Expression of leptin and its long form receptor at the porcine maternal-fetal interface: contrasting healthy and arresting conceptus attachment sites during early and mid-pregnancy.
ABSTRACT: It is well established that spontaneous conceptus loss in swine is associated with an imbalance of both angiogenic and immunological factors. Leptin (LEP), a metabolic hormone, has also been implicated in the promotion of angiogenesis. In this study, LEP and its long form receptor (OB-Rb) were evaluated during porcine pregnancy to assess their basal level of expression and their potential role in conceptus development.Expression and secretion of LEP and OB-Rb were quantified in the endometrium of non-pregnant (n = 5), and in the endometrium and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of pregnant sows (parity 2 to 5) at gestational days (gd) 20 (n = 8) and 50 (n = 8). Data were analyzed by a 3-way ANOVA testing the effects of conceptus health, tissue type and gestational day.Leptin and OB-Rb transcripts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in pregnant than in non-pregnant sows. Significantly greater LEP (P < 0.001) was detected in the endometrial tissue at gd20 compared with gd50. At the protein level, the lowest LEP expression (P < 0.01) was detected in the CAM at gd50, while OB-Rb protein was significantly lower (P < 0.01) at gd50 in the CAM than in the endometrium collected from gd20 and gd50 conceptus attachment sites. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed the expression of these proteins at both gestational days and in both tissue types.Changes in the expression patterns of LEP and OB-Rb between gd20 and gd50 suggest a role for the LEP/OB-R complex at the early stages of porcine pregnancy, possibly affecting the attachment process. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to understand the specific role of leptin in porcine pregnancy.
Project description:In cattle, conceptus-maternal interactions are critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. A major component of this early interaction involves the transport of nutrients and secretion of key molecules by uterine epithelial cells to help support conceptus development during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Objectives were to: 1) analyze temporal changes in the amino acid (AA) content of uterine luminal fluid (ULF) during the bovine estrous cycle; 2) understand conceptus-induced alterations in AA content; 3) determine expression of AA transporters in the endometrium and conceptus; and 4) determine how these transporters are modulated by (Progesterone) P4. Concentrations of aspartic acid, arginine, glutamine, histidine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine decreased on Day 16 of the estrous cycle but increased on Day 19 in pregnant heifers (P<0.05). Glutamic acid only increased in pregnant heifers on Day 19 (P<0.001). Asparagine concentrations were greater in ULF of cyclic compared to pregnant heifers on Day 7 (P<0.05) while valine concentrations were higher in pregnant heifers on Day 16 (P<0.05). Temporal changes in expression of the cationic AA transporters SLC7A1 SLC7A4 and SLC7A6 occurred in the endometrium during the estrous cycle/early pregnancy coordinate with changes in conceptus expression of SLC7A4, SLC7A2 and SLC7A1 (P<0.05). Only one acidic AA transporter (SLC1A5) increased in the endometrium while conceptus expression of SLC1A4 increased (P<0.05). The neutral AA transporters SLC38A2 and SLC7A5 increased in the endometrium in a temporal manner while conceptus expression of SLC38A7, SLC43A2, SLC38A11 and SLC7A8 also increased (P<0.05). P4 modified the expression of SLC1A1, -1A4, -1A5, -38A2, -38A4, -38A7, -43A2, -6A14, -7A1, -7A5 and -7A7 in the endometrium. Results demonstrate that temporal changes in AA in the ULF reflect changes in transporter expression in the endometrium and conceptus during early pregnancy in cattle, some of which are modified by P4.
Project description:This study examined the expression of pig-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) at gestation day 20 (gd20) of pregnancy in Yorkshire sows. Tissue differences in miRNA expression, and miRNA differences between healthy and arresting embryo attachment sites (i.e., healthy endometrium vs. arresting endometrium; healthy trophoblast vs. arresting trophoblast), were of prime interest. For more information, please refer to the primary research paper. Paired endometrium and trophoblast samples were collected at gestation day 20 from two conceptus attachement sites (1 healthy, 1 arresting) per sow (n=3). Endometrial samples were collected from four non-pregnant sows at mid-estrus.
Project description:In cattle, the blastocyst hatches from the zona pellucida on days 8-9 and then forms a conceptus that grows and elongates into an ovoid and then filamentous shape between days 9 and 16. The growing conceptus synthesizes and secretes prostaglandins (PGs) and interferon ? (IFNT). Our hypothesis was that the ovoid conceptus exerts a local effect on the endometrium prior to maternal recognition of pregnancy on day 16 in cattle. In study one, synchronized cyclic heifers received no blastocysts or 20 in vitro-produced blastocysts on day 7 and their uteri were collected on day 13. IFNT was not detected by RIA in the uterine flushing samples of pregnant heifers containing multiple ovoid conceptuses; however, total PG levels were higher in the uterine lumen of pregnant heifers than in that of cyclic heifers. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of 44 genes was increased in the endometria of day 13 pregnant heifers when compared with that in the endometria of cyclic heifers, and many of these genes were classical Type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In studies two and three, the effects of infusing PGs at the levels produced by the elongating day 14 conceptus into the uterine lumen of cyclic ewes on ISG expression in the endometrium were determined. Results indicated that the infusion of PGs increased the abundance of several ISGs in the endometrium. These studies support the hypothesis that the day 13 conceptus secretes PGs that act locally in a paracrine manner to alter gene expression in the endometrium prior to pregnancy recognition in cattle.
Project description:The aim of this study was to identify conceptus-derived proteins, in addition to IFNT, that may facilitate pregnancy recognition in cattle. Analysis of the protein content of the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) from cyclic heifers on Day 16 by nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified 334 proteins. Comparison of these data with 299 proteins identified in the ULF of pregnant heifers on Day 16 identified 85 proteins only present in the ULF of pregnant heifers. Analysis of Day 16 conceptus-conditioned culture medium revealed the presence of 1005 proteins of which 30 proteins were unique to ULF from Day 16 pregnant heifers. Of these 30 proteins, 12 had mRNA expression values at least 2-fold higher in abundance (P < 0.05) in the conceptus compared to the endometrium (ARPC5L, CAPG, CKMT1, CSTB, HSPA8, HSPE1, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, TKT) as determined by RNA sequencing. In addition, genes that have a significant biological interaction with the proteins (ACO2, CKMT1, CSTB, EEF2, GDI1, GLB1, GPLD1, HNRNPA1, HNRNPA2B1, HNRNPF, HSPA8, HSPE1, IDH2, KRT75, LGALS3, MSN, NUTF2, P4HB, PRKAR2A, PSMA4, PSMB5, PSMC4, SERPINA3, TKT) were differentially expressed in the endometrium of pregnant compared to cyclic heifers during the pregnancy recognition period (Days 16-18). These results indicate that 30 proteins unique to ULF from pregnant heifers and produced by short-term in vitro cultured Day 16 conceptuses could potentially be involved in facilitating the interactions between the conceptus and the endometrium during the pregnancy recognition period.
Project description:The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats.
Project description:Estradiol-17? (E2) is a key hormone regulating reproductive functions in females. In pigs, E2, as the main conceptus signal, initiates processes resulting in prolonged corpus luteum function, embryo development, and implantation. During early pregnancy the endometrium undergoes morphological and physiological transitions that are tightly related to transcriptome changes. Recently, however, the importance of E2 as a primary conceptus signal in the pig has been questionable. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of E2 on the porcine endometrial transcriptome in vivo and to compare these effects with transcriptome profiles on day 12 of pregnancy. Microarray analysis revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to E2 with overrepresented functional terms related to secretive functions, extracellular vesicles, cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, tissue rearrangements, immune response, lipid metabolism, and many others. Numerous common DEGs and processes for the endometrium on day 12 of pregnancy and E2-treated endometrium were identified. In summary, the present study is the first evidence for the effect of E2 on transcriptome profiles in porcine endometrium in vivo in the period corresponding to the maternal recognition of pregnancy. The presented results provide a valuable resource for further targeted studies considering genes and pathways regulated by conceptus-derived estrogens and their role in pregnancy establishment.
Project description:Transforming growth factor (TGF) ? and its receptors are expressed at the conceptus-maternal interface during early pregnancy in the pig. The present studies were conducted to examine: (1) the effect of conceptus products on TGF?1 mRNA expression and protein concentration in the porcine endometrium using in vivo and in vitro models, and (2) the effect of TGF?1 on proliferation of porcine trophoblast cells in vitro. During in vivo experiments, gilts with one surgically detached uterine horn were slaughtered on days 11 or 14 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. For in vitro studies, endometrial explants and luminal epithelial (LE) cells co-cultured with stromal (ST) cells were treated with conceptus-exposed medium (CEM). Moreover, porcine trophoblast cells were treated with TGF?1, and the number of viable cells was measured. On day 11, the presence of conceptuses had no effect on TGF?1 mRNA expression, but decreased the TGF?1 protein concentration in the connected uterine horn compared with the detached uterine horn. In contrast to day 11, on day 14 after estrus, TGF?1 mRNA expression and protein content in the endometrium collected from the gravid uterine horn were greater when compared with the contralateral uterine horn. The treatment of endometrial slices with CEM resulted in greater TGF?1 mRNA expression and protein secretion. LE cells responded to CEM with an increased TGF?1 mRNA level. Moreover, TGF?1 stimulated the proliferation of day 14 trophoblast cells. In summary, porcine conceptuses may regulate TGF?1 synthesis in the endometrium at the time of implantation. TGF?1, in turn, may promote conceptus development by increasing the proliferation of trophoblast cells.
Project description:Placentation of the conceptus to the surface epithelium is governed through a tightly regulated temporal and spatial window. Premature exogenous steriod exposure causes a shift in the maternal tissue's receptivity and prevents proper placentation. We used Affymetrix microarrays to detail the aberrant changes in uterine gene expression during this window, while removing all conceptus contribution to this dysfunction. Overall design: Porcine endometrium was selected at chronological stages of psuedopregnancy and psuedopregnancy post endocrine disrupted early for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain homogeneous populations of normal endometrium at days 13 and 15 of the pseudo pregnant, and endometrium at days 13 and 15 of the endocrine disrupted pseudo pregnant in order to identify the temporal resolution of expression profiles. In brief, days 13 through 15 accounts for the window of attachment during pregnancy in the pig, so we created pseudo pregnant endometrium and obtained samples from days 13 (PIG13UN_TX)and 15 (PIG15UN_TX) of pseudo pregnancy. In the same, we created pseudo pregnant endometrium that was subjected to endocrine disruption of the pseudo pregnancy and collected samples on days 13 (PIG13_TX)and 15 (PIG15_TX) of pseudo pregnancy.
Project description:The porcine conceptus undergoes rapid differentiation and expansion of its trophoblastic membranes between Days 11 and 12 of gestation. Concomitant with trophoblast elongation, production of conceptus estrogen, the porcine embryonic pregnancy recognition signal increases. Conceptus attachment to the uterine surface epithelium starts after Day 13 initiating epitheliochorial placentation. To analyze the transcriptome changes in the endometrium in the course of maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), deep sequencing of endometrial RNA samples of Day 12 pregnant animals (n=4) and corresponding non-pregnant controls (n=4) was performed using Illumina RNA-Seq. Between 30 and 35 million sequence reads per sample were produced and mapped to the porcine genome (Sscrofa10.2). Analysis of read counts revealed 2,593 differentially expressed genes (DEG). Expression of selected genes was validated by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatics analysis identified several functional terms specifically overrepresented for up-regulated or down-regulated genes. Comparison of the RNA-Seq data from Days 12 and 14 of pregnancy was performed at the level of all expressed genes, of the DEG, and at the level of functional categories. This revealed specific gene expression patterns, reflecting the different functions of the endometrium during these stages, i.e. recognition of pregnancy and preparation for conceptus attachment. Genes related to mitosis, immune response, epithelial cell differentiation and development, proteolysis, and prostaglandin signaling and metabolism are discussed in detail. In conclusion, this study identified comprehensive transcriptome changes in porcine endometrium associated with MRP and initiation of implantation and a number of genes and pathways potentially involved in regulation of these processes. In total, 8 samples were analyzed, 4 biological replicates for pregnant animals (samples from 4 different animals) and 4 biological replicates for cyclic controls (samples from 4 different animals)
Project description:Placentation of the conceptus to the surface epithelium is governed through a tightly regulated temporal and spatial window. Premature exogenous steriod exposure causes a shift in the maternal tissue's receptivity and prevents proper placentation. We used Affymetrix microarrays to detail the aberrant changes in uterine gene expression during this window, while removing all conceptus contribution to this dysfunction. Experiment Overall Design: Porcine endometrium was selected at chronological stages of psuedopregnancy and psuedopregnancy post endocrine disrupted early for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain homogeneous populations of normal endometrium at days 13 and 15 of the pseudo pregnant, and endometrium at days 13 and 15 of the endocrine disrupted pseudo pregnant in order to identify the temporal resolution of expression profiles. In brief, days 13 through 15 accounts for the window of attachment during pregnancy in the pig, so we created pseudo pregnant endometrium and obtained samples from days 13 (PIG13UN_TX)and 15 (PIG15UN_TX) of pseudo pregnancy. In the same, we created pseudo pregnant endometrium that was subjected to endocrine disruption of the pseudo pregnancy and collected samples on days 13 (PIG13_TX)and 15 (PIG15_TX) of pseudo pregnancy.