Cardiac hypertrophy in mice expressing unphosphorylatable phospholemman.
ABSTRACT: Elevation of intracellular Na in the failing myocardium contributes to contractile dysfunction, the negative force-frequency relationship, and arrhythmias. Although phospholemman (PLM) is recognized to form the link between signalling pathways and Na/K pump activity, the possibility that defects in its regulation contribute to elevation of intracellular Na has not been investigated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that the prevention of PLM phosphorylation in a PLM(3SA) knock-in mouse (in which PLM has been rendered unphosphorylatable) will exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy and cellular Na overload. Testing this hypothesis should determine whether changes in PLM phosphorylation are simply bystander effects or are causally involved in disease progression.In wild-type (WT) mice, aortic constriction resulted in hypophosphorylation of PLM with no change in Na/K pump expression. This under-phosphorylation of PLM occurred at 3 days post-banding and was associated with a progressive decline in Na/K pump current and elevation of [Na]i. Echocardiography, morphometry, and pressure-volume (PV) catheterization confirmed remodelling, dilation, and contractile dysfunction, respectively. In PLM(3SA) mice, expression of Na/K ATPase was increased and PLM decreased such that net Na/K pump current under quiescent conditions was unchanged (cf. WT myocytes); [Na(+)]i was increased and forward-mode Na/Ca exchanger was reduced in paced PLM(3SA) myocytes. Cardiac hypertrophy and Na/K pump inhibition were significantly exacerbated in banded PLM(3SA) mice compared with banded WT.Decreased phosphorylation of PLM reduces Na/K pump activity and exacerbates Na overload, contractile dysfunction, and adverse remodelling following aortic constriction in mice. This suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure.
Project description:Messenger RNA levels of phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of small single-span membrane proteins with putative ion-transport regulatory properties, were increased in postmyocardial infarction (MI) rat myocytes. We tested the hypothesis that the previously observed reduction in Na+-K+-ATPase activity in MI rat myocytes was due to PLM overexpression. In rat hearts harvested 3 and 7 days post-MI, PLM protein expression was increased by two- and fourfold, respectively. To simulate increased PLM expression post-MI, PLM was overexpressed in normal adult rat myocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. PLM overexpression did not affect the relative level of phosphorylation on serine68 of PLM. Na+-K+-ATPase activity was measured as ouabain-sensitive Na+-K+ pump current (Ip). Compared with control myocytes overexpressing green fluorescent protein alone, Ip measured in myocytes overexpressing PLM was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower at similar membrane voltages, pipette Na+ ([Na+]pip) and extracellular K+ ([K+]o) concentrations. From -70 to +60 mV, neither [Na+]pip nor [K+]o required to attain half-maximal Ip was significantly different between control and PLM myocytes. This phenotype of decreased V(max) without appreciable changes in K(m) for Na+ and K+ in PLM-overexpressed myocytes was similar to that observed in MI rat myocytes. Inhibition of Ip by PLM overexpression was not due to decreased Na+-K+-ATPase expression because there were no changes in either protein or messenger RNA levels of either alpha1- or alpha2-isoforms of Na+-K+-ATPase. In native rat cardiac myocytes, PLM coimmunoprecipitated with alpha-subunits of Na+-K+-ATPase. Inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase by PLM overexpression, in addition to previously reported decrease in Na+-K+-ATPase expression, may explain altered V(max) but not K(m) of Na+-K+-ATPase in postinfarction rat myocytes.
Project description:Phospholemman regulates the plasmalemmal sodium pump in excitable tissues.In cardiac muscle, a subpopulation of phospholemman with a unique phosphorylation signature associates with other phospholemman molecules but not with the pump.Phospholemman oligomers exist in cardiac muscle.Much like phospholamban regulation of SERCA, phospholemman exists as both a sodium pump inhibiting monomer and an unassociated oligomer. Phospholemman (PLM), the principal quantitative sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart, regulates the cardiac sodium pump. Much like phospholamban, which regulates the related ATPase SERCA, PLM is reported to oligomerize. We investigated subpopulations of PLM in adult rat ventricular myocytes based on phosphorylation status. Co-immunoprecipitation identified two pools of PLM: one not associated with the sodium pump phosphorylated at Ser(63) and one associated with the pump, both phosphorylated at Ser(68) and unphosphorylated. Phosphorylation of PLM at Ser(63) following activation of PKC did not abrogate association of PLM with the pump, so its failure to associate with the pump was not due to phosphorylation at this site. All pools of PLM co-localized to cell surface caveolin-enriched microdomains with sodium pump α subunits, despite the lack of caveolin-binding motif in PLM. Mass spectrometry analysis of phosphospecific immunoprecipitation reactions revealed no unique protein interactions for Ser(63)-phosphorylated PLM, and cross-linking reagents also failed to identify any partner proteins for this pool. In lysates from hearts of heterozygous transgenic animals expressing wild type and unphosphorylatable PLM, Ser(63)-phosphorylated PLM co-immunoprecipitated unphosphorylatable PLM, confirming the existence of PLM multimers. Dephosphorylation of the PLM multimer does not change sodium pump activity. Hence like phospholamban, PLM exists as a pump-inhibiting monomer and an unassociated oligomer. The distribution of different PLM phosphorylation states to different pools may be explained by their differential proximity to protein phosphatases rather than a direct effect of phosphorylation on PLM association with the pump.
Project description:In the heart, Na/K-ATPase regulates intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) (via NCX), thereby preventing Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload and arrhythmias. Here, we test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) regulates cardiac intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) and investigate mechanisms and physiological consequences involved. Effects of both exogenous NO (via NO-donors) and endogenously synthesized NO (via field-stimulation of ventricular myocytes) were assessed in this study. Field stimulation of rat ventricular myocytes significantly increased endogenous NO (18 ± 2 ?M), PKC? activation (82 ± 12%), phospholemman phosphorylation (at Ser-63 and Ser-68) and Na/K-ATPase activity (measured by DAF-FM dye, western-blotting and biochemical assay, respectively; p<0.05, n=6) and all were abolished by Ca(2+)-chelation (EGTA 10mM) or NOS inhibition l-NAME (1mM). Exogenously added NO (spermine-NONO-ate) stimulated Na/K-ATPase (EC50=3.8 ?M; n=6/grp), via decrease in Km, in PLM(WT) but not PLM(KO) or PLM(3SA) myocytes (where phospholemman cannot be phosphorylated) as measured by whole-cell perforated-patch clamp. Field-stimulation with l-NAME or PKC-inhibitor (2 ?M Bis) resulted in elevated intracellular Na(+) (22 ± 1.5 and 24 ± 2 respectively, vs. 14 ± 0.6mM in controls) in SBFI-AM-loaded rat myocytes. Arrhythmia incidence was significantly increased in rat hearts paced in the presence of l-NAME (and this was reversed by l-arginine), as well as in PLM(3SA) mouse hearts but not PLM(WT) and PLM(KO). We provide physiological and biochemical evidence for a novel regulatory pathway whereby NO activates Na/K-ATPase via phospholemman phosphorylation and thereby limits Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload and arrhythmias. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Na(+) Regulation in Cardiac Myocytes".
Project description:The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases. The cell surface palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 regulates a growing number of cellular processes, but relatively few DHHC5 substrates have been identified to date. We examined the expression of DHHC isoforms in ventricular muscle and report that DHHC5 is among the most abundantly expressed DHHCs in the heart and localizes to caveolin-enriched cell surface microdomains. DHHC5 coimmunoprecipitates with PLM in ventricular myocytes and transiently transfected cells. Overexpression and silencing experiments indicate that DHHC5 palmitoylates PLM at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42, although C40 is the principal palmitoylation site. PLM interaction with and palmitoylation by DHHC5 is independent of the DHHC5 PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) binding motif, but requires a ? 120 amino acid region of the DHHC5 intracellular C-tail immediately after the fourth transmembrane domain. PLM C42A but not PLM C40A inhibits the Na pump, indicating PLM palmitoylation at C40 but not C42 is required for PLM-mediated inhibition of pump activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enzyme-substrate relationship for DHHC5 and PLM and describe a means of substrate recruitment not hitherto described for this acyltransferase. We propose that PLM palmitoylation by DHHC5 promotes phospholipid interactions that inhibit the Na pump.
Project description:Phospholemman (PLM), the principal sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in the heart, regulates the cardiac sodium pump. We investigated post-translational modifications of PLM additional to phosphorylation in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM). LC-MS/MS of tryptically digested PLM immunoprecipitated from ARVM identified cysteine 40 as palmitoylated in some peptides, but no information was obtained regarding the palmitoylation status of cysteine 42. PLM palmitoylation was confirmed by immunoprecipitating PLM from ARVM loaded with [(3)H]palmitic acid and immunoblotting following streptavidin affinity purification from ARVM lysates subjected to fatty acyl biotin exchange. Mutagenesis identified both Cys-40 and Cys-42 of PLM as palmitoylated. Phosphorylation of PLM at serine 68 by PKA in ARVM or transiently transfected HEK cells increased its palmitoylation, but PKA activation did not increase the palmitoylation of S68A PLM-YFP in HEK cells. Wild type and unpalmitoylatable PLM-YFP were all correctly targeted to the cell surface membrane, but the half-life of unpalmitoylatable PLM was reduced compared with wild type. In cells stably expressing inducible PLM, PLM expression inhibited the sodium pump, but PLM did not inhibit the sodium pump when palmitoylation was inhibited. Hence, palmitoylation of PLM controls its turnover, and palmitoylated PLM inhibits the sodium pump. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of PLM enhances its palmitoylation, probably through the enhanced mobility of the phosphorylated intracellular domain increasing the accessibility of cysteines for the palmitoylating enzyme, with interesting theoretical implications. All FXYD proteins have conserved intracellular cysteines, so FXYD protein palmitoylation may be a universal means to regulate the sodium pump.
Project description:AIMS:The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study showed reduced mortality and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF) in diabetic patients treated with empagliflozin. Overexpression and Ca2+ -dependent activation of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) are hallmarks of HF, leading to contractile dysfunction and arrhythmias. We tested whether empagliflozin reduces CaMKII- activity and improves Ca2+ -handling in human and murine ventricular myocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS:Myocytes from wild-type mice, mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) as a model of HF, and human failing ventricular myocytes were exposed to empagliflozin (1 ?mol/L) or vehicle. CaMKII activity was assessed by CaMKII-histone deacetylase pulldown assay. Ca2+ spark frequency (CaSpF) as a measure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak was investigated by confocal microscopy. [Na+ ]i was measured using Na+ /Ca2+ -exchanger (NCX) currents (whole-cell patch clamp). Compared with vehicle, 24 h empagliflozin exposure of murine myocytes reduced CaMKII activity (1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 4.2 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, n = 10 mice), and also CaMKII-dependent ryanodine receptor phosphorylation (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1, P < 0.05, n = 11 mice), with similar results upon TAC. In murine myocytes, empagliflozin reduced CaSpF (TAC: 1.7 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.4 1/100 ?m-1 s-1 , P < 0.05, n = 4 mice) but increased SR Ca2+ load and Ca2+ transient amplitude. Importantly, empagliflozin also significantly reduced CaSpF in human failing ventricular myocytes (1 ± 0.2 vs. 3.3 ± 0.9, P < 0.05, n = 4 patients), while Ca2+ transient amplitude was increased (F/F0 : 0.53 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.02, P < 0.05, n = 3 patients). In contrast, 30 min exposure with empagliflozin did not affect CaMKII activity nor Ca2+ -handling but significantly reduced [Na+ ]i . CONCLUSIONS:We show for the first time that empagliflozin reduces CaMKII activity and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca2+ leak. Reduced Ca2+ leak and improved Ca2+ transients may contribute to the beneficial effects of empagliflozin in HF.
Project description:Although palmitoylation regulates numerous cellular processes, as yet efforts to manipulate this post-translational modification for therapeutic gain have proved unsuccessful. The Na-pump accessory sub-unit phospholemman (PLM) is palmitoylated by zDHHC5. Here, we show that PLM palmitoylation is facilitated by recruitment of the Na-pump ? sub-unit to a specific site on zDHHC5 that contains a juxtamembrane amphipathic helix. Site-specific palmitoylation and GlcNAcylation of this helix increased binding between the Na-pump and zDHHC5, promoting PLM palmitoylation. In contrast, disruption of the zDHHC5-Na-pump interaction with a cell penetrating peptide reduced PLM palmitoylation. Our results suggest that by manipulating the recruitment of specific substrates to particular zDHHC-palmitoyl acyl transferases, the palmitoylation status of individual proteins can be selectively altered, thus opening the door to the development of molecular modulators of protein palmitoylation for the treatment of disease.
Project description:Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) establishes the transmembrane [Na(+)] gradient in cells. In heart, phospholemman (PLM) inhibits NKA activity by reducing its apparent Na(+) affinity, an effect that is relieved by PLM phosphorylation. The NKA crystal structure suggests regions of PLM-NKA interaction, but the sites important for functional effects in live cells are not known. We tested wild type (WT) and CFP-NKA-?1 point mutants (alanine substitution at F956, E960, L964, and F967) for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with WT-PLM-YFP in HEK293 cells. NKA-PLM FRET was unaltered with F956A or F967A, reduced with L964A, and nearly abolished with E960A. Mutating the PLM site (F28A) identified by structural analysis to interact with E960-NKA also nearly abolished NKA-PLM FRET. In contrast, NKA-PLM coimmunoprecipitation was only slightly reduced by E960A-NKA or F28A-PLM mutants, consistent with an additional interaction site. FRET titrations indicate that the additional site has higher affinity than that between E960-NKA and F28-PLM. To test whether the FRET-preventing mutations also prevent PLM functional effects, we measured NKA-mediated Na(+)-transport in intact cells. For WT-NKA, PLM reduced apparent Na(+)-affinity of NKA and PLM phosphorylation reversed the effect. In contrast, for E960A-NKA the apparent Na(+)-affinity was unaltered by either PLM or forskolin-induced PLM phosphorylation. We conclude that E960 on NKA and F28 on PLM are critical for PLM effects on both NKA function and NKA-PLM FRET, but also there is at least one additional site that is critical for tethering PLM to NKA.
Project description:AIMS: Cardiac hypertrophy is a common and often lethal complication of arterial hypertension. Elevation of myocyte cyclic GMP levels by local actions of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) or by pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 was shown to counter-regulate pathological hypertrophy. It was suggested that cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) mediates this protective effect, although the role in vivo is under debate. Here, we investigated whether cGKI modulates myocyte growth and/or function in the intact organism. METHODS AND RESULTS: To circumvent the systemic phenotype associated with germline ablation of cGKI, we inactivated the murine cGKI gene selectively in cardiomyocytes by Cre/loxP-mediated recombination. Mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted cGKI deletion exhibited unaltered cardiac morphology and function under resting conditions. Also, cardiac hypertrophic and contractile responses to ?-adrenoreceptor stimulation by isoprenaline (at 40 mg/kg/day during 1 week) were unaltered. However, angiotensin II (Ang II, at 1000 ng/kg/min for 2 weeks) or transverse aortic constriction (for 3 weeks) provoked dilated cardiomyopathy with marked deterioration of cardiac function. This was accompanied by diminished expression of the [Ca(2+)]i-regulating proteins SERCA2a and phospholamban (PLB) and a reduction in PLB phosphorylation at Ser16, the specific target site for cGKI, resulting in altered myocyte Ca(2+)i homeostasis. In isolated adult myocytes, CNP, but not ANP, stimulated PLB phosphorylation, Ca(2+)i-handling, and contractility via cGKI. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the loss of cGKI in cardiac myocytes compromises the hypertrophic program to pathological stimulation, rendering the heart more susceptible to dysfunction. In particular, cGKI mediates stimulatory effects of CNP on myocyte Ca(2+)i handling and contractility.
Project description:Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy, a risk factor for heart failure, is associated with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins that correlate in rodents with reduced PGC-1? expression.To determine the role of PGC-1? in maintaining mitochondrial energy metabolism and contractile function in pressure overload hypertrophy.PGC-1? deficient (KO) mice and wildtype (WT) controls were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Although LV function was modestly reduced in young KO hearts, there was no further decline with age so that LV function was similar between KO and WT when TAC was performed. WT-TAC mice developed relatively compensated LVH, despite reduced mitochondrial function and repression of OXPHOS and FAO genes. In nonstressed KO hearts, OXPHOS gene expression and palmitoyl-carnitine-supported mitochondrial function were reduced to the same extent as banded WT, but FAO gene expression was normal. Following TAC, KO mice progressed more rapidly to heart failure and developed more severe mitochondrial dysfunction, despite a similar overall pattern of repression of OXPHOS and FAO genes as WT-TAC. However, in relation to WT-TAC, PGC-1? deficient mice exhibited greater degrees of oxidative stress, decreased cardiac efficiency, lower rates of glucose metabolism, and repression of hexokinase II protein.PGC-1? plays an important role in maintaining baseline mitochondrial function and cardiac contractile function following pressure overload hypertrophy by preserving glucose metabolism and preventing oxidative stress.