAGT-/- mice. These measurements were comparable to systolic blood pressure and atherosclerotic lesions in hepAGT+/+ mice. These data indicate that the Cys18-Cys137 disulfide bond in AGT is dispensable for AngII production and AngII-dependent functions in mice.
Project description:The present study directly tested the hypothesis that deletion of the NHE3 (Na+/H+ exchanger 3) selectively in the proximal tubules of the kidney lowers basal blood pressure by increasing the pressure-natriuresis response in mice. Adult male and female, age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates and proximal tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (PT- Nhe3-/-; n=6-16 per group) were studied for (1) basal phenotypes of electrolytes and pH, blood pressure, and kidney function; (2) the pressure-natriuresis response using the mesenteric, celiac, and abdominal arterial occlusion technique; and (3) the natriuretic responses to acute saline expansion (0.9% NaCl, 10% body weight, intraperitoneal) or 2-week of 2% NaCl diet. Under basal conditions, PT- Nhe3-/- mice showed significantly lower systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure ( P<0.01) than WT mice ( P<0.01). PT- Nhe3-/- mice also exhibited significantly greater diuretic ( P<0.01) and natriuretic responses than WT mice ( P<0.01), without altering 24-hour fecal Na+ excretion, plasma pH, Na+, and bicarbonate levels. In response to increased renal perfusion pressure by 30 mm?Hg, the pressure-natriuresis response increased 5-fold in WT mice ( P<0.01), but it increased 8-fold in PT- Nhe3-/- mice ( P<0.01). In response to 10% acute saline expansion or 2-week 2% NaCl diet, more pronounced natriuretic responses were demonstrated in PT- Nhe3-/- than WT mice ( P<0.01). Our results support the scientific premise and physiological relevance that NHE3 in the proximal tubules plays an essential role in maintaining basal blood pressure homeostasis, and genetic deletion of NHE3 selectively in the proximal tubules of the kidney lowers blood pressure by increasing the pressure natriuretic response.
Project description:This study determined whether angiotensinogen (AGT) has angiotensin II-independent effects using multiple genetic and pharmacological manipulations.All study mice were in low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- background and fed a saturated fat-enriched diet. In mice with floxed alleles and a neomycin cassette in intron 2 of the AGT gene (hypoAGT mice), plasma AGT concentrations were >90% lower compared with their wild-type littermates. HypoAGT mice had lower systolic blood pressure, less atherosclerosis, and diminished body weight gain and liver steatosis. Low plasma AGT concentrations and all phenotypes were recapitulated in mice with hepatocyte-specific deficiency of AGT or pharmacological inhibition of AGT by antisense oligonucleotide administration. In contrast, inhibition of AGT cleavage by a renin inhibitor, aliskiren, failed to alter body weight gain and liver steatosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice. In mice with established adiposity, administration of AGT antisense oligonucleotide versus aliskiren led to equivalent reductions of systolic blood pressure and atherosclerosis. AGT antisense oligonucleotide administration ceased body weight gain and further reduced body weight, whereas aliskiren did not affect body weight gain during continuous saturated fat-enriched diet feeding. Structural comparisons of AGT proteins in zebrafish, mouse, rat, and human revealed 4 highly conserved sequences within the des(angiotensin I)AGT domain. des(angiotensin I)AGT, through adeno-associated viral infection in hepatocyte-specific AGT-deficient mice, increased body weight gain and liver steatosis, but did not affect atherosclerosis.AGT contributes to body weight gain and liver steatosis through functions of the des(angiotensin I)AGT domain, which are independent of angiotensin II production.
Project description:A high-fructose diet is shown to induce salt-sensitive hypertension, but the underlying mechanism largely remains unknown. The major goal of the present study was to test the role of renal (pro)renin receptor (PRR) in this model. In Sprague-Dawley rats, high-fructose intake increased renal expression of full-length PRR, which were attenuated by allopurinol. High-fructose intake also upregulated renal mRNA and protein expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter, as well as in vivo Na/K/2Cl cotransporter activity, all of which were nearly completely blocked by a PRR decoy inhibitor PRO20 or allopurinol treatment. Parallel changes were observed for indices of intrarenal renin-angiotensin-system including renal and urinary renin and angiotensin II levels. Radiotelemetry demonstrated that high-fructose or a high-salt diet alone did not affect mean arterial pressure, but the combination of the 2 maneuvers induced a ?10-mm?Hg increase of mean arterial pressure, which was blunted by PRO20 or allopurinol treatment. In cultured human kidney 2 cells, both fructose and uric acid increased protein expression of soluble PRR in a time- and dose-dependent manner; fructose-induced PRR upregulation was inhibited by allopurinol. Taken together, our data suggest that fructose via uric acid stimulates renal expression of PRR/soluble PRR that stimulate sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and Na/K/2Cl cotransporter expression and intrarenal renin-angiotensin system to induce salt-sensitive hypertension.
Project description:In angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertensive rats there is an increased expression of proximal tubule angiotensinogen (AGT), collecting duct renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which contributes to intratubular Ang II formation. Ang II acts on Ang II type 1 receptors promoting sodium retention and vasoconstriction. However concurrently, the ACE2-Ang-(1-7) axis and the expression of kallikrein and medullary prostaglandins counteract the effects of Ang II, promoting natriuresis and vasodilation. Human studies demonstrate that dietary potassium (K+) intake lowers blood pressure. In this report we evaluate the expression of AGT, ACE, medullary prorenin/renin, ACE2, kallikrein and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in Ang II-infused rats fed with high K+ diet (2%) for 14 days. Dietary K+ enhances diuresis in non-infused and in Ang II-infused rats. The rise in systolic blood pressure in Ang II-infused rats was attenuated by dietary K+. Ang II-infused rats showed increased renal protein levels of AGT, ACE and medullary prorenin and renin. This effect was attenuated in the Ang II + K+ group. Ang II infusion decreased ACE2 compared to the control group; however, K+ diet prevented this effect in the renal medulla. Furthermore, medullary COX-2 was dramatically induced by K+ diet in non-infused and in Ang II infused rats. Dietary K+ greatly increased kallikrein immunostaining in normotensive rats and in Ang II-hypertensive rats. These results indicate that a high K+ diet attenuates Ang II-dependent hypertension by preventing the induction of ACE, AGT and collecting duct renin and by enhancing medullary COX-2 and ACE2 protein expression in the kidney.
Project description:Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor highly expressed in the kidney, an organ playing a central role in blood pressure regulation through electrolyte homeostasis and the renin-angiotensin system. Physiological analysis revealed that, relative to wild-type mice, ERRalpha null mice are hypotensive despite significant hypernatremia, hypokalemia, and slight hyperreninemia. Using a combination of genome-wide location analysis and expression profiling, we demonstrate that ERRalpha regulates the expression of channels involved in renal Na(+) and K(+) handling (Scnn1a, Atp1a1, Atp1b1) and altered in Bartter syndrome (Bsnd, Kcnq1). In addition, ERRalpha regulates the expression of receptors implicated in the systemic regulation of blood pressure (Ghr, Gcgr, Lepr, Npy1r) and of genes within the renin-angiotensin pathway (Ren1, Agt, Ace2). Our study thus identifies ERRalpha as a pleiotropic regulator of renal control of blood pressure, renal Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis, and renin-angiotensin pathway and suggests that modulation of ERRalpha activity could represent a potential avenue for the management of hypertension.
Project description:We have previously shown that in some patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), disease is associated with mistargeting of the normally peroxisomal enzyme alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) to mitochondria (Danpure, C.J., P.J. Cooper, P.J. Wise, and P.R. Jennings. J. Cell Biol. 108:1345-1352). We have synthesized, amplified, cloned, and sequenced AGT cDNA from a PH1 patient with mitochondrial AGT (mAGT). This identified three point mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the predicted AGT protein sequence. Using PCR and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization, a range of PH1 patients and controls were screened for these mutations. This revealed that all eight PH1 patients with mAGT carried at least one allele with the same three mutations. Two were homozygous for this allele and six were heterozygous. In at least three of the heterozygotes, it appeared that only the mutant allele was expressed. All three mutations were absent from PH1 patients lacking mAGT. One mutation encoding a Gly----Arg substitution at residue 170 was not found in any of the control individuals. However, the other two mutations, encoding Pro----Leu and Ile----Met substitutions at residues 11 and 340, respectively, cosegregated in the normal population at an allelic frequency of 5-10%. In an individual homozygous for this allele (substitutions at residues 11 and 340) only a small proportion of AGT appeared to be rerouted to mitochondria. It is suggested that the substitution at residue 11 generates an amphiphilic alpha-helix with characteristics similar to recognized mitochondrial targeting sequences, the full functional expression of which is dependent upon coexpression of the substitution at residue 170, which may induce defective peroxisomal import.
Project description:Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue.RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined.Prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF exerted a synergistic effect on systolic BP. Prenatal DEX exposure suppressed plasma angiotensin (ANG) I and ANG II, whereas postnatal HF suppressed plasma ANG-(1-7) level. Prenatal DEX increased prorenin receptor and renin levels, but suppressed angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme 1 (ACE1) mRNA expressions in adipose tissue. Postnatal HF increased AGT mRNA expression, but suppressed prorenin receptor, renin, ACE2, ANG II type 2 receptor (AT2R), and Mas receptor (MasR) mRNA expression levels.Prenatal GC exposure altered the ACE1/ANG II/ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis, whereas postnatal HF negatively impacted the ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/MasR axis. Prenatal DEX exposure and postnatal HF synergistically elevated BP through a distinct programming mechanism of systemic and adipose RAS. Adipose RAS might be a target for precise hypertension treatment.