Candidate microRNA biomarkers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: meta-analysis, experimental validation and clinical significance.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The diagnostic and prognostic value of microRNA (miRNA) expression aberrations in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been studied extensively in recent years. However, differences in measurement platforms and lab protocols as well as small sample sizes can render gene expression levels incomparable. METHODS: A comprehensive meta-review of published studies in PDAC that compared the miRNA expression profiles of PDAC tissues and paired neighbouring noncancerous pancreatic tissues was performed to determine candidate miRNA biomarkers for PDAC. Both a miRNA vote-counting strategy and a recently published Robust Rank Aggregation method were employed. In this review, a total of 538 tumour and 206 noncancerous control samples were included. RESULTS: We identified a statistically significant miRNA meta-signature of seven up- and three down-regulated miRNAs. The experimental validation results showed that the miRNA expression levels were in accordance with the meta-signature. The results from the vote-counting strategy were consistent with those from the Robust Rank Aggregation method. The experimental validation confirmed that the statistically unique profiles identified by the meta-review approach could discriminate PDAC tissues from paired nonmalignant pancreatic tissues. In a cohort of 70 patients, the high expression of miR-21 (p=0.018, HR=2.610; 95% CI=1.179-5.777) and miR-31 (p=0.039, HR=2.735; 95% CI=1.317-6.426), the low expression of miR-375 (p=0.022, HR=2.337; 95% CI=1.431-5.066) were associated with poor overall survival following resection, independent of clinical covariates. CONCLUSIONS: The identified miRNAs may be used to develop a panel of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for PDAC with sufficient sensitivity and specificity for use in a clinical setting.
Project description:To identify a robust panel of microRNA (miRNA) signatures that can distinguish renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from normal kidney using miRNA expression levels. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of 29 published studies that compared the miRNA expression profiles of RCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues (NT) to determine candidate miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for RCC. Using vote-counting strategy and robust rank aggregation method, we identified a statistically significant miRNA meta-signature of two upregulated (miR-21, miR-210) and three downregulated (miR-141, miR-200c and miR-429) miRNAs. X-tile plot was used to generate the optimum cut-off point for the 15 different deregulated miRNAs and Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate CSS. In a cohort of 45 patients, the high expression of miR-21 (HR: 5.46, 95%CI: 2.02-53.39) and miR-210 (HR: 6.85, 95%CI: 2.13-43.36), the low expression of miR-141 (HR: 0.16, 95%CI: 0.004-0.18), miR-200c (HR: 0.08, 95%CI: 0.01-0.43) and miR-429 (HR: 0.18, 95%CI: 0.02-0.50) were associated with poor cancer-specific survival (CSS) following RCC resection. We also constructed a five-miRNAs-based classifier as a reliable prognostic and predictive tool for CSS in patients with RCC, especially in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) (HR: 5.46, 95% CI: 1.51-19.66). This method might facilitate patient counselling and individualise management of RCC.
Project description:Despite progress in treatment strategies, only ~24% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients survive >1 year. Our goal was to elucidate deregulated pathways modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) in PDAC and Vater ampulla (AMP) cancers. Global miRNA expression was identified in 19 PDAC, 6 AMP and 25 paired, histologically normal pancreatic tissues using the GeneChip 4.0 miRNA arrays. Computational approaches were used for miRNA target prediction/identification of miRNA-regulated pathways. Target gene expression was validated in 178 pancreatic cancer and 4 pancreatic normal tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). 20 miRNAs were significantly deregulated (FC?2 and p<0.05) (15 down- and 5 up-regulated) in PDAC. miR-216 family (miR-216a-3p, miR-216a-5p, miR-216b-3p and miR-216b-5p) was consistently down-regulated in PDAC. miRNA-modulated pathways are associated with innate and adaptive immune system responses in PDAC. AMP cancers showed 8 down- and 1 up-regulated miRNAs (FDR p<0.05). Most enriched pathways (p<0.01) were RAS and Nerve Growth Factor signaling. PDAC and AMP display different global miRNA expression profiles and miRNA regulated networks/tumorigenesis pathways. The immune response was enriched in PDAC, suggesting the existence of immune checkpoint pathways more relevant to PDAC than AMP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with tumor development. This study aimed to elucidate the role of miR-615-5p in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS:Locked nucleic acid in situ hybridization (LNA-ISH) was performed to compare miR-615-5p expression in patients between PDAC and matched adjacent normal tissues. Effects of miR-615-5p overexpression on cell proliferation, apoptosis, colony formation, migration, and invasion were determined in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. Effects of miR-615-5p on AKT2 were examined by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Lentivirus expressing miR-615 was used to create stable overexpression cell lines, which were subsequently used in mouse xenograft and metastasis models to assess tumor growth, apoptosis and metastasis. RESULTS:miR-615-5p expression was significantly lower in PDAC than in adjacent normal tissues. Low levels of miR-615-5p were independently associated with poor prognosis (HR: 2.243, 95% CI: 1.190-4.227, P=0.013). AKT2 protein expression was inversely correlated with miR-615-5p expression (r=-0.3, P=0.003). miR-615-5p directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of AKT2 mRNA and repressed its expression. miR-615-5p overexpression inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, miR-615-5p overexpression also induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These results show that miR-615-5p inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by targeting AKT2. The data implicate miR-615-5p in the prognosis and treatment of PDAC.
Project description:MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles have been described in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but these have not been compared with pre-malignant pancreatic tumors. We wished to compare the miRNA expression signatures in pancreatic benign cystic tumors (BCT) of low and high malignant potential with PDAC, in order to identify miRNAs deregulated during PDAC development. The mechanistic consequences of miRNA dysregulation were further evaluated.Tissue samples were obtained at a tertiary pancreatic unit from individuals with BCT and PDAC. MiRNA profiling was performed using a custom microarray and results were validated using RT-qPCR prior to evaluation of miRNA targets.Widespread miRNA down-regulation was observed in PDAC compared to low malignant potential BCT. We show that amongst those miRNAs down-regulated, miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d regulate known PDAC oncogenes (targeting BCL2, CRK and KRAS respectively). Notably, miR-126 also directly targets the KRAS transcript at a "seedless" binding site within its 3'UTR. In clinical specimens, miR-126 was strongly down-regulated in PDAC tissues, with an associated elevation in KRAS and CRK proteins. Furthermore, miR-21, a known oncogenic miRNA in pancreatic and other cancers, was not elevated in PDAC compared to serous microcystic adenoma (SMCA), but in both groups it was up-regulated compared to normal pancreas, implicating early up-regulation during malignant change.Expression profiling revealed 21 miRNAs down-regulated in PDAC compared to SMCA, the most benign lesion that rarely progresses to invasive carcinoma. It appears that miR-21 up-regulation is an early event in the transformation from normal pancreatic tissue. MiRNA expression has the potential to distinguish PDAC from normal pancreas and BCT. Mechanistically the down-regulation of miR-16, miR-126 and let-7d promotes PDAC transformation by post-transcriptional up-regulation of crucial PDAC oncogenes. We show that miR-126 is able to directly target KRAS; re-expression has the potential as a therapeutic strategy against PDAC and other KRAS-driven cancers.
Project description:There is increasing evidence to suggest that miRNAs play an important role in predicting cancer survival. To identify a panel of miRNA signature that can divided tumor from normal bladder using miRNA expression levels, and to assess the prognostic value of this specific miRNA markers in bladder cancer (BCa).A comprehensive meta-review of published miRNA expression profiles that compared BCa and adjacent normal tissues was performed to determine candidate miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers for BCa. Vote-counting strategy and Robust Rank Aggregation method were used to identify significant meta-signature miRNAs.We identified an eight-miRNA signature including three upregulated (miR-141, miR-200c, miR-21) and five downregulated (miR-145, miR-125, miR-199a, let-7c and miR-99a) miRNAs for the prediction of overall survival (OS) using TCGA dataset, and validated in our 48 BCa patients. X-tile plot was used to generate the optimum cut-off point and Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate OS. A linear prognostic model of eight miRNAs was constructed and weighted by the importance scores from the supervised principal component method to divide patients into high- and low-risk groups. Patients assigned to the high-risk group were associated with poor OS compared with patients in the low-risk group (HR = 5.21, p < 0.001). Our validation cohort of 48 patients confirmed the panel of 8-miRNAs as a reliable prognostic tool for OS in patients with BCa (HR = 5.04, p < 0.001).The present meta-analysis identified eight highly significant and consistently dysregulated miRNAs from 19 datasets. We also constructed an eight-miRNA signature which provided predictive and prognostic value that complements traditional clinicopathological risk factors.
Project description:Background: Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression in cancer can act as a key factor that modifies biological processes, including chemoresistance. Our study aimed to identify the miRNAs associated with gemcitabine (GEM) resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and to explore the potential mechanisms. Methods: The miRNA microarray was used to identify miRNAs associated with GEM resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine miR-146a-5p expression in paired PDAC and adjacent normal tissues. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to confirm tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) as a direct target of miR-146a-5p and to explore the potential transcription factor binding and regulation by miR-146a-5p. In vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms. Results: MiR-146a-5p expression was significantly decreased in PDAC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues, and miR-146a-5p expression correlated with prognosis in PDAC patients. Functional studies indicated that miR-146a-5p suppressed PDAC cell proliferation and sensitized PDAC cells to GEM chemotherapy by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TRAF6. MiR-146a-5p was also observed to downregulate the TRAF6/NF-?B p65/P-gp axis, which regulates PDAC cell growth and chemoresistance. Conclusions: Taken together, the results indicate that the miR-146a-5p/TRAF6/NF-?B p65 axis drives pancreatic chemoresistance by regulating P-gp, suggesting that miR-146a-5p may be utilized as a new therapeutic target and prognostic marker in PDAC patients.
Project description:Comparison of microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in the noncancerous liver tissues adjacent to hepatocelluar carcinomas (HCCs) was a strategy to identify postoperative prognostic predictors in this study. Expression profiles of 270 miRNAs were determined in the paraneoplastic liver tissues of 12 HCC patients with known postoperative prognosis. A panel of candidate miRNA predictors was identified. The prognostic predictive value of these candidate miRNAs was then verified in 216 postoperative HCC patients. Univariate analysis identified 8 and 3 miRNA predictors for recurrence-free (RFS) and overall (OS) survivals, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed high expression levels of miR-155 (HR, 2.002 [1.324-3.027]; P?=?.001), miR-15a (HR, 0.478 [0.248-0.920]; P?=?.027), miR-432 (HR, 1.816 [1.203-2.740]; P?=?.015), miR-486-3p (HR, 0.543 [0.330-0.893]; P?=?.016), miR-15b (HR, 1.074 [1.002-1.152]; P?=?.043) and miR-30b (HR, 1.102 [1.025-1.185]; P?=?.009) were significantly associated with RFS. When clinicopathological predictors were included, multivariate analysis revealed that tumor number and miR-432, miR-486-3p, and miR-30b expression levels remained significant as independent predictors for RFS. Additionally, expression knockdown of miR-155 in J7 and Mahlavu hepatoma cells resulted in decreased cell growth and enhanced cell death in xenograft tumors, suggesting an oncogenic effect of miR-155. In conclusion, significant prognostic miRNA predictors were identified through examination of miRNA expression levels in paraneoplastic liver tissues. Functional analysis of a miRNA predictor, miR-155, suggested that the prognostic miRNA predictors identified under this strategy could serve as potential molecular targets for anticancer therapy.
Project description:Different clinical presentations and prognoses have been implied between pancreatic head and body/tail cancers. We aimed to identify the prognostic relevance of primary tumor location in patients undergoing resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Thirty-two pairs of patients with strictly matched early stage (II) pancreatic head and body/tail cancers were enrolled. The molecular feature of the two subtypes of PDAC was assessed on the level of miRNA expression. Out of the 64 patients, 34 (53.1%) had tumor recurrence after radical resection during the follow-up period (2.3 ± 0.8 years). Both overall and tumor-free survival were significantly higher in the patients with pancreatic body/tail cancer compared with those with pancreatic head cancer. Patient age and tumor location were the independent prognostic factors for tumor recurrence. A remarkably lower expression of miR-501-3p and higher expression of miR-375 were found and were further verified in pancreatic body/tail cancer tissues compared with pancreatic head cancer tissues. The low expression of miR-501-3p was significantly associated with a low risk of tumor recurrence. Both, subcutaneous and orthotopic PDAC mouse models presented highly invasive tumor phenotypes upon up-regulated miR-501-3p expression. An in vitro study showed that miR-501-3p promoted the invasiveness of PDAC cells possibly via suppressing E-cadherin. In summary, at resectable early stage, pancreatic body/tail cancer presents a less malignant phenotype associated with deregulation of miR-501-3p compared with pancreatic head cancer.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which accounts for 96% of all pancreatic cancer cases, is characterized by rapid progression, invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling is an essential pathway in metastatic progression and microRNAs (miRNA) play central roles in the regulation of various biological and pathologic processes including cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of miRNAs and activation of TGF-? signaling in PDAC remain to be established. The results of this study suggested that miR-323-3p expression in PDAC tissues and cell lines was significantly decreased compared to levels in normal pancreatic tissues and primary cultured pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Further investigation revealed that miR-323-3p directly targeted and suppressed SMAD2 and SMAD3, both key components in TGF-? signaling. Lower levels of miR-323-3p predicted poorer prognosis in patients with PDAC. Ectopic overexpression of miR-323-3p significantly inhibited, while silencing of miR-323-3p increased the migration and invasion abilities of PDAC cells in vitro. Moreover, using an in vivo mouse model, we demonstrated that overexpressing of miR-323-3p significantly reduced, while knockdown of miR-323-3p enhanced lung metastatic colonization of PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, miR-323-3p-induced TGF-b signaling inhibition and cell motility suppression were partially rescued by overexpressing of Smad2 and Smad3 in PDAC cells. Our findings suggest that re-expression of miR-323-3p might offer a novel therapeutic target against metastasis in patients with PDAC.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy. Diagnosis and management of PDAC are hampered by the absence of sensitive and specific disease biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding regulatory RNAs involved in initiation and progression of human cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether miR-10b could serve as a biomarker for PDAC.miRNA expression was characterized by fluorescence-based in situ hybridization using locked nucleic acid-modified DNA probes against miR-10b, miR-21, miR-155, miR-196a, and miR-210, followed by codetection of proteins by immunohistochemistry on the same tissue sections. miRNA expression in surgically resected PDAC tissues and in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) samples was analyzed in cytokeratin 19 (CK19)-positive epithelial cells using optical intensity analysis.In 10 resected PDAC samples, miR-10b was the most frequently and consistently overexpressed miRNA among characterized miRNAs, exhibiting a four-fold increase in the cancer cells (P = 0.012). Given this preferential overexpression of miR-10b, we sought to determine whether miR-10b expression was clinically relevant. Accordingly, miR-10b expression was examined in 106 EUS-FNA samples obtained from pancreatic lesions. miR-10b expression was increased in cancer cells compared with CK19-positive epithelial cells in benign lesions (P = 0.0001). In patients with PDACs, lower levels of miR-10b were associated with improved response to multimodality neoadjuvant therapy, likelihood of surgical resection, delayed time to metastasis, and increased survival.miR-10b is a novel diagnostic biomarker for PDACs when assessing pancreatic lesions. Expression of miR-10b is predictive of response to neoadjuvant therapy and outcome in this disease.