Methylome, transcriptome, and PPAR(γ) cistrome analyses reveal two epigenetic transitions in fat cells.
ABSTRACT: Although DNA modification is adaptive to extrinsic demands, little is known about epigenetic alterations associated with adipose differentiation and reprogramming. We systematically characterized the global trends of our methylome and transcriptome data with reported PPAR(γ) cistrome data. Our analysis revealed that DNA methylation was altered between induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs). Surprisingly, DNA methylation was not obviously changed in differentiation from ADSCs to mature fat cells (FatCs). This indicates that epigenetic predetermination of the adipogenic fate is almost established prior to substantial expression of the lineage. Furthermore, the majority of the PPAR(γ) cistrome corresponded to the pre-set methylation profile between ADSCs and FatCs. In contrast to the pre-set model, we found that a subset of PPAR(γ)-binding sites for late-expressing genes such as Adiponectin and Adiponectin receptor2 were differentially methylated independently of the early program. Thus, these analyses identify two types of epigenetic mechanisms that distinguish the pre-set cell fate and later stages of adipose differentiation.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiate into multiple cell types, including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. The role of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in cancers is significantly relevant. They seem to be involved in the promotion of tumour development and progression and relapse processes. For this reason, investigating the effects of breast cancer microenvironment on ADSCs is of high importance in order to understand the relationship between tumour cells and the surrounding stromal cells. With the current study, we aimed to investigate the specific characteristics of human ADSCs isolated from the adipose tissue of breast tumour patients. We compared ADSCs obtained from periumbilical fat (PF) of controls with ADSCs obtained from adipose tissue of breast cancer- (BC-) bearing patients. We analysed the surface antigens and the adipogenic differentiation ability of both ADSC populations. C/EBP? expression was increased in PF and BC ADSCs induced to differentiate compared to the control while PPAR? and FABP4 expressions were enhanced only in PF ADSCs. Conversely, adiponectin expression was reduced in PF-differentiated ADSCs while it was slightly increased in differentiated BC ADSCs. By means of Oil Red O staining, we further observed an impaired differentiation capability of BC ADSCs. To investigate this aspect more in depth, we evaluated the effect of selective PPAR? activation and nutritional supplementation on the differentiation efficiency of BC ADSCs, noting that it was only with a strong differentiation stimuli that the process took place. Furthermore, we observed no response in BC ADSCs to the PPAR? inhibitor T0070907, showing an impaired activation of this receptor in adipose cells surrounding the breast cancer microenvironment. In conclusion, our study shows an impaired adipogenic differentiation capability in BC ADSCs. This suggests that the tumour microenvironment plays a key role in the modulation of the adipose microenvironment located in the surrounding tissue.
Project description:The stemness maintenance of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is important for adipose homeostasis and energy balance. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) has been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity, but its possible roles in ADSC function and adipogenic capacity remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Pdcd4 is a key controller that limits the self-renewal and white-to-beige transdifferentiation of ADSCs. Pdcd4 deficiency in mice caused stemness enhancement of ADSCs as evidenced by increased expression of CD105, CD90, Nanog and Oct4 on ADSCs, together with enhanced in situ proliferation in adipose tissues. Pdcd4 deficiency promoted proliferation, colony formation of ADSCs and drove more ADSCs entering the S phase accompanied by AKT activation and cyclinD1 upregulation. Blockade of AKT signaling in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs led to a marked decline in cyclinD1, S-phase entry and cell proliferation, revealing AKT as a target for repressing ADSC self-renewal by Pdcd4. Intriguingly, depletion of Pdcd4 promoted the transdifferentiation of ADSCs into beige adipocytes. A reduction in lipid contents and expression levels of white adipocyte markers including C/EBPα, PPAR-γ, adiponectin and αP2 was detected in Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs during white adipogenic differentiation, substituted by typical beige adipocyte characteristics including small, multilocular lipid droplets and UCP1 expression. More lactate produced by Pdcd4-deficient ADSCs might be an important contributor to the expression of UCP1 and white-to-beige transdifferentiation. In addition, an elevation of UCP1 expression was confirmed in white adipose tissues from Pdcd4-deficient mice upon high-fat diet, which displayed increased energy expenditure and resistance to obesity as compared with wild-type obese mice. These findings provide evidences that Pdcd4 produces unfavorable influences on ADSC stemness, which contribute to adipose dysfunction, obesity and metabolic syndromes, thereby proposing Pdcd4 as a potential intervening target for regulating ADSC function.
Project description:RATIONALE:Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. OBJECTIVES:We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) ?, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR ?, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. FINDINGS:Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR ?, C/EBP ?, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR ?. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. CONCLUSIONS:Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.
Project description:Objective:Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) play important roles in embryonic heart development. Also, two epigenetic modifying molecules, 5'-azacytidine (5'-Aza) and valproic acid (VPA) induce cardiomyogenesis in the infarcted heart. In this study, we first evaluated the role of BMP4 and bFGF in cardiac trans-differentiation and then the effectiveness of 5´-Aza and VPA in reprogramming and cardiac differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, human ADSCs were isolated by collagenase I digestion. For cardiac differentiation, third to fifth-passaged ADSCs were treated with BMP4 alone or a combination of BMP4 and bFGF with or without 5'-Aza and VPA pre-treatment. After 21 days, the expression of cardiac-specific markers was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analyses. Results:BMP4 and more prominently a combination of BMP4 and bFGF induced cardiac differentiation of human ADSCs. Epigenetic modification of the ADSCs by 5'-Aza and VPA significantly upregulated the expression of OCT4A, SOX2, NANOG, Brachyury/T and GATA4 but downregulated GSC and NES mRNAs. Furthermore, pre-treatment with 5'-Aza and VPA upregulated the expression of TBX5, ANF, CX43 and CXCR4 mRNAs in three-week differentiated ADSCs but downregulated the expression of some cardiac-specific genes and decreased the population of cardiac troponin I-expressing cells. Conclusion:Our findings demonstrated the inductive role of BMP4 and especially BMP4 and bFGF combination in cardiac trans-differentiation of human ADSCs. Treatment with 5'-Aza and VPA reprogrammed ADSCs toward a more pluripotent state and increased tendency of the ADSCs for mesodermal differentiation. Although pre-treatment with 5'-Aza and VPA counteracted the cardiogenic effects of BMP4 and bFGF, it may be in favor of migration, engraftment and survival of the ADSCs after transplantation.
Project description:Adaptive responses to stressful stimuli involving behavioral, emotional and metabolic changes are orchestrated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Adipose tissue has been recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ, secreting adipokines that operate as hormones to mediate the crosstalk with other organs including the brain. The role of adipose tissue in sensing and responding to emotional stress and in behavioral regulation, however, remains largely unknown. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) is a key transcriptional factor controlling adipokine gene expression. Here we show that chronic social defeat stress decreases messenger RNA and protein levels of PPAR? in adipose tissue of susceptible but not resilient mice, which was correlated with social avoidance behavior. A corresponding reduction in adipose adiponectin production was observed in susceptible mice. Rosiglitazone, a blood-brain barrier-impermeant PPAR?-selective agonist, elicited antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like behavioral effects in wild-type mice, with a concurrent increase in plasma adiponectin levels. These effects of rosiglitazone were absent in mice lacking adiponectin but having normal PPAR? expression in adipose tissue and brain. Moreover, pretreatment with the PPAR?-selective antagonist GW9662 blocked rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin expression and antidepressant/anxiolytic-like effects. Together, these results suggest that the behavioral responses to rosiglitazone are mediated through PPAR?-dependent induction of adiponectin. Our findings support an important role for the adipose PPAR?-adiponectin axis in susceptibility to stress and negative emotion-related behaviors. Selectively targeting PPAR? in adipose tissue may offer novel strategies for combating depression and anxiety.
Project description:Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue in response to metabolic effectors in order to sensitize the liver and muscle to insulin. Reduced circulating levels of adiponectin that usually accompany obesity contribute to the associated insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms controlling the production of adiponectin are essentially unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductase Ero1-L alpha and effectors modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and SIRT1 activities regulate secretion of adiponectin from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Specifically, adiponectin secretion and Ero1-L alpha expression are induced during the early phase of adipogenesis but are then down-regulated during the terminal phase, coincident with an increased expression of SIRT1. Suppression of SIRT1 or activation of PPAR gamma enhances Ero1-L alpha expression and stimulates secretion of high-molecular-weight complexes of adiponectin in mature adipocytes. Suppression of Ero1-L alpha through expression of a corresponding small interfering RNA reduces adiponectin secretion during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Moreover, ectopic expression of Ero1-L alpha in Ero1-L alpha-deficient 3T3 fibroblasts stimulates the secretion of adiponectin following their conversion into adipocytes and prevents the suppression of adiponectin secretion in response to activation of SIRT1 by exposure to resveratrol. These findings provide a framework to understand the mechanisms by which adipocytes regulate secretion of adiponectin in response to various metabolic states.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence stem cell functions, including mobilization, proliferation, and differentiation. miR-150 is abundantly expressed in monocytes. Knockdown of miR-150 promotes bone marrow stem cell migration. The role of miR-150 in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) is unclear. In this study, the effects of miR-150 on adipogenic differentiation and proliferation of ADSCs were investigated. ADSCs were isolated from the inguinal adipose tissue of wild-type (WT) and miR-150 knockout (KO) mice and were induced for adipogenic differentiation. The miR-150 level was detected by real-time PCR. ADSCs were transfected by miR-150 or small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of Notch3. MTT assay and colony formation assay were performed in miR-150 knockdown and control ADSCs. Real-time PCR showed that miR-150 was expressed in ADSCs. miR-150 knockdown significantly decreased the capacity of adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, as compared with their counterparts from WT mice. It is intriguing that the overexpression of miR-150 significantly increased C/EBP? and PPAR-? expression and lipid formation in ADSCs with adipogenic induction. Overexpression of miR-150 significantly decreased Notch3 expression in ADSCs compared with the control groups. Furthermore, Notch3 inhibition promoted the adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs. miR-150 also suppressed proliferation potential and the expression of Nanog in ADSCs. In summary, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that miR-150 promotes adipogenic differentiation and inhibits proliferation of ADSCs. miR-150 regulates adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, likely mediated by the downregulation of Notch3.
Project description:Klotho was originally discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether secreted Klotho (SKL) affects the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that short-form Klotho was expressed in mouse ADSCs. The Klotho gene mutation KL(-/-) significantly decreased proliferation of ADSCs and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Nanog, Sox-2, and Oct-4) in mice. The adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs was also decreased in KL(-/-) mice. Incubation with Klotho-deficient medium decreased ADSC proliferation, pluripotent transcription factor levels, and adipogenic differentiation, which is similar to what was found in KL(-/-) mice. These results indicate that Klotho deficiency suppresses ADSC proliferation and differentiation. Interestingly, treatment with recombinant SKL protein rescued the Klotho deficiency-induced impairment in ADSC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. SKL also regulated ADSCs' differentiation to other cell lineages (osteoblasts, myofibroblasts), indicating that SKL maintains stemness of ADSCs. It is intriguing that overexpression of SKL significantly increased PPAR-? expression and lipid formation in ADSCs following adipogenic induction, indicating enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of SKL inhibited expression of TGF?1 and its downstream signaling mediator Smad2/3. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that SKL is essential to the maintenance of normal proliferation and differentiation in ADSCs. Klotho regulates adipogenic differentiation in ADSCs, likely via inhibition of TGF?1 and activation of PPAR-?. Stem Cells 2016;34:1615-1625.
Project description:The environmental obesogen hypothesis proposes that pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Tributyltin (TBT) is an agonist of both retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Activation of these receptors can elevate adipose mass in adult mice exposed to the chemical in utero. Here we show that TBT sensitizes human and mouse multipotent stromal stem cells derived from white adipose tissue [adipose-derived stromal stem cells (ADSCs)] to undergo adipogenesis. In vitro exposure to TBT, or the PPARgamma activator rosiglitazone increases adipogenesis, cellular lipid content, and expression of adipogenic genes. The adipogenic effects of TBT and rosiglitazone were blocked by the addition of PPARgamma antagonists, suggesting that activation of PPARgamma mediates the effect of both compounds on adipogenesis. ADSCs from mice exposed to TBT in utero showed increased adipogenic capacity and reduced osteogenic capacity with enhanced lipid accumulation in response to adipogenic induction. ADSCs retrieved from animals exposed to TBT in utero showed increased expression of PPARgamma target genes such as the early adipogenic differentiation gene marker fatty acid-binding protein 4 and hypomethylation of the promoter/enhancer region of the fatty acid-binding protein 4 locus. Hence, TBT alters the stem cell compartment by sensitizing multipotent stromal stem cells to differentiate into adipocytes, an effect that could likely increase adipose mass over time.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and predicts its future development independent of obesity. In humans, subcutaneous adipose tissue hypertrophy is a consequence of impaired adipocyte precursor cell recruitment into the adipogenic pathway rather than a lack of precursor cells. The zinc finger transcription factor known as zinc finger protein (ZFP) 423 has been identified as a major determinant of pre-adipocyte commitment and maintained white adipose cell function. Although its levels do not change during adipogenesis, ectopic expression of Zfp423 in non-adipogenic murine cells is sufficient to activate expression of the gene encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ; also known as Pparg) and increase the adipogenic potential of these cells. We investigated whether the Zfp423 gene is under epigenetic regulation and whether this plays a role in the restricted adipogenesis associated with hypertrophic obesity. METHODS:Murine 3T3-L1 and NIH-3T3 cells were used as fibroblasts committed and uncommitted to the adipocyte lineage, respectively. Human pre-adipocytes were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue of 20 lean non-diabetic individuals with a wide adipose cell size range. mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR, while methylation levels were analysed by bisulphite sequencing. Chromatin structure was analysed by micrococcal nuclease protection assay, and DNA-methyltransferases were chemically inhibited by 5-azacytidine. Adipocyte differentiation rate was evaluated by Oil Red O staining. RESULTS:Comparison of uncommitted (NIH-3T3) and committed (3T3-L1) adipose precursor cells revealed that Zfp423 expression increased (p < 0.01) in parallel with the ability of the cells to differentiate into mature adipocytes owing to both decreased promoter DNA methylation (p < 0.001) and nucleosome occupancy (nucleosome [NUC] 1 p < 0.01; NUC2 p < 0.001) in the 3T3-L1 compared with NIH-3T3 cells. Interestingly, non-adipogenic epigenetic profiles can be reverted in NIH-3T3 cells as 5-azacytidine treatment increased Zfp423 mRNA levels (p < 0.01), reduced DNA methylation at a specific CpG site (p < 0.01), decreased nucleosome occupancy (NUC1, NUC2: p < 0.001) and induced adipocyte differentiation (p < 0.05). These epigenetic modifications can also be initiated in response to changes in the pre-adipose cell microenvironment, in which bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plays a key role. We finally showed that, in human adipocyte precursor cells, impaired epigenetic regulation of zinc nuclear factor (ZNF)423 (the human orthologue of murine Zfp423) was associated with inappropriate subcutaneous adipose cell hypertrophy. As in NIH-3T3 cells, the normal ZNF423 epigenetic profile was rescued by 5-azacytidine exposure. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our results show that epigenetic events regulate the ability of precursor cells to commit and differentiate into mature adipocytes by modulating ZNF423, and indicate that dysregulation of these mechanisms accompanies subcutaneous adipose tissue hypertrophy in humans.