A novel (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase gene from Shinella sp. strain HZN7.
ABSTRACT: Nicotine is an important environmental toxicant in tobacco waste. Shinella sp. strain HZN7 can metabolize nicotine into nontoxic compounds via variations of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. However, the catabolic mechanism of this variant pathway at the gene or enzyme level is still unknown. In this study, two 6-hydroxynicotine degradation-deficient mutants, N7-M9 and N7-W3, were generated by transposon mutagenesis. The corresponding mutant genes, designated nctB and tnp2, were cloned and analyzed. The nctB gene encodes a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase that converts (S)-6-hydroxynicotine into 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine and then spontaneously hydrolyzes into 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine. The deletion and complementation of the nctB gene showed that this enzyme is essential for nicotine or (S)-6-hydroxynicotine degradation. Purified NctB could also convert (S)-nicotine into N-methylmyosmine, which spontaneously hydrolyzed into pseudooxynicotine. The kinetic constants of NctB toward (S)-6-hydroxynicotine (Km = 0.019 mM, kcat = 7.3 s(-1)) and nicotine (Km = 2.03 mM, kcat = 0.396 s(-1)) indicated that (S)-6-hydroxynicotine is the preferred substrate in vivo. NctB showed no activities toward the R enantiomer of nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine. Strain HZN7 could degrade (R)-nicotine into (R)-6-hydroxynicotine without any further degradation. The tnp2 gene from mutant N7-W3 encodes a putative transposase, and its deletion did not abolish the nicotine degradation activity. This study advances the understanding of the microbial diversity of nicotine biodegradation.
Project description:The flavoprotein L-hydroxynicotine oxidase (LHNO) catalyzes an early step in the bacterial catabolism of nicotine. Although the structure of the enzyme establishes that it is a member of the monoamine oxidase family, LHNO is generally accepted to oxidize a carbon-carbon bond in the pyrrolidine ring of the substrate and has been proposed to catalyze the subsequent tautomerization and hydrolysis of the initial oxidation product to yield 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine [Kachalova, G., et al. (2011) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 4800-4805]. Analysis of the product of the enzyme from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans by nuclear magnetic resonance and continuous-flow mass spectrometry establishes that the enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of the pyrrolidine carbon-nitrogen bond, the expected reaction for a monoamine oxidase, and that hydrolysis of the amine to form 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine is nonenzymatic. On the basis of the kcat/Km and kred values for (S)-hydroxynicotine and several analogues, the methyl group contributes only marginally (? 0.5 kcal/mol) to transition-state stabilization, while the hydroxyl oxygen and pyridyl nitrogen each contribute ? 4 kcal/mol. The small effects on activity of mutagenesis of His187, Glu300, or Tyr407 rule out catalytic roles for all three of these active-site residues.
Project description:The flavoenzyme l-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase is a member of the monoamine oxidase family that catalyzes the oxidation of (S)-6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine during microbial catabolism of nicotine. While the enzyme has long been understood to catalyze oxidation of the carbon-carbon bond, it has recently been shown to catalyze oxidation of a carbon-nitrogen bond [Fitzpatrick, P. F., et al. (2016) Biochemistry 55, 697-703]. The effects of pH and mutagenesis of active site residues have now been utilized to study the mechanism and roles of active site residues. Asn166 and Tyr311 bind the substrate, while Lys287 forms a water-mediated hydrogen bond with flavin N5. The N166A and Y311F mutations result in ?30- and ?4-fold decreases in kcat/Km and kred for (S)-6-hydroxynicotine, respectively, with larger effects on the kcat/Km value for (S)-6-hydroxynornicotine. The K287M mutation results in ?10-fold decreases in these parameters and a 6000-fold decrease in the kcat/Km value for oxygen. The shapes of the pH profiles are not altered by the N166A and Y311F mutations. There is no solvent isotope effect on the kcat/Km value for amines. The results are consistent with a model in which both the charged and neutral forms of the amine can bind, with the former rapidly losing a proton to a hydrogen bond network of water and amino acids in the active site prior to the transfer of hydride to the flavin.
Project description:Nicotine, a major toxic alkaloid in tobacco wastes, is degraded by bacteria, mainly via pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways. Previously, we discovered a new hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 and characterized its key enzyme 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP) hydroxylase. Here, we purified the nicotine dehydrogenase initializing the nicotine degradation from the strain and found that it forms a complex with a novel 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine oxidase. The purified complex is composed of three different subunits encoded by ndhAB and pno, where ndhA and ndhB overlap by 4 bp and are ?26 kb away from pno. As predicted from the gene sequences and from chemical analyses, NdhA (82.4 kDa) and NdhB (17.1 kDa) harbor a molybdopterin cofactor and two [2Fe-2S] clusters, respectively, whereas Pno (73.3 kDa) harbors an flavin mononucleotide and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. Mutants with disrupted ndhA or ndhB genes did not grow on nicotine but grew well on 6-hydroxynicotine and HSP, whereas the pno mutant did not grow on nicotine or 6-hydroxynicotine but grew well on HSP, indicating that NdhA and NdhB are responsible for initialization of nicotine oxidation. We successfully expressed pno in Escherichia coli and found that the recombinant Pno presented 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reduction activity when it was coupled with 6-hydroxynicotine oxidation. The determination of reaction products catalyzed by the purified enzymes or mutants indicated that NdhAB catalyzed nicotine oxidation to 6-hydroxynicotine, whereas Pno oxidized 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylsemialdehyde pyridine. These results provide new insights into this novel hybrid pathway of nicotine degradation in A. tumefaciens S33.
Project description:The flavoprotein d-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase catalyzes an early step in the oxidation of ( R)-nicotine, the oxidation of a carbon-nitrogen bond in the pyrrolidine ring of ( R)-6-hydroxynicotine. The enzyme is a member of the vanillyl alcohol oxidase/ p-cresol methylhydroxylase family of flavoproteins. The effects of substrate modifications on the steady-state and rapid-reaction kinetic parameters are not consistent with the quinone-methide mechanism of p-cresol methylhydroxylase. There is no solvent isotope effect on the kcat/ Kamine value with either ( R)-6-hydroxynicotine or the slower substrate ( R)-6-hydroxynornicotine. The effect of pH on the rapid-reaction kinetic parameters establishes that only the neutral form of the substrate and the correctly protonated form of the enzyme bind. The active-site residues Lys348, Glu350, and Glu352 are all properly positioned for substrate binding. The K348M substitution has only a small effect on the kinetic parameters; the E350A and E350Q substitutions decrease the kcat/ Kamine value by ?20- and ?220-fold, respectively, and the E352Q substitution decreases this parameter ?3800-fold. The kcat/ Kamine-pH profile is bell-shaped. The p Ka values in that profile are altered by replacement of ( R)-6-hydroxynicotine with ( R)-6-hydroxynornicotine as the substrate and by the substitutions for Glu350 and Glu352, although the profiles remain bell-shaped. The results are consistent with a network of hydrogen-bonded residues in the active site being involved in binding the neutral form of the amine substrate, followed by the transfer of a hydride from the amine to the flavin.
Project description:Background:Tobacco is widely planted as an important nonfood economic crop throughout the world, and large amounts of tobacco wastes are generated during the tobacco manufacturing process. Tobacco and its wastes contain high nicotine content. This issue has become a major concern for health and environments due to its toxicity and complex physiological effects. The microbial transformation of nicotine into valuable functionalized pyridine compounds is a promising way to utilize tobacco and its wastes as a potential biomass resource. Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 is able to degrade nicotine via a novel hybrid of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways, in which several intermediates, such as 6-hydroxynicotine, can be used as renewable precursors to synthesize drugs and insecticides. This provides an opportunity to produce valuable chemical 6-hydroxynicotine from nicotine via biocatalysis using strain S33. Results:To accumulate the intermediate 6-hydroxynicotine, we firstly identified the key enzyme decomposing 6-hydroxynicotine, named 6-hydroxynicotine oxidase, and then disrupted its encoding gene in A. tumefaciens S33. With the whole cells of the mutant as a biocatalyst, we tested the possibility to produce 6-hydroxynicotine from the nicotine of tobacco and its wastes and optimized the reaction conditions. At 30 °C and pH 7.0, nicotine could be efficiently transformed into 6-hydroxynicotine by the whole cells cultivated with glucose/ammonium/6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine medium. The molar conversion and the specific catalytic rate reached approximately 98% and 1.01 g 6-hydroxynicotine h-1 g-1 dry cells, respectively. The product could be purified easily by dichloromethane extraction with a recovery of 76.8%, and was further confirmed by UV spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and NMR analysis. Conclusions:We successfully developed a novel biocatalytic route to 6-hydroxynicotine from nicotine by blocking the nicotine catabolic pathway via gene disruption, which provides an alternative green strategy to utilize tobacco and its wastes as a biomass resource by converting nicotine into valuable hydroxylated-pyridine compounds.
Project description:A newly isolated strain, SJY1, identified as Ochrobactrum sp., utilizes nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Strain SJY1 could efficiently degrade nicotine via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways (the VPP pathway), which highlights bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation. A 97-kbp DNA fragment containing six nicotine degradation-related genes was obtained by gap closing from the genome sequence of strain SJY1. Three genes, designated vppB, vppD, and vppE, in the VPP pathway were cloned and heterologously expressed, and the related proteins were characterized. The vppB gene encodes a flavin-containing amine oxidase converting 6-hydroxynicotine to 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine. Although VppB specifically catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 6-hydroxynicotine rather than nicotine, it shares higher amino acid sequence identity with nicotine oxidase (38%) from the pyrrolidine pathway than with its isoenzyme (6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase, 24%) from the pyridine pathway. The vppD gene encodes an NADH-dependent flavin-containing monooxygenase, which catalyzes the hydroxylation of 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine to 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. VppD shows 62% amino acid sequence identity with the hydroxylase (HspB) from Pseudomonas putida strain S16, whereas the specific activity of VppD is ?10-fold higher than that of HspB. VppE is responsible for the transformation of 2,5-dihydroxypyridine. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the VPP pathway, which evolved independently from nicotinic acid degradation, might have a closer relationship with the pyrrolidine pathway. The proteins and functional pathway identified here provide a sound basis for future studies aimed at a better understanding of molecular principles of nicotine degradation.
Project description:Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33 can grow with nicotine as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy via a novel hybrid of the pyridine pathway and the pyrrolidine pathway. Characterization of the enzymes involved in the hybrid pathway is important for understanding its biochemical mechanism. Here, we report that the molybdenum-containing nicotine dehydrogenase (NdhAB), which catalyzes the initial step of nicotine degradation, is located in the periplasm of strain S33, while the 6-hydroxynicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxypseudooxynicoine oxidase are in the cytoplasm. This is consistent with the fact that NdhA has a Tat signal peptide. Interestingly, an open reading frame (ORF) adjacent to the ndhAB gene was verified to encode a copper-containing electron carrier, pseudoazurin (Paz), which has a signal peptide typical of bacterial Paz proteins. Both were transported into the periplasm after being produced in the cytoplasm. We purified NdhAB from the periplasmic fraction of strain S33 and found that with Paz as the physiological electron acceptor, NdhAB catalyzed the hydroxylation of nicotine at a specific rate of 110.52 ± 8.09 ?mol · min-1 · mg of protein-1, where the oxygen atom in the hydroxyl group of the product 6-hydroxynicotine was derived from H2O. The apparent Km values for nicotine and Paz were 1.64 ± 0.07 ?M and 3.61 ± 0.23 ?M, respectively. NAD(P)+, O2, and ferredoxin could not serve as electron acceptors. Disruption of the paz gene disabled the strain for nicotine degradation, indicating that Paz is required for nicotine catabolism in the strain. These findings help our understanding of electron transfer during nicotine degradation in bacteria.IMPORTANCE Nicotine is a toxic and addictive N-heterocyclic aromatic alkaloid produced in tobacco. Its catabolism in organisms and degradation in tobacco wastes have become major concerns for human health and the environment. Bacteria usually decompose nicotine using the classical strategy of hydroxylating the pyridine ring with the help of activated oxygen by nicotine dehydrogenase, which binds one molybdopterin, two [2Fe2S] clusters, and usually one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as well. However, the physiological electron acceptor for the reaction is still unknown. In this study, we found that the two-component nicotine dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33, naturally lacking an FAD-binding domain, is located in the periplasmic space and uses a copper-containing electron carrier, pseudoazurin, as its physiological electron acceptor. We report here the role of pseudoazurin in a reaction catalyzed by a molybdopterin-containing hydroxylase occurring in the periplasmic space. These results provide new biochemical knowledge on microbial degradation of N-heterocyclic aromatic compounds.
Project description:Nicotine is a type of environmental pollutant present in the tobacco waste that is generated during tobacco manufacturing. Sphingomonas melonis TY can utilize nicotine as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy via a variant of the pyridine and pyrrolidine pathway (the VPP pathway). In this study, we report the identification of two novel sets of genes, ndrA1A2A3, and ndrB1B2B3B4, which are crucial for nicotine degradation by strain TY. ndrA1A2A3 and ndrB1B2B3B4 exhibit similarity with both nicotine dehydrogenase ndh from Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and nicotine hydroxylase vppA from Ochrobactrum sp. SJY1. The transcriptional levels of ndrA1A2A3 and ndrB1B2B3B4 in strain TY were significantly upregulated in the presence of nicotine. Furthermore, ndrA1 or ndrB2 knockout resulted in a loss of the ability to degrade nicotine, whereas gene complementation restored the capacity of each mutant to utilize nicotine for growth. Biodegradation assays indicated that the mutant strains retained the ability to degrade the first intermediate in the pathway, 6-hydroxynicotine (6 HN). However, heterologous expression of ndrA1A2A3 and ndrB1B2B3B4 did not confer nicotine dehydrogenase activity to E. coli DH5?, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 or Sphingomonas aquatilis. These results provide information on the VPP pathway of nicotine degradation in S. melonis TY, and we conclude that these two sets of genes have essential functions in the conversion of nicotine to 6 HN in strain TY.
Project description:Management of solid wastes with high nicotine content, such as those accumulated during tobacco manufacturing, poses a major challenge, which can be addressed by using bacteria such as Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. In this study, a new species of Pseudomonas geniculata, namely strain N1, which is capable of efficiently degrading nicotine, was isolated and identified. The optimal growth conditions for strain N1 are a temperature of 30°C, and a pH 6.5, at a rotation rate of 120 rpm min(-1) with 1 g l(-1) nicotine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Myosmine, cotinine, 6-hydroxynicotine, 6-hydroxy-N-methylmyosmine, and 6-hydroxy-pseudooxynicotine were detected as the five intermediates through gas chromatography-mass and liquid chromatography-mass analyses. The identified metabolites were different from those generated by Pseudomonas putida strains. The analysis also highlighted the bacterial metabolic diversity in relation to nicotine degradation by different Pseudomonas strains.
Project description:A 27,690-bp gene cluster involved in the degradation of the plant alkaloid nicotine was characterized from the plasmid pAO1 of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans. The genes of the heterotrimeric, molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo)-, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-, and [Fe-S] cluster-dependent 6-hydroxypseudooxynicotine (ketone) dehydrogenase (KDH) were identified within this cluster. The gene of the large MoCo subunit of KDH was located 4,266 bp from the FAD and [Fe-S] cluster subunit genes. Deduced functions of proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) of the cluster were correlated to individual steps in nicotine degradation. The gene for 2,6-dihydroxypyridine 3-hydroxylase was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified homodimeric enzyme of 90 kDa contained 2 mol of tightly bound FAD per mol of dimer. Enzyme activity was strictly NADH-dependent and specific for 2,6-dihydroxypyridine. 2,3-Dihydroxypyridine and 2,6-dimethoxypyridine acted as irreversible inhibitors. Additional ORFs were shown to encode hypothetical proteins presumably required for holoenzyme assembly, interaction with the cell membrane, and transcriptional regulation, including a MobA homologue predicted to be specific for the synthesis of the molybdopterin cytidine dinucleotide cofactor.