Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus.
ABSTRACT: The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.
Project description:In the present study, we report an efficient method for tetracycline (TC) removal from contaminated wastewater using alginate beads, immobilized with bio nanocomposite (BNC) consisting of Fe3O4 (iron oxide) and TiO2 (titanium dioxide) nanoparticles along with dead biomass of TC-resistant bacteria Acinetobacter sp. Chemically synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and commercially available TiO2 (P25) nanoparticles were combined to form nanocomposite followed by encapsulation within alginate beads along with heat-killed biomass of Acinetobactersp. for the efficient degradation and adsorption of the target pollutant. The primary characterization of chemically synthesized nanoparticles was carried out with Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The batch studies for TC removal were performed by varying the reaction parameters such as bead weight, initial TC concentration, and pH in a photoreactor with UV-C irradiation. TC concentration of 10 mg/L, bead weight 10 g, and pH 6 were fixed as the optimum condition where 98 ± 0.5% of TC was removed from the solution. The possible removal mechanism was investigated with the help of UV-visible, total organic carbon, oxidation-reduction potential, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses. The applicability of the process was successfully tested with the natural water systems spiked with TC at 10 mg/L. To assess the ecotoxic effects of the treated effluents, the cell viability assay was performed with the algal strains, Chlorella, and Scenedesmussp. and the bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Escherichia coli. Finally, the reusability of the BNC bead was successfully established up to the 4th cycle.
Project description:Controlling the formation of nanosized branched nanoparticles with high uniformity is one of the major challenges in synthesizing nanocatalysts with improved activity and stability. Using a cubic-core hexagonal-branch mechanism to form highly monodisperse branched nanoparticles, we vary the length of the nickel branches. Lengthening the nickel branches, with their high coverage of active facets, is shown to improve activity for electrocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), as an example for biomass conversion.
Project description:In this work, we prepared oriented mesoporous thin films of silica on various solid substrates using the pluronic block copolymer P123 as a template. We attempted to insert guest iron oxide (FexOy) nanoparticles into these films by two different methods: (a) by co-precipitation-where iron precursors are introduced in the synthesis sol before deposition of the silica film-and subsequent oxide production during the film calcination step; (b) by preparing and calcining the silica films first then impregnating them with the iron precursor, obtaining the iron oxide nanoparticles by a second calcination step. We have examined the structural effects of the guest nanoparticles on the silica film structures using grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GISAXS), high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy (HRTEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman microscopy. Formation of nanoparticles by co-precipitation may induce substantial changes in the film structure leading, in our adopted process, to the appearance of lamellar ordering in the calcination stage. On the contrary, impregnation-based approaches perturb the film structures much more weakly, but are also less efficient in filling the pores with nanoparticles.
Project description:This article presents novel, rapid, and environmentally benign synthesis method for one-step reduction and decoration of graphene oxide with gold nanoparticles (NAuNPs) by using thermostable antimicrobial nisin peptides to form a gold-nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (NAu-rGO) nanocomposite. The formed composite material was characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). HR-TEM analysis revealed the formation of spherical AuNPs of 5-30?nm in size on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets. A non-volatile-memory device was prepared based on a solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistor fabricated by inserting the NAu-rGO nanocomposite in the gate dielectric stack as a charge trapping medium. The transfer characteristic of the ZnO thin-film transistor memory device showed large clockwise hysteresis behaviour because of charge carrier trapping in the NAu-rGO nanocomposite. Under positive and negative bias conditions, clear positive and negative threshold voltage shifts occurred, which were attributed to charge carrier trapping and de-trapping in the ZnO/NAu-rGO/SiO2 structure. Also, the photothermal effect of the NAu-rGO nanocomposites on MCF7 breast cancer cells caused inhibition of ~80% cells after irradiation with infrared light (0.5?W?cm-2) for 5?min.
Project description:Native oxide surfaces of stainless steel 316L and Nitinol alloys and their constituent metal oxides, namely nickel, chromium, molybdenum, manganese, iron, and titanium, were modified with long chain organic acids to better understand organic film formation. The adhesion and stability of films of octadecylphosphonic acid, octadecylhydroxamic acid, octadecylcarboxylic acid, and octadecylsulfonic acid on these substrates were examined in this study. The films formed on these surfaces were analyzed by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. The effect of the acidity of the organic moiety and substrate composition on the film characteristics and stability is discussed. Interestingly, on the alloy surfaces, the presence of less reactive metal sites does not inhibit film formation.
Project description:A series of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based liquid compositions with addition of zinc oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles has been prepared. The compositions also contained other consistency-forming organic components. The physico-chemical properties of the products have been determined. Their pH and density have been assessed. Also, the size of nanoparticles has been defined with using a dynamic light scattering technique. The compositions were subjected to XRD, FT-IR and microscopic analysis as well. Thanks to the incorporation of both metal oxide and metallic nanoparticles, it was possible to enrich the products with antibacterial properties. Their inhibiting properties in the growth of microorganisms have been confirmed against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains such as E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Thanks to the ability for solidification, the compositions may be applied on a bacterially contaminated surface, and after destroying the microorganisms and its solidification, it may be peeled off along with the dead bacterial film.
Project description:We have batch-fabricated cantilevers with ?100 nm diameter nickel nanorod tips and force sensitivities of a few attonewtons at 4.2 K. The magnetic nanorods were engineered to overhang the leading edge of the cantilever, and consequently the cantilevers experience what we believe is the lowest surface noise ever achieved in a scanned probe experiment. Cantilever magnetometry indicated that the tips were well magnetized, with a ? 20 nm dead layer; the composition of the dead layer was studied by electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. In what we believe is the first demonstration of scanned probe detection of electron-spin resonance from a batch-fabricated tip, the cantilevers were used to observe electron-spin resonance from nitroxide spin labels in a film via force-gradient-induced shifts in cantilever resonance frequency. The magnetic field dependence of the magnetic resonance signal suggests a nonuniform tip magnetization at an applied field near 0.6 T.
Project description:Synthesis of most tin-based bimetallic nanoparticles is a challenging task because of the differences in the redox potential and the melting point between both components. This article presents a co-reduction synthesis of monoclinic Ni3Sn4 nanoparticles. Varying time and temperature gives the possibility to control the size of the nanoparticles in the range of 4-12 nm. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Although the synthesis was conducted entirely oxygen free, the postsynthetic treatment undertaken under air leads to the formation of an amorphous oxide shell. The oxide shell consists of an outer tin-rich region and a nickel-rich region at the interface to the metallic Ni3Sn4 core. On the basis of the investigation of the particles at different stages of the synthesis, we propose a growth mechanism for the Ni3Sn4 nanocrystals. These results can be a guidepost for the synthesis of other tin-based bimetallic nanoparticles.
Project description:This research work was focused on the incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into synthesized solvent-free waterborne poly(urethane-urea) (WPUU) based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PU0) in order to improve both the mechanical properties and self-healing effectiveness of a polymer matrix. The incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles resulted in a successful enhancement of the mechanical properties of nanocomposite films when compared to PU0. Simultaneously, the obtained nanocomposite films did not only maintain the self-healing ability of the PU0 film, measured by means of mechanical properties after successive cutting/recovery cycles, but they also showed a higher self-healing efficiency than the PU0 film. Moreover, the well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles, visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), kept their conductive properties when embedded in the PU0 matrix, as was confirmed by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). This research work described a simple and industrially appealing way to control the dispersion of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles in waterborne poly(urethane-urea) for the designing of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties and self-healing efficiency, in which TiO2 nanoparticles preserved their conductive properties within the polymer matrix.
Project description:Mixed iron-manganese oxide nanoparticles, synthesized by a simple procedure, were used to remove nickel ion from aqueous solutions. Nanostructures, prepared by using different weight percents of manganese, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption/desorption isotherm curves demonstrated that manganese inclusions enhance the specific surface area three times and the pores volume ten times. This feature was crucial to decontaminate both aqueous samples and food extracts from nickel ion. Efficient removal of Ni2+ was highlighted by the well-known dimethylglyoxime test and by ICP-MS analysis and the possibility of regenerating the nanostructure was obtained by a washing treatment in disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate solution.