?-Cryptoxanthin modulates the response to phytosterols in post-menopausal women carrying NPC1L1 L272L and ABCG8 A632 V polymorphisms: an exploratory study.
ABSTRACT: Phytosterol (PS) intake may be used for hypercholesterolaemia in some groups although the presence of non-responders is well known. Carotenoids and PS/cholesterol may compete for the same transporters during absorption. As part of a randomized, double-blind, crossover, multiple-dose supplementation study with ?-cryptoxanthin (?-Cx) and PS, single and combined, polymorphisms of ABCG8 (A632V) and NCPL1 (L272L) were determined in 19 post-menopausal women. Subjects carrying CC polymorphism for NCP1L1 (L272L) showed a net increase in total cholesterol and LDL after PS intake but, interestingly, displayed a decrease in both lipid fractions after consuming PS plus ?-Cx. For the ABCG8 (A632V) gene, CT/TT carriers consuming PS also displayed an increase in total cholesterol and LDL, but this increment was much lower after the intake of PS plus ?-Cx. Additionally, in CC carriers for ABCG8 (A632V), a greater decrease in total cholesterol and LDL was found after the intake of PS plus ?-Cx compared to that observed after PS alone. Overall, our results suggest that ?-Cx improves the response to PS in individuals carrying specific genetic polymorphisms (i.e. non-responders), opening the possibility to modulate the response to PS by food technology. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01074723).
Project description:Plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL) cholesterol levels of 2 partially inbred strains of opossums (Monodelphis domestica) differ markedly when they are fed a high-cholesterol and low-fat (HCLF) diet. High-responding opossums exhibit a dramatic increase (>10-fold) in VLDL+LDL cholesterol, whereas low-responding opossums exhibit a minimal increase (<2-fold) in VLDL+LDL cholesterol. The genes responsible for the accumulation of high levels of plasma VLDL+LDL cholesterol in high-responding opossums have not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding for (1) 4 bile acid synthesis enzymes (CYP7A1, CYP27A1, CYP8B1, and CYP7B1); (2) 3 cholesterol synthesis enzymes (HMGCR, HMGCS1, and SQLE); (3) the LDL receptor (LDLR); (4) 2 sterol transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8); and (5) 2 bile acid transporters (ABCB11 and SLC10A1) to determine how the expression of these genes was affected by dietary cholesterol in the 2 strains of opossums. We found differences between high and low responders in the expression of cholesterol synthesis genes on the basal diet, as well as differences in the expression of the CYP27A1, ABCG5, ABCG8, and SLC10A1 genes on the HCLF diet. CYP27A1 messenger RNA levels were lower in the livers of high responders compared with low responders, whereas CYP27A1 messenger RNA levels in extrahepatic tissues were similar in high and low responders on the HCLF diet. Low levels of CYP27A1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 expression in the liver may contribute to hypercholesterolemia in high-responding opossums.
Project description:Plant sterol (PS) supplementation is increasingly accepted as a dietary strategy to lower plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, information is scarce about the effect of increased PS intake in potentially vulnerable groups, such as phytosterolemia heterozygotes (HET).This study assessed the responsiveness of circulating PS and lipid concentrations and cholesterol kinetics (absorption and synthesis) to daily PS supplementation in HET (ABCG8 S107X mutation) compared with a healthy control cohort.A double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 10 HET and 15 control subjects. The participants had a mean (±SEM) age of 34 ± 2 y and a BMI (in kg/m²) of 29.9 ± 1.1 and consumed ?1.6 g PS or placebo capsules daily with supper for 4 wk. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were assessed by using [¹³C]cholesterol and deuterium oxide, respectively.Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased (P = 0.006) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 2.73 ± 0.19 mmol/L; control: 3.11 ± 0.19 mmol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 3.12 ± 0.20 mmol/L; control: 3.50 ± 0.21 mmol/L), whereas PS concentrations (campesterol+?-sitosterol) increased (P = 0.03) in both groups after PS supplementation (HET: 39.72 ± 6.05 ?mol/L; control: 24.03 ± 1.65 ?mol/L) compared with placebo (HET: 27.32 ± 3.80 ?mol/L; control: 21.12 ± 2.05 ?mol/L). Cholesterol absorption efficiency decreased (P = 0.010) by ?22% and ?17% and synthesis rates increased (P = 0.040) by ?20% and ?24% in the HET and control groups, respectively, in response to PS consumption compared with placebo.These data suggest that heterozygosity for the ABCG8 S107X mutation does not influence the action of dietary PS on circulating cholesterol concentrations but may affect sterol absorption.
Project description:Dietary plant sterols (PS) reduce serum total and LDL-cholesterol in hyperlipidemic animal models and in humans. This hypocholesterolemic effect is generally ascribed to inhibition of cholesterol absorption. However, whether this effect fully explains the reported strong induction of neutral sterol excretion upon plant sterol feeding is not known. Recent data demonstrate that the intestine directly mediates plasma cholesterol excretion into feces, i.e., without involvement of the hepato-biliary route.Aim of this study was to determine whether stimulation of fecal neutral sterol loss during PS feeding is (partly) explained by increased intestinal cholesterol excretion and to assess the role of the cholesterol transporter Abcg5/Abcg8 herein.Wild-type mice were fed a control diet or diets enriched with increasing amounts of PS (1%, 2%, 4% or 8%, wt/wt) for two weeks. In addition, Abcg5(-/-) mice were fed either control or 8% PS diet. PS feeding resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of fractional cholesterol absorption (?2-7-fold reduction) in wild-type mice and ?80% reduction in Abcg5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, PS feeding led to a strong, dose-independent induction of neutral sterol excretion (3.4-fold in wild-types and 2.7-fold in Abcg5(-/-) mice) without changes in biliary cholesterol secretion. It was calculated that PS feeding stimulated intestinal cholesterol excretion by ?500% in wild-type mice and by ?250% in Abcg5(-/-).Our data indicate that in mice the cholesterol-lowering effects of PS are to a large extent attributable to stimulation of intestinal, non-bile derived, cholesterol excretion. The Abcg5/Abcg8 heterodimer is involved in facilitating this PS-induced flux of cholesterol.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Managing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, e.g., dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is critically important as CVD is the most common cause of death in T2DM patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of plant sterols (PS) on lowering both elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). METHODS:In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study, 161 individuals at increased risk of and with established T2DM, consumed low-fat spreads without or with added PS (2 g/d) for 6 weeks after a 2-week run-in period. Increased risk of developing T2DM was defined by the Australian T2DM Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK). Fasting serum/plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose and insulin were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks. Effects on acute and chronic postprandial blood lipids, glucose and insulin were measured over 4-h in 39 individuals with T2DM following a mixed meal challenge without and with added 2 g/d PS at week 6. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02288585). RESULTS:Hundred fifty-one individuals completed the study and 138 (57% men, 43% women; 44 with and 94 at risk of T2DM) were included in per protocol analysis. Baseline LDL-C and TG were 3.8 ± 1.0 and 2.5 ± 0.8 mmol/l, respectively. PS intake significantly lowered fasting LDL-C (-4.6%, 95%CI -1.2; -8.0; p = 0.009), TC (-4.2%, 95%CI -1.2; -7.1; p = 0.006) and TG (-8.3%, 95% -1.1, -15.0; p = 0.024) with no significant changes in HDL-C, glucose or insulin. Postprandial lipid (TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, remnant cholesterol), glucose and insulin responses did not differ. CONCLUSIONS:In individuals at risk of and with established T2DM and with elevated TG and LDL-C, 2 g/d of PS results in dual LDL-C plus TG lowering. Postprandial lipid or glycemic responses did not differ between PS and control treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Many studies showed a moderate cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols (PS), but increased circulating PS might be atherogenic. We evaluated the associations between natural dietary intake of PS and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and serum lipids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This community-based cross-sectional study included 1160 men and 2780 women aged 31-75 years. Dietary intakes were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. The IMTs at the common, bifurcation and internal carotid artery segments, and fasting serum total (TC), LDL (LDLc) and HDL (HDLc) cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, multivariate analysis showed a dose-dependent inverse association of total PS intake with serum TC, LDLc, non-HDLc in women (P<0.001) and in men (P<0.05). As compared to the lowest quartile of PS intake (<206 mg/d), the multivariate-adjusted means of TC, LDLc and non-HDLc in the highest quartile of PS intake (447 mg/d) decreased by 5.0%, 6.2% and 6.5% in women (P<0.005), and by 6.4%, 7.1% and 6.7% (P>0.05) in men. Although the IMTs tended to be lower with greater intake of dietary PS, only small differences in the left internal IMT between the highest and lowest groups were observed among men (-7.6%) and women (-5.1%) (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed no significant mean differences among the PS groups in HDLc, TG and IMTs at other studied sites among men and women (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Greater PS consumption from natural diets is associated with lower serum total, LDL, non-HDL cholesterol and with thinner left internal IMT in women and men.
Project description:Plant sterols (PS) are well known to reduce serum levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. Lipidomics potentially provides detailed information on a wide range of individual serum lipid metabolites, which may further add to our understanding of the biological effects of PS. In this study, lipidomics analysis was applied to serum samples from a placebo-controlled, parallel human intervention study (n = 97) of 4-week consumption of two PS-enriched, yoghurt drinks differing in fat content (based on 0.1% vs. 1.5% dairy fat). A comprehensive data analysis strategy was developed and implemented to assess and compare effects of two different PS-treatments and placebo treatment. The combination of univariate and multivariate data analysis approaches allowed to show significant effects of PS intake on the serum lipidome, and helped to distinguish them from fat content and non-specific effects. The PS-enriched 0.1% dairy fat yoghurt drink had a stronger impact on the lipidome than the 1.5% dairy fat yoghurt drink, despite similar LDL-cholesterol lowering effects. The PS-enriched 0.1% dairy fat yoghurt drink reduced levels of several sphingomyelins which correlated well with the reduction in LDL-cholesterol and can be explained by co-localization of sphingomyelins and cholesterol on the surface of LDL lipoprotein. Statistically significant reductions in serum levels of two lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC(16:1), LPC(20:1)) and cholesteryl arachidonate may suggest reduced inflammation and atherogenic potential. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-011-0384-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:Plant sterols (PSs) lower LDL cholesterol, an established risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). No direct evidence is available supporting a reduced risk of CAD for foods with added PSs. Endothelial dysfunction is seen as an early indicator of atherosclerotic damage.This study was primarily designed to investigate the effect of a low-fat spread with added PSs on brachial artery endothelial function as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Second, effects on arterial stiffness, blood pressure, serum lipids, and plasma PS concentrations were investigated. We hypothesized that PSs would not worsen FMD but would rather modestly improve FMD.This study had a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. After a 4-wk run-in period, 240 hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy men and women consumed 20 g/d of low-fat spread without (control) or with added PSs (3 g/d) during 12 wk. Pre- and postintervention, vascular function measurements and blood sampling were performed.In total, 232 participants completed the study period. For the primary endpoint FMD, 199 participants were included in the statistical analysis. PS intake did not affect FMD (+0.01 percentage points; 95% CI: -0.73, 0.75) compared with control. Measures of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and blood pressure were also not significantly changed compared with control. After PS intervention, LDL cholesterol significantly decreased on average by 0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.40, -0.12) or 6.7% compared with control. Plasma sitosterol and campesterol concentrations significantly increased in the PS group up to on average 11.5 ?mol/L and 13.9 ?mol/L (expressed as geometric means), respectively.The intake of a low-fat spread with added PSs neither improved nor worsened FMD or other vascular function markers in hypercholesterolemic men and women. As expected, serum LDL cholesterol decreased, whereas plasma PSs increased after PS intake. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01803178.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG8 plays an important role in excretion of cholesterol from liver. Common genetic polymorphisms in ABCG8 gene may genetically predispose an individual to coronary artery disease (CAD) along with response to atorvastatin therapy. Thus, we aimed to examine the role of ABCG8 D19H polymorphism (rs11887534) in susceptibility to CAD and its influence on atorvastatin response.The study included 213 CAD patients and 220 controls. Genotyping of ABCG8 D19H polymorphism was done by PCR-RFLP.Our results showed that ABCG8 'H' allele was conferring significant risk for CAD in a dominant model (OR=2.54; p=0.014). This increased risk for CAD was more pronounced in males (OR=2.69; p=0.030). No correlation of ABCG8 genotypes with the risk factors (diabetes, hypertension and smoking) of CAD was observed. On atorvastatin treatment there was a significant decrease in the LDL-C levels (p=0.021). However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that this decease was not associated with ABCG8 genetic variant (p=0.845). Observed determinants of variation in interindividual response to atorvastatin therapy were pre-treatment LDL-C (p= 0.024) and TC (p=0.017).Although the genetic variant 19H of ABCG8 confers risk for CAD in North Indian population, it is not associated with interindividual response to atorvastatin therapy.
Project description:Consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio including plant sterols (PS), viscous fibre, soy proteins and nuts for 6 months improves blood lipid profile. Plant sterols reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and concerns have been raised whether PS consumption reduces fat soluble vitamin absorption.The objective was to determine effects of consumption of a cholesterol lowering dietary portfolio on circulating concentrations of PS and fat soluble vitamins.Using a parallel design study, 351 hyperlipidemic participants from 4 centres across Canada were randomized to 1 of 3 groups. Participants followed dietary advice with control or portfolio diet. Participants on routine and intensive portfolio involved 2 and 7 clinic visits, respectively, over 6 months.No changes in plasma concentrations of ? and ? tocopherol, lutein, lycopene and retinol, but decreased ?-carotene concentrations were observed with intensive (week 12: p?=?0.045; week 24: p?=?0.039) and routine (week 12: p?=?0.031; week 24: p?=?0.078) portfolio groups compared to control. However, cholesterol adjusted ?-carotene and fat soluble compound concentrations were not different compared to control. Plasma PS concentrations were increased with intensive (campesterol:p?=?0.012; ?-sitosterol:p?=?0.035) and routine (campesterol: p?=?0.034; ?-sitosterol: p?=?0.080) portfolio groups compared to control. Plasma cholesterol-adjusted campesterol and ?-sitosterol concentrations were negatively correlated (p?<?0.001) with total and LDL-C levels.Results demonstrate that consuming a portfolio diet reduces serum total and LDL-C levels while increasing PS values, without altering fat soluble compounds concentrations. The extent of increments of PS with the current study are not deleterious and also maintaining optimum levels of fat soluble vitamins are of paramount necessity to maintain overall metabolism and health. Results indicate portfolio diet as one of the best options for CVD risk reduction.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00438425.
Project description:Animal cells acquire cholesterol from receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which releases cholesterol in lysosomes. The cholesterol moves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it inhibits production of LDL receptors, completing a feedback loop. Here we performed a CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human SV589 cells for genes required for LDL-derived cholesterol to reach the ER. We identified the gene encoding PTDSS1, an enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid constituent of the inner layer of the plasma membrane (PM). In PTDSS1-deficient cells where PS is low, LDL cholesterol leaves lysosomes but fails to reach the ER, instead accumulating in the PM. The addition of PS restores cholesterol transport to the ER. We conclude that LDL cholesterol normally moves from lysosomes to the PM. When the PM cholesterol exceeds a threshold, excess cholesterol moves to the ER in a process requiring PS. In the ER, excess cholesterol acts to reduce cholesterol uptake, preventing toxic cholesterol accumulation. These studies reveal that one lipid-PS-controls the movement of another lipid-cholesterol-between cell membranes. We relate these findings to recent evidence indicating that PM-to-ER cholesterol transport is mediated by GRAMD1/Aster proteins that bind PS and cholesterol.