Open tubular lab-on-column/mass spectrometry for targeted proteomics of nanogram sample amounts.
ABSTRACT: A novel open tubular nanoproteomic platform featuring accelerated on-line protein digestion and high-resolution nano liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) has been developed. The platform features very narrow open tubular columns, and is hence particularly suited for limited sample amounts. For enzymatic digestion of proteins, samples are passed through a 20 µm inner diameter (ID) trypsin + endoproteinase Lys-C immobilized open tubular enzyme reactor (OTER). Resulting peptides are subsequently trapped on a monolithic pre-column and transferred on-line to a 10 µm ID porous layer open tubular (PLOT) liquid chromatography LC separation column. Wnt/ß-catenein signaling pathway (Wnt-pathway) proteins of potentially diagnostic value were digested+detected in targeted-MS/MS mode in small cell samples and tumor tissues within 120 minutes. For example, a potential biomarker Axin1 was identifiable in just 10 ng of sample (protein extract of ?1,000 HCT15 colon cancer cells). In comprehensive mode, the current OTER-PLOT set-up could be used to identify approximately 1500 proteins in HCT15 cells using a relatively short digestion+detection cycle (240 minutes), outperforming previously reported on-line digestion/separation systems. The platform is fully automated utilizing common commercial instrumentation and parts, while the reactor and columns are simple to produce and have low carry-over. These initial results point to automated solutions for fast and very sensitive MS based proteomics, especially for samples of limited size.
Project description:Reliable, sensitive and automatable analytical methodology is of great value in e.g. cancer diagnostics. In this context, an on-line system for enzymatic cleavage of proteins, subsequent peptide separation by liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometric detection has been developed using "sub-chip" columns (10-20??m inner diameter, ID). The system could detect attomole amounts of isolated cancer biomarker progastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), in a more automatable fashion compared to previous methods. The workflow combines protein digestion using an 20??m ID immobilized trypsin reactor with a polymeric layer of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-vinyl azlactone (HEMA-VDM), desalting on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) monolithic trap column, and subsequent separation of resulting peptides on a 10??m ID (PS-DVB) porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column. The high resolution of the PLOT columns was maintained in the on-line system, resulting in narrow chromatographic peaks of 3-5 seconds. The trypsin reactors provided repeatable performance and were compatible with long-term storage.
Project description:A study was initiated to construct a micro-reactor for protein digestion based on trypsin-coated fused-silica capillaries. Initially, surface plasmon resonance was used both for optimization of the surface chemistry applied in the preparation and for monitoring the amount of enzyme that was immobilized. The highest amount of trypsin was immobilized on dextran-coated SPR surfaces which allowed the covalent coupling of 11 ng mm(-2) trypsin. Fused-silica capillaries were modified in a similar manner and the resulting open-tubular trypsin-reactors having a pH optimum of pH 8.5, display a high activity when operated at 37 degrees C and are stable for at least two weeks when used continuously. Trypsin auto-digestion fragments, sample carry-over, and loss of signal due to adsorption of the protein were not observed. On-line digestion without prior protein denaturation, followed by micro-LC separation and photodiode array detection, was tested with horse-heart cytochrome C and horse skeletal-muscle myoglobin. The complete digestion of 20 pmol microL(-1) horse cytochrome C was observed when the average residence time of the protein sample in a 140 cm x 50 microm capillary immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was 165 s. Mass spectrometric identification of the injected protein on the basis of the tryptic peptides proved possible. Protein digestion was favorable with respect to reaction time and fragments formed when compared with other on-line and off-line procedures. These results and the easy preparation of this micro-reactor provide possibilities for miniaturized enzyme-reactors for on-line peptide mapping and inhibitor screening.
Project description:We have designed a versatile and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) system, featuring a monolithic trap column and a very narrow (10??m ID) fused silica open tubular liquid chromatography (OTLC) separation column functionalized with C18-groups, for separating a wide range of molecules (from small metabolites to intact proteins). Compared to today's capillary/nanoLC approaches, our system provides significantly enhanced sensitivity (up to several orders) with matching or improved separation efficiency, and highly repeatable chromatographic performance. The chemical properties of the trap column and the analytical column were fine-tuned to obtain practical sample loading capacities (above 2??g), an earlier bottleneck of OTLC. Using the OTLC system (combined with Orbitrap mass spectrometry), we could perform targeted metabolomics of sub-?g amounts of exosomes with 25 attogram detection limit of a breast cancer-related hydroxylated cholesterol. With the same set-up, sensitive bottom-up proteomics (targeted and untargeted) was possible, and high-resolving intact protein analysis. In contrast to state-of-the-art packed columns, our platform performs chromatography with very little dilution and is "fit-for-all", well suited for comprehensive analysis of limited samples, and has potential as a tool for challenges in diagnostics.
Project description:Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) is a micro-scale separation technique which is a hybrid between capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC). CEC can be performed in packed, monolithic and open-tubular columns. In recent three years (from 2016 to 2018), enormous attention for CEC has been the development of novel stationary phases. This review mainly covers the development of novel stationary phases for open-tubular and monolithic columns. In particular, some biomaterials attracted increasing interest. There are no significant breakthroughs in technology and principles in CEC. The typical CEC applications, especially chiral separations are described.
Project description:Combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL) was evaluated as an off line step to narrow the differences of protein concentration in human serum prior to the capturing of human fucome from disease-free and breast cancer sera by a multicolumn platform via lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) followed by the fractionation of the captured glycoproteins by reversed phase chromatography (RPC). Two monolithic lectin columns specific to fucose, namely Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL) and Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA) columns were utilized to capture the fucome, which was subsequently fractionated by RPC yielding desalted fractions in volatile acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, which after vacuum evaporation were subjected to tryptic digestion prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. AAL has a strong affinity towards core fucosylated N-glycans and has a weak binding towards fucose in the outer arm while LTA can bind to glycans having fucose present in the outer arm. The combined strategy consisting of the CPLL, multicolumn platform and LC-MS/MS analysis permitted the identification of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in breast cancer serum yielding 58 DEPs in both the LTA and AAL fractions with 6 DEPs common to both lectins. 17 DEPs were of the low abundance type, 16 DEPs of the borderline abundance type, 4 DEPs of the medium abundance type and 15 DEPs of the high abundance type. The remaining 6 DEPs are of unknown concentration. Only proteins exhibiting 99.9% protein identification probability, 95% peptide identification probability, and a minimum of 5 unique peptides were considered in finding the DEPs via scatterplots.
Project description:Trypsin is the most widely used enzyme in proteomic research due to its high specificity. Although the in-solution digestion is predominantly used, it has several drawbacks, such as long digestion times, autolysis, and intolerance to high temperatures or organic solvents. To overcome these shortcomings trypsin was covalently immobilized on solid support and tested for its proteolytic activity. Trypsin was immobilized on bridge-ethyl hybrid silica sorbent with 300Å pores, packed in 2.1×30mm column and compared with Perfinity and Poroszyme trypsin columns. Catalytic efficiency of enzymatic reactors was tested using N?-Benzoyl-l-arginine 4-nitroanilide hydrochloride as a substrate. The impact of buffer pH, mobile phase flow rate, and temperature on enzymatic activity was investigated. Digestion speed generally increased with the temperature from 20 to 37°C. Digestion speed also increased with pH from 7.0 to 9.0; the activity of prototype enzyme reactor was highest at pH 9.0, when it activity exceeded both commercial reactors. Preliminary data for fast protein digestion are presented.
Project description:Site-specific analysis of protein glycosylation is important for biochemical and clinical research efforts. Glycopeptide analysis using liquid chromatography-collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry (LC-CID/ETD-MS) allows simultaneous characterization of the glycan structure and attached peptide site. However, due to the low ionization efficiency of glycopeptides during electrospray ionization, 200-500 fmol of sample per injection is needed for a single LC-MS run, which makes it challenging for the analysis of limited amounts of glycoprotein purified from biological matrixes. To improve the sensitivity of LC-MS analysis for glycopeptides, an ultranarrow porous layer open tubular (PLOT) LC column (2.5 m × 10 ?m i.d.) was coupled to a linear ion trap (LTQ) collision-induced dissociation/electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometer to provide sensitive analysis of N-linked protein glycosylation heterogeneity. The potential of the developed method is demonstrated by the characterization of site-specific glycosylation using haptoglobin (Hpt) as a model protein. To limit the amount of haptoglobin to low picomole amounts of protein, we affinity purified it from 1 ?L of pooled lung cancer patient plasma. A total of 26 glycoforms/glycan compositions on three Hpt tryptic glycopeptides were identified and quantified from 10 LC-MS runs with a consumption of 100 fmol of Hpt digest (13 ng of protein, 10 fmol per injection). Included in this analysis was the determination of the glycan occupancy level. At this sample consumption level, the high sensitivity of the PLOT LC-LTQ-CID/ETD-MS system allowed glycopeptide identification and structure determination, along with relative quantitation of glycans presented on the same peptide backbone, even for low abundant glycopeptides at the ?100 amol level. The PLOT LC-MS system is shown to have sufficient sensitivity to allow characterization of site-specific protein glycosylation from trace levels of glycosylated proteins.
Project description:Methodology for sequence analysis of ?150 kDa monoclonal antibodies (mAb), including location of post-translational modifications and disulfide bonds, is described. Limited digestion of fully denatured (reduced and alkylated) antibody was accomplished in seconds by flowing a sample in 8murea at a controlled flow rate through a micro column reactor containing immobilized aspergillopepsin I. The resulting product mixture containing 3-9 kDa peptides was then fractionated by capillary column liquid chromatography and analyzed on-line by both electron-transfer dissociation and collisionally activated dissociation mass spectrometry (MS). This approach enabled identification of peptides that cover the complete sequence of a murine mAb. With customized tandem MS and ProSightPC Biomarker search, we verified 95% amino acid residues of this mAb and identified numerous post-translational modifications (oxidized methionine, pyroglutamylation, deamidation of Asn, and several forms ofN-linked glycosylation). For disulfide bond location, native mAb is subjected to the same procedure but with longer digestion times controlled by sample flow rate through the micro column reactor. Release of disulfide containing peptides from accessible regions of the folded antibody occurs with short digestion times. Release of those in the interior of the molecule requires longer digestion times. The identity of two peptides connected by a disulfide bond is determined using a combination of electron-transfer dissociation and ion-ion proton transfer chemistry to read the two N-terminal and two C-terminal sequences of the connected peptides.
Project description:Pepsin was immobilized on ethyl-bridged hybrid (BEH) particles, and digestion performance was evaluated in a completely online format, with the specific intent of using the particles for hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) experiments. Because the BEH particles are mechanically strong, they could withstand prolonged, continuous high-pressure at 10,000 psi. Online digestion was performed under isobaric conditions with continuous solvent flow, in contrast to other approaches where the pressure or flow is cycled. As expected, digestion efficiency at 10,000 psi was increased and reproducibly produced more peptic peptides versus digestion at 1000 psi. Prototype columns made with the BEH pepsin particles exhibited robust performance, and deuterium back-exchange was similar to that of other immobilized pepsin particles. These particles can be easily incorporated in existing HDX MS workflows to provide more peptide coverage in experiments where fast, efficient, and reproducible online pepsin digestion is desired.
Project description:Synovial fluid (SF) is of great interest for the investigation of orthopedic pathologies, as it is in close proximity to various tissues that are primarily altered during these disease processes and can be collected using minimally invasive protocols. Multi-"omic" approaches are commonplace, although little consideration is often given for multiple analysis techniques at sample collection. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics are two complementary techniques particularly suited to the study of SF. However, currently there are no agreed upon standard protocols that are published for SF collection and processing for use with NMR metabolomic analysis. Furthermore, the large protein concentration dynamic range present within SF can mask the detection of lower abundance proteins in proteomics. While combinational ligand libraries (ProteoMiner columns) have been developed to reduce this dynamic range, their reproducibility when used in conjunction with SF, or on-bead protein digestion protocols, has yet to be investigated. Here we employ optimized protocols for the collection, processing, and storage of SF for NMR metabolite analysis and LC-MS/MS proteome analysis, including a Lys-C endopeptidase digestion step prior to tryptic digestion, which increased the number of protein identifications and improved reproducibility for on-bead ProteoMiner digestion.