Course of psychiatric symptoms and global cognition in early Parkinson disease.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the course and predictors of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and cognition in patients with de novo Parkinson disease (PD).Cross-sectional study of the cohort of de novo, untreated (at enrollment) patients with PD and healthy controls (HCs) from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. Participants have serial assessments of global cognition and symptoms of depression, anxiety, psychosis, impulse control disorders (ICDs), sleep and wakefulness, apathy, and fatigue. Available data up to 24 months of follow-up were included.The available sample size was as follows: baseline (PD = 423, HCs = 196), 12 months (PD = 261, HCs = 145), and 24 months (PD = 96, HCs = 83). Patients with PD experienced more depression, fatigue, apathy, and anxiety than HCs at all time points, and apathy (p = 0.001) and psychosis (p = 0.003) increased over time in patients with PD. Approximately two-thirds of patients with PD who screened positive for depression at any given visit were not taking an antidepressant. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment score decreased significantly over time in patients with PD (p < 0.001), but the change was comparable to that in HCs. At the 24-month visit, 44% of patients had been on dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) for at least 1 year, and this group reported more incident ICDs (p = 0.009) and excessive daytime sleepiness (p = 0.03).Multiple NPS are more common in de novo, untreated patients with PD compared with the general population, but they also remain relatively stable in early disease, while global cognition slightly deteriorates. In contrast, initiation of DRT is associated with increasing frequency of several other NPS.
Project description:Background:The Apathy Scale (AS), a popular measure of apathy in Parkinson's disease (PD), has been somewhat limited for failing to characterize dimensions of apathy, such as those involving cognitive, behavioral, and emotional apathy symptoms. This study sought to determine whether factors consistent with these apathy dimensions in PD could be identified on the AS, examine the associations between these factors and disease-related characteristics, and compare PD patients and healthy control (HCs) on identified factors. Methods:Confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted on AS scores of 157 nondemented PD patients to identify AS factors. These factors were then correlated with important disease-related characteristics, and PD and HC participants were compared across these factors. Results:Previously proposed AS models failed to achieve an adequate fit in CFA. A subsequent EFA revealed two factors on the AS reflecting joint cognitive-behavioral aspects of apathy (Motivation-Interest-Energy) and emotional apathy symptoms (Indifference). Both factors were associated with anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life, and independent activities of daily living, with Indifference associated more with the latter. In addition, only the Indifference factor was associated with cognitive functioning. PD patients reported higher levels of symptoms than HCs on both factors, with the group difference slightly larger on the Motivation-Interest-Energy factor. Conclusion:The AS can be decomposed into two factors reflecting Motivation-Interest-Energy and Indifference symptoms. These factors are differentially associated with clinical variables, including cognition and independent activities of daily living, indicating the importance of evaluating apathy from a multidimensional perspective.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Both depression and apathy, alone and in combination, have been shown to negatively affect cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of specific symptom dimensions of depression and apathy on cognition is not well understood. The current study investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and apathy, based on factors identified in Kirsch-Darrow et al. (2011), and memory and executive function in PD. METHODS:A sample of 138 non-demented individuals with PD (mean age=64.51±7.43 years) underwent neuropsychological testing and completed the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition, and Apathy Scale. Separate hierarchical regression models examined the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and apathy ("pure" depressive symptoms, "pure" apathy, loss of interest/pleasure [anhedonia], and somatic symptoms) and three cognitive domain composites: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, and executive function. RESULTS:After adjusting for general cognitive status and the influence of the other symptom dimensions, "pure" depressive symptoms were negatively associated with the delayed verbal memory composite (p<.034) and somatic symptoms were positively associated with the executive function composite (p<.026). No symptom dimensions were significantly related to the immediate verbal memory composite. CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that specific mood symptoms are associated with delayed verbal memory and executive function performance in non-demented patients with PD. Further research is needed to better understand possible mechanisms through which specific symptom dimensions of depression and apathy are associated with cognition in PD. (JINS, 2018, 24, 269-282).
Project description:Apathy is an important neuropsychiatric feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), which often emerges before the onset of motor symptoms. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) have a high probability of developing PD in future. Neuropsychiatric problems are common in RBD, but apathy has not previously been detailed in this key prodromal population.Eighty-eight patients with polysomnographically proven RBD, 65 patients with PD and 33 controls were assessed for apathy using the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. Cognition and depression were also quantified. The sensitivity of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale screening questions for apathy and depression was calculated.A total of 46% of patients with RBD were apathetic, compared with 31% of patients with PD in our sample. Most patients with RBD with depression were apathetic but more than half of apathetic patients were not depressed. The sensitivity of the single Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale screening question was only 33% for mild apathy and 50% for severe apathy.Apathy is common in RBD and is underestimated by a single self-report question. Recognition of apathy as a distinct neuropsychiatric feature in RBD could aid targeted treatment interventions and might contribute to the understanding of prodromal PD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs) are a heterogeneous group of conditions that may be caused by long-term dopaminergic replacement therapy (DRT) of Parkinson's disease (PD). The spectrum of ICBs includes dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). CONTENTS: We made a detailed review regarding the epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, risk factors, diagnosis as well as treatment of ICBs. RESULTS: The prevalence of ICBs in PD patients is approximately 3-4% for DDS, 0.34-4.2% for punding, and 6-14% for ICDs, with higher prevalence in Western populations than in Asian. Those who take high dose of levodopa are more prone to have DDS, whereas, ICDs are markedly associated with dopamine agonists. Different subtypes of ICBs share many risk factors such as male gender, higher levodopa equivalent daily dose, younger age at PD onset, history of alcoholism, impulsive, or novelty-seeking personality. The Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorder in Parkinson's Disease-Rating Scale seems to be a rather efficacious instrument to obtain relevant information from patients and caregivers. Treatment of ICBs is still a great challenge for clinicians. Readjustment of DRT remains the primary method. Atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, amantadine, and psychosocial interventions are also prescribed in controlling episodes of psychosis caused by compulsive DRT, but attention should be drawn to balance ICBs symptoms and motor disorders. Moreover, deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus might be a potential method in controlling ICBs. CONCLUSION: The exact pathophysiological mechanisms of ICBs in PD remains poorly understood. Further researches are needed not only to study the pathogenesis, prevalence, features, and risk factors of ICBs, but to find efficacious therapy for patients with these devastating consequences.
Project description:Management of apathy, depression and anxiety in Parkinson’s disease (PD) represents a challenge. Dopamine agonists have been suggested to be effective. This multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind study assessed the 6-month effect of rotigotine versus placebo on apathy, depression and anxiety in de novo PD. The primary outcome was the change of apathy, measured with the LARS. The secondary outcomes were the change in depression and anxiety, measured with BDI-2 and STAI-trait and state. Forty-eight drug-naive PD patients were included. The primary outcome was not reached, with a surprisingly high placebo effect on apathy (60%). There was no significant difference in the change of depression at 6 months between rotigotine and placebo. Trait-anxiety was significantly improved by rotigotine compared to placebo (p?=?0.04). Compared to placebo, low dose rotigotine significantly improved trait anxiety, but not apathy and depression. The major placebo effect on apathy points towards the importance of a multidisciplinary and tight follow-up in the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Nonmotor symptoms, including depression, anxiety, apathy, and cognitive dysfunction, are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although a link between mood symptoms and cognitive impairment in PD has been theorized vis-à-vis striatal dopamine depletion, studies have been inconsistent regarding the relationship between mood symptoms and cognitive function. Inconsistencies may reflect the cross-sectional nature of previous studies. The current study examined the bidirectional longitudinal relationship between mood and cognition. METHOD:Data were obtained from 310 individuals newly diagnosed with PD, who were followed up to 4 years (baseline, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th annual follow-ups). Apathy, anxiety, depressive symptoms, motor severity, and neurocognitive functioning were assessed at each annual assessment. The longitudinal relationship between apathy, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and cognition was analyzed with multilevel models. RESULTS:Over the 4-year period, more severe depressive symptoms were related to worse performance on tasks of processing speed, verbal learning, and verbal delayed recall. Additionally, there was a significant Depression × Time interaction, suggesting that individuals with more severe depressive symptoms experience more rapid declines in global cognitive functioning and verbal learning. Apathy and anxiety were not significantly related to performance in any cognitive test. Lagged models revealed that changes in depression precede declines in working memory, verbal learning, delayed verbal recall, and global cognition. CONCLUSION:Findings suggest depressive symptoms may be a harbinger for future cognitive decline among individuals with PD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are debilitating side effects of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) in Parkinson's disease (PD) that severely affect the quality of life of patients. While DRT, the pattern and extent of neurodegeneration, and prodromic factors of vulnerability (e.g. impulsivity) have all been hypothesized to play a role in the development of ICDs, their respective, and potentially interacting, contributions remain to be established. High impulsive (HI), Intermediate (Int) or low impulsive (LI) rats were identified based on their performance in both a differential reinforcement of low rate of responding (DRL) and a fixed consecutive number (FCN) schedules, that operationalize two independent facets of impulsivity, waiting and action inhibition (motor impulsivity). We investigated whether high impulsivity trait influenced the progressive development of a parkinsonian state induced by viral-mediated overexpression of ?-synuclein, and whether impulsivity trait and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration independently or jointly influenced the effects of DRT on impulse control. ?-synuclein-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration increased both waiting and motor impulsivity. The D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole exacerbated motor impulsivity more than waiting. However, the pramipexole-induced increase in waiting impulsivity observed in both sham and lesioned rats, was more pronounced in HI lesioned rats, which displayed a restricted ?-synuclein-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Thus, a PD-like nigrostriatal lesion increases both motor and waiting impulsivity, but its interaction with a pre-existing impulsivity trait, which, at the cellular level, confers resilience to dopaminergic neurodegeneration, worsens the detrimental effects of D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonists on inhibitory control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between apathy, depression and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still controversial. The objective of this study is to investigate whether apathy and depression are associated with inefficient cognitive strategies in PD. METHODS:In this prospective clinical cohort study conducted in a university-based clinical and research movement disorders center we studied 48 PD patients. Based on clinical evaluation, they were classified in two groups: PD with apathy (PD-A group, n?=?23) and PD without apathy (PD-NA group, n?=?25). Patients received clinical and neuropsychological evaluations. The clinical evaluation included: Apathy Evaluation Scale-patient version, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr staging system; the neuropsychological evaluation explored speed information processing, attention, working memory, executive function, learning abilities and memory, which included several measures of recall (immediate free, short delay free, long delay free and cued, and total recall). FINDINGS:PD-A and PD-NA groups did not differ in age, disease duration, treatment, and motor condition, but differed in recall (p<0.001) and executive tasks (p<0.001). Immediate free recall had the highest predictive value for apathy (F?=?10.94; p?=?0.002). Depression and apathy had a weak correlation (Pearson index=?0.3; p<0.07), with three items of the depression scale correlating with apathy (Pearson index between .3 and.4; p<0.04). The depressed and non-depressed PD patients within the non-apathetic group did not differ. CONCLUSION:Apathy, but not depression, is associated with deficit in implementing efficient cognitive strategies. As the implementation of efficient strategies relies on the fronto-striatal circuit, we conclude that apathy, unlike depression, is an early expression of executive impairment in PD.
Project description:To determine the prevalence of apathy and depression in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), and the relationships between both apathy and depression with cognition. To examine whether apathy is specifically related to impairment in executive functioning and processing speed.196 patients with a clinical lacunar stroke and an anatomically corresponding lacunar infarct on MRI were compared to 300 stroke-free controls. Apathy and depression were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale, and cognitive functioning was assessed using an SVD cognitive screening tool, the Brief Memory and Executive Test, which measures executive functioning/processing speed and memory/orientation. Path analysis and binary logistic regression were used to assess the relation between apathy, depression and cognitive impairment.31 participants with SVD (15.8%) met criteria for apathy only, 23 (11.8%) for both apathy and depression, and 2 (1.0%) for depression only. In the SVD group the presence of apathy was related to global cognition, and specifically to impaired executive functioning/processing speed, but not memory/orientation. The presence of depression was not related to global cognition, impaired executive functioning/processing speed or memory/orientation.Apathy is a common feature of SVD and is associated with impaired executive functioning/processing speed suggesting the two may share biological mechanisms. Screening for apathy should be considered in SVD, and further work is required to develop and evaluate effective apathy treatment or management in SVD.