De novo macrolide-glycolipid macrolactone hybrids: Synthesis, structure and antibiotic activity of carbohydrate-fused macrocycles.
ABSTRACT: Natural product-like macrocycles were designed as potential antibacterial compounds. The macrocycles featured a D-glucose unit fused into a 12- or 13-member macrolactone. The rings are connected via the C6' and anomeric (C1') positions of the monosaccharide. The new macrocycles/macrolides were characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their structures showed that, in addition to the ester and alkene units, the dihedral angle about the glycosidic linkage (exo-anomeric effect) influenced the overall shape of the molecules. Glycosylation of an available hydroxy group on the macrocycle gave a hybrid macrolide with features common to erythromycin and sophorlipid macrolactone. Weak antibiotic activity (MICs <100 ?g/mL) was observed for several of the compounds.
Project description:Artificial macrocycles can be convergently synthesized by a sequence of an Ugi multicomponent reaction (MCR) followed by an intramolecular Passerini MCR used to close the macrocycle. Significantly, in this work, the first intramolecular macrocyclization through a Passerini reaction is described. We describe 21 macrocycles of a size of 15-20. The resulting macrocyclic depsipeptides are model compounds for natural products and could find applications in drug discovery.
Project description:Macrocyclic compounds have potential to enable drug discovery for protein targets with extended, solvent-exposed binding sites. Crystallographic structures of peptides bound at such sites show strong surface complementarity and frequent aromatic side-chain contacts. In an effort to capture these features in stabilized small molecules, we describe a method to convert linear peptides into constrained macrocycles based upon their aromatic content. Designed templates initiate the venerable Friedel-Crafts alkylation to form large rings efficiently at room temperature - routinely within minutes - and unimpeded by polar functional groups. No protecting groups, metals, or air-free techniques are required. Regiochemistry can be tuned electronically to explore diverse macrocycle connectivities. Templates with additional reaction capabilities can further manipulate macrocycle structure. The chemistry lays a foundation to extend studies of how the size, shape and constitution of peptidyl macrocycles correlate with their pharmacological properties.
Project description:Mixed-chirality peptide macrocycles such as cyclosporine are among the most potent therapeutics identified to date, but there is currently no way to systematically search the structural space spanned by such compounds. Natural proteins do not provide a useful guide: Peptide macrocycles lack regular secondary structures and hydrophobic cores, and can contain local structures not accessible with l-amino acids. Here, we enumerate the stable structures that can be adopted by macrocyclic peptides composed of l- and d-amino acids by near-exhaustive backbone sampling followed by sequence design and energy landscape calculations. We identify more than 200 designs predicted to fold into single stable structures, many times more than the number of currently available unbound peptide macrocycle structures. Nuclear magnetic resonance structures of 9 of 12 designed 7- to 10-residue macrocycles, and three 11- to 14-residue bicyclic designs, are close to the computational models. Our results provide a nearly complete coverage of the rich space of structures possible for short peptide macrocycles and vastly increase the available starting scaffolds for both rational drug design and library selection methods.
Project description:Natural product and synthetic macrocycles are chemically and topologically diverse. An efficient, accurate, and general method for generating macrocycle conformations would enable structure-based design of macrocycle drugs or host-guest complexes. Computational sampling also provides insight into transiently populated states, complementing crystallographic and NMR data. Here, we report a new algorithm, BRIKARD, that addresses this challenge through computational algebraic geometry and inverse kinematics together with local energy minimization. BRIKARD is demonstrated on 67 diverse macrocycles with structural data, encompassing various ring topologies. We find this approach enumerates diverse structures with macrocyclic RMSD < 1.0 Å to the experimental conformation for 85% of our data set in contrast to success rates of 67-75% with other approaches, while for the subset of 21 more challenging compounds in the data set, these rates are 57% and 10-29%, respectively. Because the algorithm can be efficiently run in parallel on many processors, exhaustive conformational sampling of complex cycles can be obtained in minutes rather than hours: with a 40 processor implementation protocol, BRIKARD samples the conformational diversity of a potential energy landscape in a median of 1.3 minutes of wallclock time, much faster than 3.1-10.3 hours necessary with current programs. By rigorously testing BRIKARD on a broad range of scaffolds with highly complex ring systems, we push the frontiers of macrocycle sampling to encompass multiring compounds, including those with more than 50 ring atoms and up to seven interlaced flexible rings.
Project description:A concise synthetic pathway to the originally assigned structure of lyngbouilloside macrolactone (3) is reported. The core macrocycle 3 was synthesized via a phosphate tether-mediated, one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation reaction, Roskamp homologation, and a high yielding Boeckman acylketene cyclization.
Project description:Protein kinases are attractive therapeutic targets, but their high sequence and structural conservation complicates the development of specific inhibitors. We recently identified, in a DNA-templated macrocycle library, inhibitors with unusually high selectivity among Src-family kinases. Starting from these compounds, we developed and characterized in molecular detail potent macrocyclic inhibitors of Src kinase and its cancer-associated 'gatekeeper' mutant. We solved two cocrystal structures of macrocycles bound to Src kinase. These structures reveal the molecular basis of the combined ATP- and substrate peptide-competitive inhibitory mechanism and the remarkable kinase specificity of the compounds. The most potent compounds inhibit Src activity in cultured mammalian cells. Our work establishes that macrocycles can inhibit protein kinases through a bisubstrate-competitive mechanism with high potency and exceptional specificity, reveals the precise molecular basis for their desirable properties and provides new insights into the development of Src-specific inhibitors with potential therapeutic relevance.
Project description:Shape-persistent macrocycles are attractive functional targets for synthesis, molecular recognition, and hierarchical self-assembly. Such macrocycles are noncollapsible and geometrically well-defined, and they are traditionally characterized by having repeat units and low conformational flexibility. Here, we find it necessary to refine these ideas in the face of highly flexible yet shape-persistent macrocycles. A molecule is shape-persistent if it has a small change in shape when perturbed by external stimuli (e.g., heat, light, and redox chemistry). In support of this idea, we provide the first examination of the relationships between a macrocycle's shape persistence, its conformational space, and the resulting functions. We do this with a star-shaped macrocycle called cyanostar that is flexible as well as being shape-persistent. We employed molecular dynamics (MD), density functional theory (DFT), and NMR experiments. Considering a thermal bath as a stimulus, we found a single macrocycle has 332 accessible conformers with olefins undergoing rapid interconversion by up-down and in-out motions on short time scales (0.2 ns). These many interconverting conformations classify single cyanostars as flexible. To determine and confirm that cyanostars are shape-persistent, we show that they have a high 87% shape similarity across these conformations. To further test the idea, we use the binding of diglyme to the single macrocycle as guest-induced stimulation. This guest has almost no effect on the conformational space. However, formation of a 2:1 sandwich complex involving two macrocycles enhances rigidity and dramatically shifts the conformer distribution toward perfect bowls. Overall, the present study expands the scope of shape-persistent macrocycles to include flexible macrocycles if, and only if, their conformers have similar shapes.
Project description:The translation of nucleic acid libraries into corresponding synthetic compounds would enable selection and amplification principles to be applied to man-made molecules. We used multistep DNA-templated organic synthesis to translate libraries of DNA sequences, each containing three "codons," into libraries of sequence-programmed synthetic small-molecule macrocycles. The resulting DNA-macrocycle conjugates were subjected to in vitro selections for protein affinity. The identity of a single macrocycle possessing known target protein affinity was inferred through the sequence of the amplified DNA template surviving the selection. This work represents the translation, selection, and amplification of libraries of nucleic acids encoding synthetic small molecules rather than biological macromolecules.
Project description:A series of stiff stilbene macrocycles have been studied to investigate the possible impact of the macrocycle ring size on their photodynamic properties. The results show that reducing the ring size counteracts the photoisomerization ability of the macrocycles. However, even the smallest macrocycle studied (stiff stilbene subunits linked by a six carbon chain) showed some degree of isomerization when irradiated. DFT calculations of the energy differences between the E- and Z-isomers show the same trend as the experimental results. Interestingly the DFT study highlights that the energy difference between the E- and Z-isomers of even the largest macrocycle (linked by a twelve carbon chain) is significantly higher than that of the stiff stilbene unit itself. In general, it is indicated that addition of even a flexible chain to the stiff stilbene unit may significantly affect its photochemical properties and increase the photostability of the resulting macrocycle.
Project description:We report the synthesis and biological activity of a library of aminoalcohol-derived macrocycles from which robotnikinin, a binder to and inhibitor of Sonic Hedgehog, was derived. Using an asymmetric alkylation to set a key stereocenter and an RCM reaction to close the macrocycle, we were able to synthesize compounds for testing. High-throughput screening via small-molecule microarray (SMM) technology led to the discovery of a compound capable of binding ShhN. Follow-up chemistry led to a library of macrocycles with enhanced biological activity relative to the original hit compounds. Differences in ring size and stereochemistry, leading to alterations in the mode of binding, may account for differences in the degree of biological activity. These compounds are the first ones reported that inhibit Shh signaling at the ShhN level.