Targeted genomic rearrangements using CRISPR/Cas technology.
ABSTRACT: Genomic rearrangements are frequently observed in cancer cells but have been difficult to generate in a highly specific manner for functional analysis. Here we report the application of CRISPR/Cas technology to successfully generate several types of chromosomal rearrangements implicated as driver events in lung cancer, including the CD74-ROS1 translocation event and the EML4-ALK and KIF5B-RET inversion events. Our results demonstrate that Cas9-induced DNA breaks promote efficient rearrangement between pairs of targeted loci, providing a highly tractable approach for the study of genomic rearrangements.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Half of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) regardless of anatomic location harbor anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements and overexpress anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein. The wide application of next-generation sequencing and the clinical benefit to tyrosine kinase inhibitors have opened new opportunities for investigation of ALK-negative IMTs. METHODS:In this study, we have investigated a series of pediatric and adult thoracic IMTs for abnormalities in a wide spectrum of actionable kinases by applying a variety of molecular and next-generation sequencing techniques, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), targeted RNA sequencing, and NanoString assay. RESULTS:There were 33 patients with thoracic IMTs, including five children; their mean age was 37. The tumors showed a monomorphic spindle cell phenotype, except for one with an epithelioid morphologic pattern and moderate to severe atypia. By immunohistochemistry, 24 tumors were ALK positive, and 19 of the 24 showed ALK rearrangements and one ret proto-oncogene gene (RET) rearrangement by FISH. RNA sequencing was performed in the remaining four cases lacking ALK abnormalities by FISH, revealing ALK fusions involving tropomyosin 4 gene (TMP4) and echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 gene (EML4) as partner in three cases. NanoString assay was performed in the remaining case, revealing ALK alternative transcription initiation (ALKATI). Nine cases lacking ALK abnormalities were further tested by FISH or targeted RNA sequencing, revealing ROS1 rearrangement in six cases and ETS variant 6 gene (ETV6)-neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 3 gene (NTRK3) fusion in three cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:By using a battery of complementary molecular techniques, we have shown that all the thoracic IMTs harbored a tyrosine kinase abnormality, with 30% involving a kinase gene other than ALK, including ROS1, NTRK3, and RET gene fusions. We have also described for the first time ALKATI-induced ALK oncogenic activation in IMTs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We performed a genomic study in lung adenocarcinoma cases with discordant anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) status by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. METHODS:DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 16 discordant (four FISH-positive/IHC-negative and 12 FISH-negative/IHC-positive) cases by Vysis ALK Break Apart FISH and ALK IHC testing (ALK1 clone) were subjected to whole gene capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of nine genes, including ALK, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 gene (EML4), kinesin family member 5B gene (KIF5B), staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 gene (SND1), BRAF, ret proto-oncogene (RET), ezrin gene (EZR), ROS1, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). All discordant cases (except one FISH-negative/IHC-positive case without sufficient tissue) were analyzed by IHC with D5F3 antibody. In one case with fresh frozen tissue, whole transcriptome sequencing was also performed. Twenty-six concordant (16 FISH-positive/IHC-positive and 10 FISH-negative/IHC-negative) cases were included as controls. RESULTS:In four ALK FISH-positive/IHC-negative cases, no EML4-ALK fusion gene was observed by NGS, but in one case using fresh frozen tissue, we identified EML4-baculoviral AIP repeat containing 6 gene (BIRC6) and AP2 associated kinase 1 gene (AAK1)-ALK fusion genes. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed a highly expressed EML4-BIRC6 fusion transcript and a minimally expressed AAK1 transcript. Among the 12 FISH-negative/IHC-positive cases, no evidence of ALK gene rearrangement was detected by NGS. Eleven of 12 FISH-negative/IHC-positive cases detected by ALK1 clone were concordant by repeat ALK IHC with D5F3 antibody (i.e., FISH-negative/IHC-negative by D5F3 clone). Among the 16 ALK FISH-positive/IHC-positive positive controls, whole gene capture identified ALK gene fusion in 15 cases, including in one case with Huntington interacting protein 1 gene (HIP1)-ALK. No ALK fusion gene was observed in any of the 10 FISH-negative/IHC-negative cases. Other fusion genes involving ROS1, EZR, BRAF, and SND1 were also found. CONCLUSIONS:ALK FISH results appeared to be false-positive in three of four FISH-positive/IHC-negative cases, whereas no false-negative ALK FISH case was identified among 12 ALK FISH-negative/IHC-positive cases by ALK1 clone, which was in keeping with the concordant FISH-negative/IHC-negative status by D5F3 clone. Our targeted whole gene capture approach using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples was effective for detecting rearrangements involving ALK and other actionable oncogenes.
Project description:PURPOSE:Broad, hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS), as a clinical test, uses less tissue to identify more clinically relevant genomic alterations compared with profiling with multiple non-NGS tests. We set out to determine the frequency of such genomic alterations via this approach in tumors in which previous extensive non-NGS testing had not yielded a targetable driver alteration. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma with a ? 15 pack-year smoking history whose tumors previously tested "negative" for alterations in 11 genes (mutations in EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MAP2K1, PIK3CA, and AKT1 and fusions involving ALK, ROS1, and RET) via multiple non-NGS methods. We performed hybridization capture of the coding exons of 287 cancer-related genes and 47 introns of 19 frequently rearranged genes and sequenced these to deep, uniform coverage. RESULTS:Actionable genomic alterations with a targeted agent based on NCCN guidelines were identified in 26% [8 of 31: EGFR G719A, BRAF V600E, SOCS5-ALK, HIP1-ALK, CD74-ROS1, KIF5B-RET (n = 2), CCDC6-RET]. Seven of these patients either received or are candidates for targeted therapy. Comprehensive genomic profiling using this method also identified a genomic alteration with a targeted agent available on a clinical trial in an additional 39% (12 of 31). CONCLUSIONS:Broad, hybrid capture-based NGS identified actionable genomic alterations in 65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 48%-82%] of tumors from never or light smokers with lung cancers deemed without targetable genomic alterations by earlier extensive non-NGS testing. These findings support first-line profiling of lung adenocarcinomas using this approach as a more comprehensive and efficient strategy compared with non-NGS testing. See related commentary by McCutcheon and Giaccone, p. 3584.
Project description:Identification of clinically relevant oncogenic drivers in advanced cancer is critical in selecting appropriate targeted therapy. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based clinical cancer gene assay, we performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of advanced cases of lung adenocarcinoma.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors from 51 lung adenocarcinoma patients whose tumors previously tested negative for EGFR/KRAS/ALK by conventional methods were collected, and CGP was performed via hybridization capture of 4,557 exons from 287 cancer-related genes and 47 introns from 19 genes frequently rearranged in cancer.Genomic profiles of all 51 cases were obtained, with a median coverage of