Intra-operative preparation of autologous bone marrow-derived CD34-enriched cellular products for cardiac therapy.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS:With the advent of regenerative therapy, there is renewed interest in the use of bone marrow as a source of adult stem and progenitor cells, including cell subsets prepared by immunomagnetic selection. Cell selection must be rapid, efficient and performed according to current good manufacturing practices. In this report we present a methodology for intra-operative preparation of CD34(+) selected autologous bone marrow for autologous use in patients receiving coronary artery bypass grafts or left ventricular assist devices. METHODS AND RESULTS:We developed a rapid erythrocyte depletion method using hydroxyethyl starch and low-speed centrifugation to prepare large-scale (mean 359 mL) bone marrow aspirates for separation on a Baxter Isolex 300i immunomagnetic cell separation device. CD34 recovery after erythrocyte depletion was 68.3 ± 20.2%, with an average depletion of 91.2 ± 2.8% and an average CD34 content of 0.58 ± 0.27%. After separation, CD34 purity was 64.1 ± 17.2%, with 44.3 ± 26.1% recovery and an average dose of 5.0 ± 2.7 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/product. In uncomplicated cases CD34-enriched cellular products could be accessioned, prepared, tested for release and administered within 6 h. Further analysis of CD34(+) bone marrow cells revealed a significant proportion of CD45(-) CD34(+) cells. CONCLUSIONS:Intra-operative immunomagnetic separation of CD34-enriched bone marrow is feasible using rapid low-speed Hetastarch sedimentation for erythrocyte depletion. The resulting CD34-enriched product contains CD45(-) cells that may represent non-hematopoietic or very early hematopoietic stem cells that participate in tissue regeneration.
Project description:Humanized animal models are central to efforts aimed at improving hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation with or without genetic modification. Human cell engraftment is feasible in immunodeficient mice; however, high HSC doses and conditioning limit broad use of xenograft models. We assessed human CD45+ chimerism after transplanting varying doses of human CD34+ HSCs (2 × 105 to 2 × 106 cells/mouse) with or without busulfan (BU) pretransplant conditioning in c-kit mutant mice that do not require conditioning (non-obese diabetic [NOD]/B6/severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID]/ interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain null (IL-2r?-/-) KitW41/W41 [NBSGW]). We then tested a range of BU (5-37.5 mg/kg) using 2 × 105 human CD34+ cells. Glycophorin-A erythrocyte chimerism was assessed after murine macrophage depletion using clodronate liposomes. We demonstrated successful long-term engraftment of human CD34+ cells at all cell doses in this model, and equivalent engraftment using 10-fold less CD34+ cells with the addition of BU conditioning. Low-dose BU (10 mg/kg) was sufficient to allow human engraftment using 2 × 105 CD34+ cells, whereas higher doses (?37.5 mg/kg) were toxic. NBSGW mice support human erythropoiesis in the bone marrow; however, murine macrophage depletion provided only minimal and transient increases in peripheral blood human erythrocytes. Our xenograft model is therefore useful in HSC gene therapy and genome-editing studies, especially for modeling in disorders, such as sickle cell disease, where access to HSCs is limited.
Project description:Nonhematopoietic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are of central importance for bone marrow stroma and the hematopoietic environment. However, the exact phenotype and anatomical distribution of specified MSC populations in the marrow are unknown. We characterized the phenotype of primary human BM-MSCs and found that all assayable colony-forming units-fibroblast (CFU-Fs) were highly and exclusively enriched not only in the lin?/CD271?/CD45?/CD146? stem-cell fraction, but also in lin?/CD271?/CD45?/CD146(?/low) cells. Both populations, regardless of CD146 expression, shared a similar phenotype and genotype, gave rise to typical cultured stromal cells, and formed bone and hematopoietic stroma in vivo. Interestingly, CD146 was up-regulated in normoxia and down-regulated in hypoxia. This was correlated with in situ localization differences, with CD146 coexpressing reticular cells located in perivascular regions, whereas bone-lining MSCs expressed CD271 alone. In both regions, CD34? hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were located in close proximity to MSCs. These novel findings show that the expression of CD146 differentiates between perivascular versus endosteal localization of non-hematopoietic BM-MSC populations, which may be useful for the study of the hematopoietic environment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Predicting the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapy would be of clinical value in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the hypothesis that circulating endothelial cell (CEC), bone marrow-derived CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+) progenitor cell or plasma angiogenic factor levels are associated with clinical outcome in mRCC pts undergoing treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). METHODS: Fifty-five mRCC pts were prospectively monitored at baseline (day 1) and day 14 during treatment (46 pts received sunitinib and 9 pts received sorafenib). Circulating endothelial cells (CD45(-)CD31(+)CD146(+)7-amino-actinomycin (7AAD)(-) cells) were measured in 1?ml whole blood using four-color flow cytometry (FCM). Circulating CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) progenitor cells were measured in progenitor-enriched fractions by four-color FCM. Plasma VEGF, sVEGFR2, SDF-1? and sVCAM-1 levels were determined by ELISA. Correlations between baseline CEC, CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) progenitor cells, plasma factors, as well as day 1-day 14 changes in CEC, CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) progenitor, plasma factor levels, and response to TKI, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were examined. RESULTS: No significant correlation between markers and response to TKI was observed. No association between baseline CEC, plasma VEGF, sVEGFR-2, SDF-1?, sVCAM-1 levels with PFS and OS was observed. However, baseline CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) progenitor cell levels were associated with PFS (P=0.01) and OS (P=0.006). Changes in this population and in SDF-1? levels between day 1 and day 14 were associated with PFS (P=0.03, P=0.002). Changes in VEGF and SDF-1? levels were associated with OS (P=0.02, P=0.007). CONCLUSION: Monitoring CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+) progenitor cells, plasma VEGF and SDF-1? levels could be of clinical interest in TKI-treated mRCC pts to predict outcome.
Project description:Murine very small embryonic-like (VSEL) cells, defined by the Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-) phenotype and small size, were described as pluripotent cells and proposed to be the most primitive hematopoietic precursors in adult bone marrow. Although their isolation and potential application rely entirely on flow cytometry, the immunophenotype of VSELs has not been extensively characterized. Our aim was to analyze the possible heterogeneity of Lin(-)Sca(+)CD45(-) population and investigate the extent to which VSELs characteristics may overlap with that of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The study evidenced that murine Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-) population was heterogeneous in terms of c-Kit and KDR expression. Accordingly, the c-Kit(+)KDR(-), c-Kit(-)KDR(+), and c-Kit(-)KDR(-) subpopulations could be distinguished, while c-Kit(+)KDR(+) events were very rare. The c-Kit(+)KDR(-) subset contained almost solely small cells, meeting the size criterion of VSELs, in contrast to relatively bigger c-Kit(-)KDR(+) cells. The c-Kit(-)KDR(-)FSC(low) subset was highly enriched in Annexin V-positive, apoptotic cells, hence omitted from further analysis. Importantly, using qRT-PCR, we evidenced lack of Oct-4A and Oct-4B mRNA expression either in whole adult murine bone marrow or in the sorted of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)FSC(low) population, even by single-cell qRT-PCR. We also found that the Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)c-Kit(+) subset did not exhibit hematopoietic potential in a single cell-derived colony in vitro assay, although it comprised the Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)Lin(-) (SKL) CD34(-)CD45(-)CD105(+) cells, expressing particular HSC markers. Co-culture of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)FSC(low) with OP9 cells did not induce hematopoietic potential. Further investigation revealed that SKL CD45(-)CD105(+) subset consisted of early apoptotic cells with fragmented chromatin, and could be contaminated with nuclei expelled from erythroblasts. Concluding, murine bone marrow Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)FSC(low) cells are heterogeneous population, which do not express the pluripotency marker Oct-4A. Despite expression of some hematopoietic markers by a Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD45(-)c-Kit(+)KDR(-) subset of VSELs, they do not display hematopoietic potential in a clonogenic assay and are enriched in early apoptotic cells.
Project description:Ischemic stroke causes mobilization of various groups of progenitor cells from bone marrow to bloodstream and this correlates with the neurological status of stroke patients. The goal of our study was to identify the activity of chosen progenitor/stem cells in the peripheral blood of acute ischemic stroke patients in the first 7 days after the incident, through associations between the levels of the cells and clinical features of the patients. Thirty-three acute ischemic stroke patients and 15 non-stroke control subjects had their venous blood collected repeatedly in order to assess the levels of the CD45-CD34?+?CD271+, the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR4+, the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR7+, and the CD45-CD34?+?CD133+ stem/progenitor cells by means of flow cytometry. The patients underwent repeated neurological and clinical assessments, pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment on day 5, and MRI on day 1 and 5?±?2. The levels of the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR7+ and the CD45-CD34?+?CD271+ cells were lower in the stroke patients compared with the control subjects. Only the CD45-CD34?+?CD271+ cells correlated positively with lesion volume in the second MRI. The levels of the CD45-CD34?+?CD133+ cells on day 2 correlated negatively with PWV and NIHSS score on day 9. The patients whose PWV was above 10 m/s had significantly higher levels of the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR4+ and the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR7+ cells on day 1 than those with PWV below 10 m/s. This study discovers possible activity of the CD45-CD34?+?CD271+ progenitor/stem cells during the first 7 days after ischemic stroke, suggests associations of the CD45-CD34?+?CD133+ cells with the neurological status of stroke patients, and some activity of the CD45-CD34?+?CD133+, the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR4+, and the CD45-CD34?+?CXCR7+ progenitor/stem cells in the process of arterial remodeling.
Project description:Various experimental studies indicate potential involvement of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells (SCs) in malignancy development and progression. In this study, we comprehensively analysed systemic trafficking of various populations of BM-derived SCs (BMSCs), i.e., mesenchymal, haematopoietic, endothelial stem/progenitor cells (MSCs, HSCs, EPCs respectively), and of recently discovered population of very small embryonic/epiblast-like SCs (VSELs) in pancreatic cancer patients. Circulating CD133(+)/Lin(-)/CD45(-)/CD34(+) cells enriched for HSCs, CD105(+)/STRO-1(+)/CD45(-) cells enriched for MSCs, CD34(+)/KDR(+)/CD31(+)/CD45(-) cells enriched for EPCs and small CXCR4(+) CD34(+) CD133(+) subsets of Lin(-) CD45(-) cells that correspond to VSELs were enumerated and sorted from blood samples derived from 29 patients with pancreatic cancer, and 19 healthy controls. In addition, plasma levels of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), growth/inhibitory factors and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P; chemoattractants for SCs), as well as, of complement cascade (CC) molecules (C3a, C5a and C5b-9/membrane attack complex--MAC) were measured. Higher numbers of circulating VSELs and MSCs were detected in pancreatic cancer patients (P < 0.05 and 0.01 respectively). This trafficking of BMSCs was associated with significantly elevated C5a (P < 0.05) and C5b-9/MAC (P < 0.005) levels together with S1P concentrations detected in plasma of cancer patients, and seemed to be executed in a SDF-1 independent manner. In conclusion, we demonstrated that in patients with pancreatic cancer, intensified peripheral trafficking of selected populations of BMSCs occurs. This phenomenon seems to correlate with systemic activation of the CC, hepatocyte growth factor and S1P levels. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate herein that systemic SDF-1 levels do not seem to be linked with increased mobilization of stem cells in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Project description:To detect as yet unidentified cell-surface molecules specific to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), a modified signal sequence trap was successfully applied to mouse bone marrow (BM) CD34(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) (CD34(-)KSL) HSCs. One of the identified molecules, Endomucin, is an endothelial sialomucin closely related to CD34. High-level expression of Endomucin was confined to the BM KSL HSCs and progenitor cells, and, importantly, long-term repopulating (LTR)-HSCs were exclusively present in the Endomucin(+)CD34(-)KSL population. Notably, in the yolk sac, Endomucin expression separated multipotential hematopoietic cells from committed erythroid progenitors in the cell fraction positive for CD41, an early embryonic hematopoietic marker. Furthermore, developing HSCs in the intraembryonic aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region were highly enriched in the CD45(-)CD41(+)Endomucin(+) fraction at day 10.5 of gestation (E10.5) and in the CD45(+)CD41(+)Endomucin(+) fraction at E11.5. Detailed analyses of these fractions uncovered drastic changes in their BM repopulating capacities as well as in vitro cytokine responsiveness within this narrow time frame. Our findings establish Endomucin as a novel cell-surface marker for LTR-HSCs throughout development and provide a powerful tool in understanding HSC ontogeny.
Project description:Lentiviral vector (LV)-based hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is becoming a promising clinical strategy for the treatment of genetic blood diseases. However, the current approach of modifying 1 × 108 to 1 × 109 CD34+ cells per patient requires large amounts of LV, which is expensive and technically challenging to produce at clinical scale. Modification of bulk CD34+ cells uses LV inefficiently, because the majority of CD34+ cells are short-term progenitors with a limited post-transplant lifespan. Here, we utilized a clinically relevant, immunomagnetic bead (IB)-based method to purify CD34+CD38- cells from human bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood (mPB). IB purification of CD34+CD38- cells enriched severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) repopulating cell (SRC) frequency an additional 12-fold beyond standard CD34+ purification and did not affect gene marking of long-term HSCs. Transplant of purified CD34+CD38- cells led to delayed myeloid reconstitution, which could be rescued by the addition of non-transduced CD38+ cells. Importantly, LV modification and transplantation of IB-purified CD34+CD38- cells/non-modified CD38+ cells into immune-deficient mice achieved long-term gene-marked engraftment comparable with modification of bulk CD34+ cells, while utilizing ?7-fold less LV. Thus, we demonstrate a translatable method to improve the clinical and commercial viability of gene therapy for genetic blood cell diseases.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine whether bone marrow-derived fibrocytes migrate into the cornea after stromal scar-producing injury and differentiate into alpha-smooth muscle actin (?SMA) + myofibroblasts. Chimeric mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) bone marrow cells had fibrosis (haze)-generating irregular phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). Multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) for GFP and fibrocyte markers (CD34, CD45, and vimentin) was used to detect fibrocyte infiltration into the corneal stroma and the development of GFP+ ?SMA+ myofibroblasts. IHC for activated caspase-3, GFP and CD45 was used to detect fibrocyte and other hematopoietic cells undergoing apoptosis. Moderate haze developed in PTK-treated mouse corneas at 14 days after surgery and worsened, and persisted, at 21 days after surgery. GFP+ CD34+ CD45+ fibrocytes, likely in addition to other CD34+ and/or CD45+ hematopoietic and stem/progenitor cells, infiltrated the cornea and were present in the stroma in high numbers by one day after PTK. The fibrocytes and other bone marrow-derived cells progressively decreased at four days and seven days after surgery. At four days after PTK, 5% of the GFP+ cells expressed activated caspase-3. At 14 days after PTK, more than 50% of GFP+ CD45+ cells were also ?SMA+ myofibroblasts. At 21 days after PTK, few GFP+ ?SMA+ cells persisted in the stroma and more than 95% of those remaining expressed activated caspase-3, indicating they were undergoing apoptosis. GFP+ CD45+ SMA+ cells that developed from 4 to 21 days after irregular PTK were likely developed from fibrocytes. After irregular PTK in the strain of C57BL/6-C57/BL/6-Tg(UBC-GFP)30Scha/J chimeric mice, however, more than 95% of fibrocytes and other hematopoietic cells underwent apoptosis prior to the development of mature ?SMA+ myofibroblasts. Most GFP+ CD45+ ?SMA+ myofibroblasts that did develop subsequently underwent apoptosis-likely due to epithelial basement membrane regeneration and deprivation of epithelium-derived TGF? requisite for myofibroblast survival.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to support the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We hypothesized that intra-osseous (IO) co-transplantation of MSC and umbilical cord blood (UCB) may be effective in improving early HSC engraftment, as IO transplantation has been demonstrated to enhance UCB engraftment in NOD SCID-gamma (NSG) mice. Following non-lethal irradiation (300rads), 6 groups of NSG mice were studied: 1) intravenous (IV) UCB CD34+ cells, 2) IV UCB CD34+ cells and MSC, 3) IO UCB CD34+ cells, 4) IO UCB CD34+ cells and IO MSC, 5) IO UCB CD34+ cells and IV MSC, and 6) IV UCB CD34+ and IO MSC. Analysis of human-derived CD45+, CD3+, and CD19+ cells 6 weeks following transplant revealed the highest level of engraftment in the IO UCB plus IO MSC cohort. Bone marrow analysis of human CD13 and CD14 markers revealed no significant difference between cohorts. We observed that IO MSC and UCB co-transplantation led to superior engraftment of CD45+, CD3+ and CD19+ lineage cells in the bone marrow at 6 weeks as compared with the IV UCB cohort controls. Our data suggests that IO co-transplantation of MSC and UCB facilitates human HSC engraftment in NSG mice.