Expansion of endothelial progenitor cells in high density dot culture of rat bone marrow cells.
ABSTRACT: In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2 × 10(5) cells/cm(2)) by seeding total 9 × 10(5) cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6 × 10(4) cells/cm(2)) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells.
Project description:In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expansion EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density by seeding or cultured in regular density. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Global gene expression pattern difference between the high density and the regular density cultured cells was analyzed by a microarray assay. Gene expression in rat bone marrow cells was measured at 15 days after high density culture or regular density cluture. 2 independent experiments were performed using different high density(HD) cultured cells for each experiment and bone marrow cells in regular density(RD) were used as a control.
Project description:Notch signaling is involved in cell fate decisions during murine vascular development and hematopoiesis in the microenvironment of bone marrow. To investigate the close relationship between hematopoietic stem cells and human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the bone marrow niche, we examined the effects of Notch signals [Jagged-1 and Delta-like ligand (Dll)-1] on the proliferation and differentiation of human CD133+ cell-derived EPCs. We established stromal systems using HESS-5 murine bone marrow cells transfected with human Jagged-1 (hJagged-1) or human Dll-1 (hDll-1). CD133+ cord blood cells were co-cultured with the stromal cells for 7 days, and then their proliferation, differentiation, and EPC colony formation was evaluated. We found that hJagged-1 induced the proliferation and differentiation of CD133+ cord blood EPCs. In contrast, hDll-1 had little effect. CD133+ cells stimulated by hJagged-1 differentiated into CD31+/KDR+ cells, expressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A, and showed enhanced EPC colony formation compared with CD133+ cells stimulated by hDll-1. To evaluate the angiogenic properties of hJagged-1- and hDll-1-stimulated EPCs in vivo, we transplanted these cells into the ischemic hindlimbs of nude mice. Transplantation of EPCs stimulated by hJagged-1, but not hDll-1, increased regional blood flow and capillary density in ischemic hindlimb muscles. This is the first study to show that human Notch signaling influences EPC proliferation and differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment. Human Jagged-1 induced the proliferation and differentiation of CD133+ cord blood progenitors compared with hDll-1. Thus, hJagged-1 signaling in the bone marrow niche may be used to expand EPCs for therapeutic angiogenesis.
Project description:Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are known to promote neovascularization in ischemic diseases. Recent evidence suggested that diabetic neuropathy is causally related to impaired angiogenesis and deficient growth factors. Accordingly, we investigated whether diabetic neuropathy could be reversed by local transplantation of EPCs.We found that motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, blood flow, and capillary density were reduced in sciatic nerves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice but recovered to normal levels after hind-limb injection of bone marrow-derived EPCs. Injected EPCs were preferentially and durably engrafted in the sciatic nerves. A portion of engrafted EPCs were uniquely localized in close proximity to vasa nervorum, and a smaller portion of these EPCs were colocalized with endothelial cells. Multiple angiogenic and neurotrophic factors were significantly increased in the EPC-injected nerves. These dual angiogenic and neurotrophic effects of EPCs were confirmed by higher proliferation of Schwann cells and endothelial cells cultured in EPC-conditioned media.We demonstrate for the first time that bone marrow-derived EPCs could reverse various manifestations of diabetic neuropathy. These therapeutic effects were mediated by direct augmentation of neovascularization in peripheral nerves through long-term and preferential engraftment of EPCs in nerves and particularly vasa nervorum and their paracrine effects. These findings suggest that EPC transplantation could represent an innovative therapeutic option for treating diabetic neuropathy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for neovascularization. We hypothesized that microparticles (MPs), small fragments generated from the plasma membrane, can activate angiogenic programming of EPCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the effects of MPs obtained from wild type (MPs(PPARalpha+/+)) and knock-out (MPs(PPARalpha-/-)) mice on EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. Bone marrow-derived cells were isolated from WT or KO mice and were cultured in the presence of MPs(PPARalpha+/+) or MPs(PPARalpha-/-) obtained from blood of mice. Only MPs(PPARalpha+/+) harboring PPAR(alpha) significantly increased EPC, but not monocytic, differentiation. Bone marrow-derived cells treated with MPs(PPARalpha+/+) displayed increased expression of pro-angiogenic genes and increased in vivo angiogenesis. MPs(PPARalpha+/+) increased capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells that was associated with enhanced expressions of endothelial cell-specific markers. Finally, the effects of MPs(PPARalpha+/+) were mediated by NF-kappaB-dependent mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results underscore the obligatory role of PPARalpha carried by MPs for EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. PPARalpha-NF-kappaB-Akt pathways may play a pivotal stimulatory role for neovascularization, which may, at least in part, be mediated by bone marrow-derived EPCs. Improvement of EPC differentiation may represent a useful strategy during reparative neovascularization.
Project description:Gene therapy approaches to enhance endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) homing may augment cell engraftment to ischemic tissue and lead to a greater therapeutic response. Therefore, we assessed the effects of ultrasound-mediated (UM) transfection of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on homing and engraftment of intravenously administered EPCs and the subsequent angiogenic response in chronically ischemic skeletal muscle. Bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated from donor Fisher 344 rats, cultured and labeled in preparation for injection into recipient animals via a jugular vein. Using a model of chronic hindlimb ischemia in rats, we demonstrated that UM destruction of intravenous carrier microbubbles loaded with SDF-1 plasmid DNA resulted in targeted transfection of the vascular endothelium within ischemic muscle and greater local engraftment of EPCs. The combination of SDF-1gene therapy and EPCs lead to the greatest increase in tissue perfusion and microvascular density within ischemic muscle, compared to no treatment or either monotherapy alone. Our results demonstrate that UM transfection of SDF-1 improves EPC targeting to chronically ischemic tissue, enhancing vascular engraftment and leading to a more robust neovascularization response.
Project description:Irradiated bone has a greater risk of implant failure than nonirradiated bone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cell sheets composed of co-cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on implant osseointegration in irradiated bone. Cell sheets (EPCs, BMSCs or co-cultured EPCs and BMSCs) were wrapped around titanium implants to make cell sheet-implant complexes. The co-cultured group showed the highest osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro, as indicated by the extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteogenesis related genes at both mRNA and protein levels. The co-cultured cells promoted ectopic bone formation as indicated by micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) and histological analysis. In the irradiated tibias of rats, implants of the co-cultured group showed enhanced osseointegration by Micro-CT evaluation and histological observation. Co-cultured EPCs and BMSCs also up-regulated the expression of osteogenesis related genes in bone fragments in close contact with implants. In conclusion, cell sheets of co-cultured EPCs and BMSCs could promote osseous healing around implants and are potentially useful to improve osseointegration process for patients after radiotherapy.
Project description:Although bone marrow endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapies improve the symptoms in patients with ischemic heart disease, their limited plasticity and decreased function in patients with existing heart disease limit the full benefit of EPC therapy for cardiac regenerative medicine.We hypothesized that reprogramming mouse or human EPCs, or both, using small molecules targeting key epigenetic repressive marks would lead to a global increase in active gene transcription, induce their cardiomyogenic potential, and enhance their inherent angiogenic potential.Mouse Lin-Sca1(+)CD31(+) EPCs and human CD34(+) cells were treated with inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (5-Azacytidine), histone deacetylases (valproic acid), and G9a histone dimethyltransferase. A 48-hour treatment led to global increase in active transcriptome, including the reactivation of pluripotency-associated and cardiomyocyte-specific mRNA expression, whereas endothelial cell-specific genes were significantly upregulated. When cultured under appropriate differentiation conditions, reprogrammed EPCs showed efficient differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Treatment with epigenetic-modifying agents show marked increase in histone acetylation on cardiomyocyte and pluripotent cell-specific gene promoters. Intramyocardial transplantation of reprogrammed mouse and human EPCs in an acute myocardial infarction mouse model showed significant improvement in ventricular functions, which was histologically supported by their de novo cardiomyocyte differentiation and increased capillary density and reduced fibrosis. Importantly, cell transplantation was safe and did not form teratomas.Taken together, our results suggest that epigenetically reprogrammed EPCs display a safe, more plastic phenotype and improve postinfarct cardiac repair by both neocardiomyogenesis and neovascularization.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) infiltrate into sites of neovascularization in adult tissues and mature into functional blood endothelial cells (BECs) during a process called vasculogenesis. Human marrow-derived EPCs have recently been reported to display a mixed myeloid and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) phenotype during inflammation-induced angiogenesis; however, their role in cancer remains poorly understood. We report the in vitro differentiation of human cord blood CD133<sup>+</sup>CD34<sup>+</sup> progenitors into podoplanin<sup>+</sup> cells expressing both myeloid markers (CD11b, CD14) and the canonical LEC markers vascular endothelium growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and prospero homeobox 1 (PROX-1). These podoplanin<sup>+</sup> cells displayed sprouting behavior comparable to that of LECs in vitro and a dual hemangiogenic and lymphangiogenic activity in vivo in an endothelial cell sprouting assay and corneal vascularization assay, respectively. Furthermore, these cells expressed vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) family members A, -C, and -D. Thus, bone-marrow derived EPCs stimulate hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis through their ability to differentiate into LECs and to produce angiogenic factors. Importantly, plasma from patients with breast cancer induced differentiation of CD34<sup>+</sup> cord blood progenitors into hemangiogenic and lymphangiogenic CD11b<sup>+</sup> myeloid cells, whereas plasma from healthy women did not have this effect. Consistent with these findings, circulating CD11b<sup>+</sup> cells from breast cancer patients, but not from healthy women, displayed a similar dual angiogenic activity. Taken together, our results show that marrow-derived EPCs become hemangiogenic and lymphangiogenic upon exposure to cancer plasma. These newly identified functions of bone-marrow derived EPCs are expected to influence the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) are stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and other potent proangiogenic factors. During angiogenesis, an increase in VEGF-A expression stimulates BM-EPCs to enhance endothelial tube formation and contribute to an increase in microvessel density. Hypoxia is known to produce an enhanced angiogenic response and heightened levels of VEGF-A have been seen in oxygen deprived epithelial and endothelial cells, yet the pathways for VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs have not been described. This study explores the influence of hypoxia on VEGF-A signaling in rat BM-EPCs utilizing a novel proteomic strategy to directly identify interacting downstream components of the combined VEGF receptor(s) signaling pathways, gene expression analysis, and functional phenotyping. VEGF-A signaling network analysis following liquid chromatographic separation and tandem mass spectrometry revealed proteins related to inositol/calcium signaling, nitric oxide signaling, cell survival, cell migration, and inflammatory responses. Alterations in BM-EPC expression of common angiogenic genes and tube formation in response to VEGF-A during hypoxia were measured and combined with the proteomic analysis to enhance and support the signaling pathways detected. BM-EPC tube formation assays in response to VEGF-A exhibited little tube formation; however, a cell projection/migratory phenotype supported the signaling data. Additionally, a novel assay measuring BM-EPC incorporation into preformed endothelial cell tubes indicated a significant increase of incorporated BM-EPCs after pretreatment with VEGF-A during hypoxia. This study verifies known VEGF-A pathway components and reveals several unidentified mechanisms of VEGF-A signaling in BM-EPCs during hypoxia that may be important for migration to sites of vascular regeneration.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) play an important role in vascular repair. In diabetes, compromised functioning of the CACs contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which has recently been linked to endothelial injury, is involved in diabetic angiogenic dysfunction.Flow cytometric analysis was used to quantify bone marrow-derived progenitors (Lin(-)/c-Kit(+)/Sca-1(+)/CD34(+)) and blood-derived CACs (Sca-1(+)/CD34(+)) in 15-month-old Lepr (db) (db/db) mice and in their littermate control (db/+) mice used as a model of type 2 diabetes. Markers of ER stress in diabetic (db/db) and non-diabetic (db/+) bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) and retinal vascular density were measured.The numbers of bone-marrow progenitors and CACs were significantly reduced in db/db mice. Vascular density was markedly decreased in the retinas of db/db mice, and this was accompanied by vascular beading. Microglial activation was enhanced, as was the production of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The production of ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein-78 [GRP-78], phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme-1? [p-IRE-1?], phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? [p-eIF2?], activating transcription factor-4 [ATF4], C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP] and spliced X-box binding protein-1 [XBP1s]) was significantly increased in bone marrow-derived EOCs from db/db mice. In addition, mouse EOCs cultured in high-glucose conditions demonstrated higher levels of ER stress, reduced colony formation, impaired migration and increased apoptosis, all of which were largely prevented by the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate.Taken together, our results indicate that diabetes increases ER stress in bone marrow angiogenic progenitor cells. Thus, targeting ER stress may offer a new approach to improving angiogenic progenitor cell function and promoting vascular repair in diabetes.