Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.
ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXR?), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 ?g/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ?10 ?g/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (?20 ?g/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 ?g/ml) suppressed PPAR? activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPAR?.
Project description:Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20?mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis.
Project description:1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are endocrine disrupting chemicals associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This study documents the species-specific differences between mouse (high affinity mAhR) and human AhR (hAhR) activation by PCB congeners and Aroclor mixtures. 2. AhR activation by TCDD or PCBs 77, 81, 114, 114, 126, and 169 was measured using luciferase reporter constructs transfected into either Hepa1c1c7 mouse or HepG2 human liver cell lines. The EC<sub>50</sub> values were lower in Hepa1c1c7 cells than HepG2 cells for all compounds tested except PCB 81. The results for TCDD and PCB 126 were validated in primary human and mouse hepatocytes by measuring CYP1A1 gene transcript levels. 3. Because humans are exposed to PCB mixtures, several mixtures (Aroclors 1254; 1260; and 1260?+?0.1% PCB126 each at 10?µg/ml) were then tested. Neither Aroclor 1254 nor Aroclor 1260 increased luciferase activity by the transfected AhR reporter construct. The Aroclor 1260?+?0.1% PCB 126 mixture induced mAhR-mediated transactivation, but not hAhR activation in cell lines. 4. In summary, significant concentration-dependent differences exist between human and mouse AhR activation by PCBs. Relative effect potencies differed, in some cases, from published toxic equivalency factors.
Project description:Environmental pollution contributes to fatty liver disease pathogenesis. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures have been associated with liver enzyme elevation and suspected steatohepatitis in cohort studies. Male mice treated with the commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg), and fed high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed steatohepatitis. Receptor-based modes of action including inhibition of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor were previously proposed, but other mechanisms likely exist. Objectives were to identify and validate the pathways, transcription factors, and mechanisms responsible for the steatohepatitis associated with PCB and HFD coexposures. Comparative proteomics analysis was performed in archived mouse liver samples from the aforementioned chronic exposure study. Pathway and transcription factor analysis (TFA) was performed, and selected results were validated. Liver proteomics detected 1103 unique proteins. Aroclor 1260 upregulated 154 and downregulated 93 of these. Aroclor 1260 + HFD coexposures affected 55 pathways including glutathione metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and cytoskeletal remodeling. TFA of Aroclor 1260 treatment demonstrated alterations in the function of 42 transcription factors including downregulation of NRF2 and key nuclear receptors previously demonstrated to protect against steatohepatitis (e.g., HNF4?, FXR, PPAR?/?/?, etc.). Validation studies demonstrated that Aroclor 1260 significantly reduced HNF4? protein levels, while Aroclor 1260 + HFD reduced expression of the HNF4? target gene, albumin, in vivo. Aroclor 1260 attenuated EGF-dependent HNF4? phosphorylation and target gene activation in vitro. Aroclor 1260 reduced levels of NRF2, its target genes, and glutathione in vivo. Aroclor 1260 attenuated EGF-dependent NRF2 upregulation, in vitro. Aroclor 1260 indirectly activated hepatic stellate cells in vitro via induction of hepatocyte-derived TGF?. PCB exposures adversely impacted transcription factors regulating liver protection, function, and fibrosis. PCBs, thus, compromised the liver by reducing its protective responses against nutritional stress to promote diet-induced steatohepatitis. The identified mechanisms by which environmental pollutants influence fatty liver disease pathogenesis require confirmation in humans.
Project description:"Dehalococcoides" sp. strain CBDB1 in pure culture dechlorinates a wide range of PCB congeners with three to eight chlorine substituents. Congener-specific high-resolution gas chromatography revealed that CBDB1 extensively dechlorinated both Aroclor 1248 and Aroclor 1260 after four months of incubation. For example, 16 congeners comprising 67.3% of the total PCBs in Aroclor 1260 were decreased by 64%. We confirmed the dechlorination of 43 different PCB congeners. The most prominent dechlorination products were 2,3',5-chlorinated biphenyl (25-3-CB) and 24-3-CB from Aroclor 1248 and 235-25-CB, 25-25-CB, 24-25-CB, and 235-236-CB from Aroclor 1260. Strain CBDB1 removed flanked para chlorines from 3,4-, 2,4,5-, and 3,4,5-chlorophenyl rings, primarily para chlorines from 2,3,4,5-chlorophenyl rings, primarily meta chlorines from 2,3,4- and 2,3,4,6-chlorophenyl rings, and either meta or para chlorines from 2,3,4,5,6-chlorophenyl rings. The site of attack on the 2,3,4-chorophenyl ring was heavily influenced by the chlorine configuration on the opposite ring. This dechlorination pattern matches PCB Process H dechlorination, which was previously observed in situ both in the Acushnet Estuary (New Bedford, MA) and in parts of the Hudson River (New York). Accordingly, we propose that Dehalococcoides bacteria similar to CBDB1 are potential agents of Process H PCB dechlorination in the environment. This is the first time that a complex naturally occurring PCB dechlorination pattern has been reproduced in the laboratory using a single bacterial strain.
Project description:Microbial reductive dechlorination of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (e.g., Aroclors) in aquatic sediments is crucial to achieve detoxification. Despite extensive efforts over nearly two decades, the microorganisms responsible for Aroclor dechlorination remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that anaerobic bacteria of the Dehalococcoides group derived from sediment of the Housatonic River (Lenox, MA) simultaneously dechlorinate 64 PCB congeners carrying four to nine chlorines in Aroclor 1260 in the sediment-free JN cultures. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the Dehalococcoides cell titer in JN cultures amended with acetate and hydrogen increased from 7.07 x 10(6) +/- 0.42 x 10(6) to 1.67 x 10(8) +/- 0.04 x 10(8) cells/ml, concomitant with a 64.2% decrease of the PCBs with six or more chlorines in Aroclor 1260. No Dehalococcoides growth occurred in parallel cultures without PCBs. Aroclor 1260 dechlorination supported the growth of 9.25 x 10(8) +/- 0.04 x 10(8) Dehalococcoides cells per mumol of chlorine removed. 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR analysis of known dechlorinators (i.e., Desulfitobacterium, Dehalobacter, Desulfuromonas, Sulfurospirillum, Anaeromyxobacter, Geobacter, and o-17/DF-1-type Chloroflexi organisms) ruled out any involvement of these bacterial groups in the dechlorination. Our results suggest that the Dehalococcoides population present in the JN cultures also catalyzes in situ dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in the Housatonic River. The identification of Dehalococcoides organisms as catalysts of extensive Aroclor 1260 dechlorination and our ability to propagate the JN cultures under defined conditions offer opportunities to study the organisms' ecophysiology, elucidate nutritional requirements, identify reductive dehalogenase genes involved in PCB dechlorination, and design molecular tools required for bioremediation applications.
Project description:1.?Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2.?Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesized that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3.?The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4.?The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (?2-4??g/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5.?PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6.?PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.
Project description:Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of commercial PCBs such as Aroclor 1260 has a critical role of transforming highly chlorinated congeners to less chlorinated congeners that are then susceptible to aerobic degradation. The efficacy of bioaugmentation with the dehalorespiring bacterium Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF1 was tested in 2-L laboratory mesocosms containing sediment contaminated with weathered Aroclor 1260 (1.3 ppm) from Baltimore Harbor, MD. Total penta- and higher chlorinated PCBs decreased by approximately 56% (by mass) in bioaugmented mesocosms after 120 days compared with no activity observed in unamended controls. Bioaugmentation with DF-1 enhanced the dechlorination of doubly flanked chlorines and stimulated the dechlorination of single flanked chlorines as a result of an apparent synergistic effect on the indigenous population. Addition of granulated activated carbon had a slight stimulatory effect indicating that anaerobic reductive dechlorination of PCBs at low concentrations was not inhibited by a high background of inorganic carbon that could affect bioavailability. The total number of dehalorespiring bacteria was reduced by approximately half after 60 days. However, a steady state level was maintained that was greater than the indigenous population of putative dehalorespiring bacteria in untreated sediments and DF1 was maintained within the indigenous population after 120 days. The results of this study demonstrate that bioaugmentation with dehalorespiring bacteria has a stimulatory effect on the dechlorination of weathered PCBs and supports the feasibility of using in situ bioaugmentation as an environmentally less invasive and lower cost alternate to dredging for treatment of PCB impacted sediments.
Project description:Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congeners (?PCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ?PCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure.
Project description:Although polychlorinated biphenyls are no longer sold as commercial mixtures, they are still being produced through modern manufacturing processes. We have previously shown that non-Aroclor PCB 11 is prevalent in indoor and outdoor air and sediment and detected in human serum. Here we report the prevalence of non-Aroclor PCB congeners (?0.20 wt % in Aroclor) in human serum collected from urban and rural adolescents and their mothers. We hypothesized that additional non-Aroclor congeners are present in serum. Sera were extracted and detected for 209 PCBs using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A list of 70 non-Aroclor PCB congeners was determined by measurement of original Aroclors. PCB 11, 14, 35, and 209 are the major dominating and most frequently detected congeners. PCB 14 and 35 have not been previously reported for environmental matrices. Adolescents have significantly lower total non-Aroclor PCB concentrations than mothers in East Chicago (p < 0.001) and Columbus Junction (p = 0.008). There are significant differences in non-Aroclor PCBs between East Chicago community and Columbus Junction community (p < 0.001). Non-Aroclor PCBs represent an average of 10% (and up to 50%) of total PCBs measured in serum. An average of 50% (and up to 100%) of these concentrations may be attributed to aryl azo and phthalocyanine paint pigments.
Project description:Phthalates and other endocrine-disruptive chemicals are manufactured in large quantities for use as plasticizers and other commercial applications, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure and thus, concern regarding their toxicity. Innate defense against small molecule exposures is controlled in large part by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The human CAR gene undergoes multiple alternative splicing events resulting in the CAR2 and CAR3 variant receptors. Recent studies from our laboratory show that CAR2 is potently and specifically activated by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). We hypothesized that alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing CAR's functional diversity, broadening the human receptors' repertoire of response to environmental xenobiotics. In these studies, we examine the interaction of alternatively spliced CARs and PXR with a range of suspected endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-N-nonylphenol (NP). Transactivation and two-hybrid studies in COS-1 cells revealed differential selectivity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals for the variant CAR and PXR. Ex vivo studies showed DEHP and di-isononyl phthalate potently induced CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Mutation analysis of CAR2, in silico modeling, and ligand docking studies suggested that the SPTV amino acid insertion of CAR2 creates a unique ligand-binding pocket. Alternative gene splicing results in variant CAR receptors that selectively recognize phthalates and BPA. The interaction of phthalates with CAR and PXR suggests a xenobiotic response that is complex and biologically redundant.