Virologic and serologic outcomes of mono versus dual HBV therapy and characterization of HIV/HBV coinfection in a US cohort.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To characterize HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort and compare long-term HBV outcomes between regimens with 1 (MONO) or 2 (DUAL) anti-HBV agents. DESIGN:A retrospective study of coinfected AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials subjects who received regimens containing anti-HBV agent(s). METHODS:Stored samples at baseline and weeks 16, 32, 48, 144, and 240 were tested for HBV DNA, HBV e antigen (HBeAg), HBV e antibody (HBeAb), and hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibody. Resistance and genotype were tested in samples with HBV DNA >600 IU/mL. MONO versus DUAL analyses were limited to HBV treatment-naive subjects (Naive-MONO, Naive-DUAL). RESULTS:Of 150 study subjects, median age was 40 years, 96% were male; 57% white, 26% black, 13% Hispanic. Baseline median CD4 was 224 cells per cubic millimeter, HIV RNA 4.48 log10 copies/mL, HBV DNA 6.30 log10 IU/mL; 59% HBeAg positive and 65% HBeAb negative; HBV genotypes A = 69%, G = 18%, D = 7%, <2% for A/G, B, C, F, H. Coinfection with HDV was 2%. There were 49 Naive-MONO (lamivudine) and 22 Naive-DUAL (11 lamivudine + tenofovir, 11 emtricitabine + tenofovir) with detectable HBV DNA. In the 240-week follow-up, HBV DNA suppression was not significantly higher in Naive-DUAL (P = 0.14); lower baseline HBV DNA (P < 0.01) was associated with suppression. Among 32 Naive-MONO subjects with detectable HBV DNA at baseline and results at week 48, 41% suppressed; among such 15 Naive-DUAL subjects, 53% suppressed. HBeAg and HBeAb analyses showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS:While consistent trends toward increased HBV DNA suppression, HBeAg loss and HBeAb seroconversion were observed in Naive-DUAL compared with Naive-MONO, they were not statistically significant. Overall, HDV coinfection was low.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The study was designed to assess the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection scenario among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients attending a tertiary healthcare unit in eastern India. Additionally, clinical and virological characterization of these viruses, prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was also done for better understanding of the disease profile.<h4>Methods</h4>Pool of ART-naive HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients, participating in two different studies, were included in this study. HBV DNA was detected by nested-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) region amplification and direct sequencing for detecting drug resistance.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of HBsAg (11.3%) was higher compared to anti-HCV (1.9%) among the HIV infected ART-naive patients. Moreover, majority of the HBeAg positive HIV/HBV co-infected patients (87.7%) had HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/ml with median HBV DNA significantly higher than that of HBeAg negative subjects (5.7 log10 IU/ml vs. 4.2 log10 IU/ml; p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis also showed that HBeAg-positive status was independently associated with higher HBV DNA level (p?=?<0.001). Notably, 60.9% of the HBeAg negative co-infected subjects had HBV DNA ?2,000 IU/ml of which 37.0% had HBV DNA ?20,000 IU/ml. Genotype HBV/D (68.2%) was the predominant genotype followed by HBV/A (24.3%) and HBV/C (7.5%). Anti-HBV drug resistant mutations were detected in two (3.8%) of the ART-naive patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The prevalence of HIV/HBV co-infection was relatively higher in our study subjects. HBeAg testing might provide clue for early treatment initiation. Furthermore, HBeAg negative patients are also associated with high HBV DNA levels and therefore require appropriate medical attention. Pre-treatment screening for anti-HBV drug resistant mutations is not necessary before ART initiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) represent important public health problems in the Western Amazon region with reported cases of fulminant hepatitis. This cross sectional study describes HBV and HDV genotypes circulating in the Brazilian Amazon region. METHODS: HBsAg positive individuals (n?=?224) were recruited in Manaus/Amazonas State (130 blood donors from the Hematology and Hemotherapy Foundation from Amazonas/HEMOAM; 60 subjects from outpatient clinic) and in Eirunepe city (n?=?34) from 2003-2009. Most participants (n?=?153) lived in Manaus, 63 were from 20 remote isolated municipalities, 8 lived outside Amazonas State. Genotyping was based on PCR products: HBV genotype A-F specific primers, restricted length polymorphism for HDV. HDV isolates were directly sequenced (delta antigen 405 nucleotide fragment) and phylogenetic analysis performed (MEGA; neighbor-joining, Kimura's two parameter). RESULTS: Most participants were young adult males and HBV mono-infection predominated (70.5%, 158/224). Among blood donors, outpatient subjects and individuals from Eirunepe, HBV/A prevailed followed by HBV/D and F (p?>?0.05). HBV/A was more frequent in blood donors (p?<?0.05). HBV-HDV coinfection rate was 8.5% in blood donors (11/130), 65.0% (39/60) in outpatient subjects and 47.0% (16/34) in individuals from Eirunepe. Compared to blood donors, coinfection was higher in outpatient subjects (65.0% versus 8.5%; RR?=?5.0; CI 3.4-7.9; p?<?0.0001) and in subjects from Eirunepe (47.0% versus 8.5%; RR?=?5.5; CI 3.0-9.9; p?<?0.0001). HBV-HDV coinfection rates were higher in patients from highly endemic remote cities. Only HDV genotype 3 was detected, HBV/F-HDV/3 predominated (20/38; 52.7%), followed by HBV/A-HDV/3 (31.6%; 12/38) and HBV/D-HDV/3 (15.8%; 6/38). CONCLUSIONS: The description of HBV and HDV genotypes circulating in the western Amazon can contribute to a better understanding of their relevance on the regional epidemics. These infections are highly endemic in the Amazon where their control is challenged by its vast territorial dimension with small, hard-to-reach municipalities dispersed into the jungle and populated by diverse ethnic groups.
Project description:There is progressive concern about the evolving burden of morbidity and mortality caused by coinfection with HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa, but the epidemiology and impact of this problem are not well defined. We therefore set out to assimilate more information about the nature of HBV/HIV coinfection in this region by undertaking a retrospective observational study of southern African adult women. We used samples from previously recruited HIV-1 positive women attending antenatal clinics in three settings in South Africa and Botswana (n = 950) and added a small cohort of HIV-negative antenatal South African women for comparison (n = 72). We tested for HBsAg and followed up HBsAg-positive samples by testing for HBeAg, HBV DNA, HBV genotype, presence of drug-resistance associated mutations (RAMs) and HDV. We identified HBsAg in 72 individuals (7% of the whole cohort), of whom 27% were HBeAg-positive, and the majority HBV genotypes A1 and A2. We did not detect any HDV coinfection. HBV prevalence was significantly different between geographically distinct cohorts, but did not differ according to HIV status. Among adults from South Africa, HBV/HIV coinfected patients had lower CD4+ T cell counts compared to those with HIV-monoinfection (p = 0.02), but this finding was not replicated in the cohort from Botswana. Overall, these data provide a snapshot of the coinfection problem at the heart of the HIV/HBV co-epidemic, and are important to inform public health policy, resource allocation, education, surveillance and clinical care.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major global health challenge with approximately 250-350 million chronically infected individuals. An improved understanding of the demographic features and outcomes of chronic HBV infection and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in low-endemic areas may improve prevention, early identification and management both at individual and community levels. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment rates and outcomes of adult patients with chronic HBV infection with or without HDV coinfection examined at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland over a 10-year period.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed the medical records of all adult patients with chronic HBV and HDV infection examined in our center between 2007 and 2016. Liver-related outcome was defined as the occurrence of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation or liver-related death. Analyses were performed using logistic regression and results were reported as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).<h4>Results</h4>Of 672 consecutive patients, 421 (62.6%) were male, median age was 36 years (interquartile range, 28-46 years), and 233 (34.7%) were of African origin. The prevalence of HDV coinfection was 7.1% and the proportion of anti-HDV-positive patients with detectable HDV RNA was 70.0%. In multivariate analysis, HDV coinfection was the strongest predictor for liver-related outcome (OR 6.06, 95% CI 2.93-12.54, p<0.001), followed by HBeAg positivity (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.30-4.69, p = 0.006), age (OR per 10-year increase 2.03, 95% CI 1.63-2.52, p<0.001) and sex (OR for female 0.39, 95% CI 0.22-0.71, p = 0.002). The predictive accuracy of the multivariate model was high (receiver operator characteristic area under the curve 0.81).<h4>Conclusion</h4>This retrospective study underscores the importance of migration in the epidemiology of chronic hepatitis B in low-endemic areas. HDV coinfection, HBeAg positivity and age predicted liver-related outcomes while female sex had a protective effect.
Project description:Chronic HBV + HDV infection is associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis, earlier hepatic decompensation, and liver cirrhosis hepatocellular carcinoma compared to HBV mono-infection. However, to-date no direct anti-HDV drugs are available in clinical practice. Here, we identified conserved and variable regions in HBsAg and HDAg domains in HBV + HDV infection, a critical finding for the design of innovative therapeutic agents. The extent of amino-acid variability was measured by Shannon-Entropy (Sn) in HBsAg genotype-d sequences from 31 HBV + HDV infected and 62 HBV mono-infected patients (comparable for demographics and virological-parameters), and in 47 HDAg genotype-1 sequences. Positions with Sn = 0 were defined as conserved. The percentage of conserved HBsAg-positions was significantly higher in HBV + HDV infection than HBV mono-infection (p = 0.001). Results were confirmed after stratification for HBeAg-status and patients’ age. A Sn = 0 at specific positions in the C-terminus HBsAg were correlated with higher HDV-RNA, suggesting that conservation of these positions can preserve HDV-fitness. Conversely, HDAg was characterized by a lower percentage of conserved-residues than HBsAg (p < 0.001), indicating higher functional plasticity. Furthermore, specific HDAg-mutations were significantly correlated with higher HDV-RNA, suggesting a role in conferring HDV replicative-advantage. Among HDAg-domains, only the virus-assembly signal exhibited a high genetic conservation (75% of conserved-residues). In conclusion, HDV can constrain HBsAg genetic evolution to preserve its fitness. The identification of conserved regions in HDAg poses the basis for designing innovative targets against HDV-infection.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the virological status in liver (both tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissue), the clinical features and the contribution of occult HBV infection (OBI) to postoperative prognosis in HBeAg-negative(-) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in China. Using quantitative TaqMan fluorescent real-time PCR assays, HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total DNA (tDNA) were both quantified in 11 (HBsAg(-)) and 57 (HBsAg-positive(+)) pairs of tumor tissue (TT) and adjacent non-tumor tissue (ANTT) obtained from HBeAg(-) HCC patients who received no antiviral treatment and were negative for anti-HCV before surgical treatment. Of 11 HBsAg(-) patients, 36% were with HBsAb(+) HBeAb(+) HBcAb(+). However, only 9% of the HBsAg(-) patients were HBsAb(-) HBeAb(+) HBcAb(+), which accounted for the majority (93%) in the HBsAg(+) group. TT and ANTT HBV tDNAs in 11 HCC patients with HBsAg (-) and HBeAg (-) were all detectable. HBV cccDNA and tDNA were all lower in the HBsAg(-) group than those in the HBsAg(+) group. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with OBI were associated with a lower risk of cirrhosis and better overall survival (OS). The intracellular HBV DNAs, such as HBV cccDNA and tDNA are valuable biological markers for the diagnosis of occult HBV infection in HCC patients. This would assist the clinical implementation of a more personalized therapy for viral re-activation control and improve the survival rate of OBI patients.
Project description:The spreading of viral hepatitis among injecting drug users (IDU) is an emerging public health concern. This study explored the prevalence and the risks of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) among IDU-dominant prisoners in Taiwan. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and HDV (anti-HDV), viral load and HCV genotypes were measured in 1137(67.0%) of 1697 prisoners. 89.2% of participants were IDUs and none had HIV infection. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, dual HBsAg/anti-HCV, HBsAg/anti-HDV, and triple HBsAg/anti-HCV/anti-HDV was 13.6%, 34.8%, 4.9%, 3.4%, and 2.8%, respectively. HBV viremia rate was significantly lower in HBV/HCV-coinfected than HBV mono-infected subjects (66.1% versus 89.9%, adjusted odds ratio/95% confidence intervals [aOR/CI] = 0.27/0.10-0.73). 47.5% anti-HCV-seropositive subjects (n = 396) were non-viremic, including 23.2% subjects were antivirals-induced. The predominant HCV genotypes were genotype 6(40.9%), 1a(24.0%) and 3(11.1%). HBsAg seropositivity was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among the treatment naïve HCV subjects (44.7% versus 72.4%, aOR/CI = 0.27/0.13-0.58). Anti-HCV seropositivity significantly increased the risk of anti-HDV-seropositivity among HBsAg carriers (57.1% versus 7.1%, aOR/CI = 15.73/6.04-40.96). In conclusion, IUDs remain as reservoirs for multiple hepatitis viruses infection among HIV-uninfected prisoners in Taiwan. HCV infection increased the risk of HDV infection but suppressed HBV replication in HBsAg carriers. An effective strategy is mandatory to control the epidemic in this high-risk group.
Project description:Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most severe form of human viral hepatitis. HDV requires a hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection to provide HDV with HBV surface antigen envelope proteins. The net effect of HDV is to make the underlying HBV disease worse, including higher rates of hepatocellular carcinoma. Accurate assessments of current HDV prevalence have been hampered by the lack of readily available and reliable quantitative assays, combined with the absence of a Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy. We sought to develop a convenient assay for accurately screening populations and to use this assay to determine HDV prevalence in a population with abnormally high rates of hepatocellular carcinoma. We developed a high-throughput quantitative microarray antibody capture assay for anti-HDV immunoglobulin G wherein recombinant HDV delta antigen is printed by microarray on slides coated with a noncontinuous, nanostructured plasmonic gold film, enabling quantitative fluorescent detection of anti-HDV antibody in small aliquots of patient serum. This assay was then used to screen all HBV-infected patients identified in a large randomly selected cohort designed to represent the Mongolian population. We identified two quantitative thresholds of captured antibody that were 100% predictive of the sample either being positive on standard western blot or harboring HDV RNA detectable by real-time quantitative PCR. Subsequent screening of the HBV+ cohort revealed that a remarkable 57% were RNA+ and an additional 4% were positive on western blot alone.The quantitative microarray antibody capture assay's unique performance characteristics make it ideal for population screening; its application to the Mongolian HBV surface antigen-positive population reveals an apparent ?60% prevalence of HDV coinfection among these HBV-infected Mongolian subjects, which may help explain the extraordinarily high rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in Mongolia. (Hepatology 2017;66:1739-1749).
Project description:HDV infection causes severe liver disease, the global health burden of which may be underestimated due to limited epidemiological data. HDV depends on HBV for infection, but recent studies indicated that dissemination can also be supported by other helper viruses such as HCV. We used a rapid point-of-care test and an ELISA to retrospectively test for antibodies against the Hepatitis Delta antigen (anti-HDV-Ab) in 4103 HBsAg-positive and 1661 HBsAg-negative, anti-HCV-positive sera from China and Germany. We found that the HDV seroprevalence in HBsAg-positive patients in China is limited to geographic hotspots (Inner Mongolia: 35/251, 13.9%; Xinjiang: 7/180, 3.9%) and high-risk intravenous drug users (HBV mono-infected: 23/247, 9.3%; HBV-HCV co-infected: 34/107, 31.8%), while none of the 2634 HBsAg carriers from other metropolitan regions were anti-HDV-Ab-positive. In Germany, we recorded an HDV seroprevalence of 5.3% in a university hospital environment. In a cohort of HBsAg-negative, anti-HCV-positive patients that were not exposed to HBV before (anti-HBc-negative), HDV was not associated with HCV mono-infection (Chinese high-risk cohort: 0/365, 0.0%; German mixed cohort: 0/263, 0.0%). However, 21/1033 (2.0%) high-risk HCV patients in China with markers of a previously cleared HBV infection (anti-HBc-positive) were positive for anti-HDV-Ab, with two of them being positive for both HDV and HCV RNA but negative for HBV DNA. The absence of anti-HDV-Ab in HCV mono-infected patients shows that HCV cannot promote HDV transmission in humans.
Project description:Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) coinfection will additionally aggravate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden in the coming decades, with an increase in HBV-related liver diseases. Between 2018 and 2019, a total of 205 HBV patients clinically characterized as chronic hepatitis B (CHB; <i>n</i> = 115), liver cirrhosis (LC; <i>n</i> = 21), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; <i>n</i> = 69) were recruited. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against surface antigens (anti-HBs), and core antigens (anti-HBc) were determined by ELISA. The presence of hepatitis B viral DNA and hepatitis delta RNA was determined. Distinct HBV and HDV genotypes were phylogenetically reconstructed and vaccine escape mutations in the "a" determinant region of HBV were elucidated. All HBV patients were HbsAg positive, with 99% (<i>n</i> = 204) and 7% (<i>n</i> = 15) of them being positive for anti-HBc and anti-HBs, respectively. Anti-HBs positivity was higher among HCC (15%; <i>n</i> = 9) compared to CHB patients. The HBV-B genotype was predominant (65%; <i>n</i> = 134), followed by HBV-C (31%; <i>n</i> = 64), HBV-D, and HBV-G (3%; <i>n</i> = 7). HCC was observed frequently among young individuals with HBV-C genotypes. A low frequency (2%; <i>n</i> = 4) of vaccine escape mutations was observed. HBV-HDV coinfection was observed in 16% (<i>n</i> = 33) of patients with the predominant occurrence of the HDV-1 genotype. A significant association of genotypes with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme levels was observed in HBV monoinfections. The prevalence of the HDV-1 genotype is high in Vietnam. No correlation was observed between HDV-HBV coinfections and disease progression when compared to HBV monoinfections.