Tryptophan supplementation and postoperative delirium--a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether the postoperative administration of tryptophan would be beneficial for elderly adults undergoing surgery who are at risk of developing postoperative delirium.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center.Individuals aged 60 and older undergoing major elective operations requiring a postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission (n = 325).L-tryptophan, 1 g orally three times a day or placebo was started after surgery and continued for up to 3 days postoperatively.Delirium and its motor subtypes were measured using the Confusion Assessment Method-Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale. The primary outcome for between-group comparison was the incidence of excitatory (mixed and hyperactive) postoperative delirium. The secondary outcomes for comparison were the incidence and duration of overall postoperative delirium.The overall incidence of postoperative delirium was 39% (95% confidence interval = 34-44%) (n = 116). Seventeen percent of participants in the tryptophan group and 9% in the placebo group had excitatory delirium (P = .18), and the duration of excitatory delirium was 3.3 ± 1.7 days for tryptophan and 3.1 ± 1.9 days for placebo (P = .74). Forty percent of participants in the tryptophan group and 37% in the placebo group had overall delirium (P = .60), and the duration of overall delirium was 2.9 ± 1.8 days for tryptophan and 2.4 ± 1.6 days for placebo (P = .17).Postoperative tryptophan supplementation in older adults undergoing major elective operations requiring postoperative ICU admission did not reduce the incidence or duration of postoperative excitatory delirium or overall delirium.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the efficacy of short-term low-dose quetiapine for delirium prevention in critically ill patients. METHODS:In this prospective, a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, adult patients who were admitted from July 2015 to July 2017 to a medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary teaching hospital affiliated to Seoul National University were included. Quetiapine (12.5 mg or 25 mg oral at night; N = 16) or placebo (N = 21) was administered according to randomization until ICU discharge or the 10th ICU day. The primary endpoint was the incidence of delirium within the first 10 ICU days. Secondary endpoints included the rate of positive Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) (the number of positive CAM-ICU counts/the number of total CAM-ICU counts), delirium duration, successful extubation, and overall mortality. RESULT:The incidence of delirium during the 10 days after ICU admission was 46.7% (7/15) in the quetiapine group and 55.0% (11/20) in the placebo group (p = 0.442). In the quetiapine group, the rate of positive CAM-ICU was significantly lower than in the placebo group (14.4% vs. 37.4%, p = 0.048), delirium duration during the study period was significantly shorter (0.28 day vs. 1.83 days, p = 0.018), and more patients in the quetiapine than in the placebo group were weaned from mechanical ventilation successfully (84.6% vs. 47.1%, p = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggests that prophylactic use of low-dose quetiapine could be helpful for preventing delirium in critically ill patients. A further large-scale prospective study is needed.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Postoperative delirium is common following cardiac surgery and may be affected by choice of analgesic and sedative.<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the effect of postoperative intravenous (IV) acetaminophen (paracetamol) vs placebo combined with IV propofol vs dexmedetomidine on postoperative delirium among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Randomized, placebo-controlled, factorial clinical trial among 120 patients aged 60 years or older undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or combined CABG/valve surgeries at a US center. Enrollment was September 2015 to April 2018, with follow-up ending in April 2019.<h4>Interventions</h4>Patients were randomized to 1 of 4 groups receiving postoperative analgesia with IV acetaminophen or placebo every 6 hours for 48 hours and postoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol starting at chest closure and continued for up to 6 hours (acetaminophen and dexmedetomidine: n = 29; placebo and dexmedetomidine: n = 30; acetaminophen and propofol: n = 31; placebo and propofol: n = 30).<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative in-hospital delirium by the Confusion Assessment Method. Secondary outcomes included delirium duration, cognitive decline, breakthrough analgesia within the first 48 hours, and ICU and hospital length of stay.<h4>Results</h4>Among 121 patients randomized (median age, 69 years; 19 women [15.8%]), 120 completed the trial. Patients treated with IV acetaminophen had a significant reduction in delirium (10% vs 28% placebo; difference, -18% [95% CI, -32% to -5%]; P = .01; HR, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.1-7.8]). Patients receiving dexmedetomidine vs propofol had no significant difference in delirium (17% vs 21%; difference, -4% [95% CI, -18% to 10%]; P = .54; HR, 0.8 [95% CI, 0.4-1.9]). There were significant differences favoring acetaminophen vs placebo for 3 prespecified secondary outcomes: delirium duration (median, 1 vs 2 days; difference, -1 [95% CI, -2 to 0]), ICU length of stay (median, 29.5 vs 46.7 hours; difference, -16.7 [95% CI, -20.3 to -0.8]), and breakthrough analgesia (median, 322.5 vs 405.3 µg morphine equivalents; difference, -83 [95% CI, -154 to -14]). For dexmedetomidine vs propofol, only breakthrough analgesia was significantly different (median, 328.8 vs 397.5 µg; difference, -69 [95% CI, -155 to -4]; P = .04). Fourteen patients in both the placebo-dexmedetomidine and acetaminophen-propofol groups (46% and 45%) and 7 in the acetaminophen-dexmedetomidine and placebo-propofol groups (24% and 23%) had hypotension.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Among older patients undergoing cardiac surgery, postoperative scheduled IV acetaminophen, combined with IV propofol or dexmedetomidine, reduced in-hospital delirium vs placebo. Additional research, including comparison of IV vs oral acetaminophen and other potentially opioid-sparing analgesics, on the incidence of postoperative delirium is warranted.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02546765.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Insomnia frequently occurs in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Sleep-promoting agents may reduce rapid eye movement sleep and have deliriogenic effects. Suvorexant (Belsomra) is an orexin receptor antagonist with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of adult insomnia, which improves sleep onset and maintenance as well as subjective measures of quality of sleep. This trial will evaluate the efficacy of postoperative oral suvorexant treatment on night-time wakefulness after persistent sleep onset as well as the incidence and duration of delirium among adult cardiac surgical patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we will enrol 120 patients, aged 60 years or older, undergoing elective cardiac surgery with planned postoperative admission to the ICU. Participants will be randomised to receive oral suvorexant (20?mg) or placebo one time a day starting the night after extubation. The primary outcome will be wakefulness after persistent sleep onset. The secondary outcome will be total sleep time. Exploratory outcomes will include time to sleep onset, incidence of postoperative in-hospital delirium, number of delirium-free days and subjective sleep quality. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval was obtained through the 'Committee on Clinical Investigations' at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (protocol number 2019P000759). The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:This trial has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov on 17 September 2019 (NCT04092894).
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Surgical patients are at high risk for developing infectious complications and postoperative delirium. Prolonged infections and delirium result in worse outcome. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and influenza vaccination are known to increase HLA-DR on monocytes and improve immune reactivity. This study aimed to investigate whether GM-CSF or vaccination reverses monocyte deactivation. Secondary aims were whether it decreases infection and delirium days after esophageal or pancreatic resection over time.<h4>Methods</h4>In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double dummy trial setting on an interdisciplinary ICU of a university hospital 61 patients with immunosuppression (monocytic HLA-DR [mHLA-DR] <10,000 monoclonal antibodies [mAb] per cell) on the first day after esophageal or pancreatic resection were treated with either GM-CSF (250 ?g/m2/d), influenza vaccination (Mutagrip 0.5 ml/d) or placebo for a maximum of 3 consecutive days if mHLA-DR remained below 10,000 mAb per cell. HLA-DR on monocytes was measured daily until day 5 after surgery. Infections and delirium were followed up for 9 days after surgery. Primary outcome was HLA-DR on monocytes, and secondary outcomes were duration of infection and delirium.<h4>Results</h4>mHLA-DR was significantly increased compared to placebo (p < 0.001) and influenza vaccination (p < 0.001) on the second postoperative day. Compared with placebo, GM-CSF-treated patients revealed shorter duration of infection (p < 0.001); the duration of delirium was increased after vaccination (p = 0.003).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Treatment with GM-CSF in patients with postoperative immune suppression was safe and effective in restoring monocytic immune competence. Furthermore, therapy with GM-CSF reduced duration of infection in immune compromised patients. However, influenza vaccination increased duration of delirium after major surgery.<h4>Trial registration</h4>www.controlled-trials.com ISRCTN27114642.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Postoperative delirium is common among older cardiac surgery patients. Often difficult to predict and address prophylactically, delirium complicates the postoperative course by increasing morbidity and mortality as well as prolonging both hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) lengths of stay. Based on our pilot trial, we intend to study the effect of scheduled 6-hourly acetaminophen administration for 48 hours post-cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the incidence of in-hospital delirium and long-term neurocognitive outcomes. Additionally, effect on duration and severity of delirium, rescue analgesic consumption, acute and chronic pain scores and lengths of hospital and ICU stay will also be explored.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>This multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, quadruple-blinded trial will include 900 older (>60 years) cardiac surgical patients requiring CPB. Patients meeting the inclusion criteria and not meeting any exclusion criteria will be enrolled at seven centres across the USA with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), Boston, as the central coordinating centre. Additional sites may be included to broaden or speed accrual. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of in-hospital delirium till day 30. Secondary outcomes include the duration and severity of in-hospital delirium, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, postoperative pain scores, postoperative rescue analgesic consumption, postoperative cognitive function and chronic sternal pain. Creation of a biorepository and the use of intraoperative-blinded electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral oximetry data will support exploratory endpoints to determine mechanistic predictors of postoperative delirium.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>This trial is approved and centrally facilitated by the Institutional Review Board at BIDMC. An independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board is responsible for maintaining safety oversight. Protocol # 2019 P00075, V.1.4 (dated 20 October 2020).<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT04093219.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Delirium is a common disorder among hospitalized older patients and results in increased morbidity and mortality. The prevention of delirium is still challenging in older patient care. The role of antipsychotics in delirium prevention has been limited. Therefore, we conducted a trial to investigate the efficacy of quetiapine use to prevent delirium in hospitalized older medical patients.<h4>Methods</h4>This study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial conducted at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized in the internal medicine service were randomized to quetiapine 12.5 mg or placebo once daily at bedtime for a maximum 7-day duration. The primary end point was delirium incidence. Secondary end points were delirium duration, length of hospital stay, ICU admission, rehospitalization and mortality within 30 and 90 days.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 122 patients were enrolled in the study. Eight (6.6%) left the trial before receiving the first dose of the intervention, whereas 114 (93.4%) were included in an intention-to-treat analysis allocated to the quetiapine or placebo group (n = 57 each). The delirium incidence rates in the quetiapine and placebo groups were 14.0 and 8.8% (OR = 1.698, 95% CI 0.520-5.545, P = 0.381), respectively. Other endpoints in the quetiapine and placebo groups were the median length of hospital stay, 6 (4-8) days versus 5 (4-8) days (P = 0.133), respectively; delirium duration, 4 (2.3-6.5) versus 3 (1.5-4.0) days (P = 0.557), respectively; ICU admission, 3 (5.3%) patients from both groups (P = 1.000); and mortality in the quetiapine and placebo groups, 1 (1.8%) versus 2 (3.5%) at 30 days (P = 0.566) and 7 (12.3%) versus 9 (15.8%) days at 90 days (P = 0.591). There were no significant differences in other outcomes. None of the participants reported adverse events.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Quetiapine prophylaxis did not reduce delirium incidence in hospitalized older medical patients. The use of quetiapine to prevent delirium in this population group should not be recommended.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This trial was retrospectively registered with the Thai clinical trials registry (TCTR) at clinicaltrials.in.th (TCTR20190927001) on September 26, 2019.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Delirium is highly prevalent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. At this time, there is no drug that effectively prevents delirium in critically ill patients. Alterations in melatonin secretion and metabolism may contribute to the development of delirium. Administration of exogenous melatonin has been shown to prevent delirium in non-critically ill surgical and medical patients. This trial will demonstrate the feasibility of a planned multicentre, randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that melatonin can prevent delirium in critically ill patients compared with placebo. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This feasibility trial is a randomised, 3-arm, placebo-controlled study of melatonin (2 vs 0.5?mg vs placebo, administered for a maximum of 14?days) for the prevention of delirium in critically ill patients. A total of 69 patients aged 18?years and older with an expected ICU length of stay >48?hours will be recruited from 3 Canadian ICUs. The primary outcome is protocol adherence (ie, overall proportion of study drug doses administered in the prescribed administration window). Secondary outcomes include pharmacokinetic parameters, incidence, time to onset, duration of delirium, number of delirium-free days, adverse events, self-reported sleep quality, rest-activity cycles measured by wrist actigraphy, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay and mortality. Data will be analysed using an intention-to-treat approach. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study has been approved by Health Canada and the research ethics board of each study site. Trial results will be presented at international conferences and published in a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02615340: Pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy of ramelteon in preventing delirium, an acute neuropsychiatric condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality, in the perioperative, ICU setting. DESIGN:Parallel-arm, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Academic medical center in La Jolla, California. PATIENTS:Patients greater than or equal to 18 years undergoing elective pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. INTERVENTIONS:Ramelteon 8?mg or matching placebo starting the night prior to surgery and for a maximum of six nights while in the ICU. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Incident delirium was measured twice daily using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU. The safety outcome was coma-free days assessed by the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. One-hundred twenty participants were enrolled and analysis completed in 117. Delirium occurred in 22 of 58 patients allocated to placebo versus 19 of 59 allocated to ramelteon (relative risk, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.4; p = 0.516). Delirium duration, as assessed by the number of delirium-free days was also similar in both groups (placebo median 2 d [interquartile range, 2-3 d] vs ramelteon 3 d [2-5 d]; p = 0.181). Coma-free days was also similar between groups (placebo median 2 d [interquartile range, 1-3 d] vs ramelteon 3 d [2-4 d]; p = 0.210). We found no difference in ICU length of stay (median 4 d [interquartile range, 3-5 d] vs 4 d [3-6 d]; p = 0.349), or in-hospital mortality (four vs three deaths; relative risk ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.2-3.2; p = 0.717), all placebo versus ramelteon, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Ramelteon 8?mg did not prevent postoperative delirium in patients admitted for elective cardiac surgery.
Project description:Importance:Results of studies on use of prophylactic haloperidol in critically ill adults are inconclusive, especially in patients at high risk of delirium. Objective:To determine whether prophylactic use of haloperidol improves survival among critically ill adults at high risk of delirium, which was defined as an anticipated intensive care unit (ICU) stay of at least 2 days. Design, Setting, and Participants:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigator-driven study involving 1789 critically ill adults treated at 21 ICUs, at which nonpharmacological interventions for delirium prevention are routinely used in the Netherlands. Patients without delirium whose expected ICU stay was at least a day were included. Recruitment was from July 2013 to December 2016 and follow-up was conducted at 90 days with the final follow-up on March 1, 2017. Interventions:Patients received prophylactic treatment 3 times daily intravenously either 1 mg (n = 350) or 2 mg (n = 732) of haloperidol or placebo (n = 707), consisting of 0.9% sodium chloride. Main Outcome and Measures:The primary outcome was the number of days that patients survived in 28 days. There were 15 secondary outcomes, including delirium incidence, 28-day delirium-free and coma-free days, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital length of stay. Results:All 1789 randomized patients (mean, age 66.6 years [SD, 12.6]; 1099 men [61.4%]) completed the study. The 1-mg haloperidol group was prematurely stopped because of futility. There was no difference in the median days patients survived in 28 days, 28 days in the 2-mg haloperidol group vs 28 days in the placebo group, for a difference of 0 days (95% CI, 0-0; P = .93) and a hazard ratio of 1.003 (95% CI, 0.78-1.30, P=.82). All of the 15 secondary outcomes were not statistically different. These included delirium incidence (mean difference, 1.5%, 95% CI, -3.6% to 6.7%), delirium-free and coma-free days (mean difference, 0 days, 95% CI, 0-0 days), and duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU, and hospital length of stay (mean difference, 0 days, 95% CI, 0-0 days for all 3 measures). The number of reported adverse effects did not differ between groups (2 [0.3%] for the 2-mg haloperidol group vs 1 [0.1%] for the placebo group). Conclusions and Relevance:Among critically ill adults at high risk of delirium, the use of prophylactic haloperidol compared with placebo did not improve survival at 28 days. These findings do not support the use of prophylactic haloperidol for reducing mortality in critically ill adults. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01785290.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To determine the preventive and therapeutic effect of dexmedetomidine on intensive care unit (ICU) delirium. METHODS:The literature search using PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed (August 1, 2018) to detect all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adult ICU patients receiving dexmedetomidine. Articles were included if they assessed the influence of dexmedetomidine compared to a sedative agent on incidence of ICU delirium or treatment of this syndrome. Accordingly, relevant articles were allocated to the following two groups: (1) articles that assessed the delirium incidence (incidence comparison) or articles that assessed the treatment of delirium (treatment comparison). Incidence of delirium and delirium resolution were the primary outcomes. We combined treatment effects comparing dexmedetomidine versus (1) placebo, (2) standard sedatives, and (3) opioids in random-effects meta-analyses. Risk of bias for each included RCT was assessed following Cochrane standards. RESULTS:The literature search resulted in 28 articles (25 articles/4975 patients for the incidence comparison and three articles/166 patients for the treatment comparison). In the incidence comparison, heterogeneity was present in different subgroups. Administration of dexmedetomidine was associated with significantly lower overall incidence of delirium when compared to placebo (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.39-0.70; I2?=?37%), standard sedatives (RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.46-0.86; I2?=?69%), as well as to opioids (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.44-0.83; I2?=?0%). Use of dexmedetomidine significantly increased the risks of bradycardia and hypotension. Limited data were available on circulatory insufficiency and mortality. In the treatment comparison, the comparison drugs in the three RCTs were placebo, midazolam, and haloperidol. The resolution of delirium was measured differently in each study. Two out of the three studies indicated clear favorable effects for dexmedetomidine (i.e., compared to placebo and midazolam). The study comparing dexmedetomidine with haloperidol was a pilot study (n?=?20) with high variability in the results. CONCLUSION:Findings suggest that dexmedetomidine reduces incidence and duration of ICU delirium. Furthermore, our systematic searches show that there is limited evidence if a delirium shall be treated with dexmedetomidine.