Effect of lineage-specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on sourdough microbial ecology.
ABSTRACT: This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23?gadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400?gupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. RESULTS: A gene coding for a putative glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was identified in the genome of L. reuteri 100-23. Different from the organization of genetic loci coding for glutamate decarboxylase in other lactic acid bacteria, gadB was located adjacent to a putative glutaminase gene, gls3. An isogenic deletion mutant, L. reuteri ?gadB, was generated by a double crossover method. L. reuteri 100-23 but not L. reuteri ?gadB converted glutamate to ?-aminobutyrate (GABA) in phosphate butter (pH 2.5). In sourdough, both strains converted glutamine to glutamate but only L. reuteri 100-23 accumulated GABA. Glutamate addition to phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, improved survival of L. reuteri 100-23 100-fold. However, survival of L. reuteri ?gadB remained essentially unchanged. The disruption of gadB did not affect growth of L. reuteri in mMRS or in sourdough. However, the wild type strain L. reuteri 100-23 displaced L. reuteri ?gadB after 5 cycles of fermentation in back-slopped sourdough fermentations. CONCLUSIONS: The conversion of glutamate to GABA by L. reuteri 100-23 contributes to acid resistance and to competitiveness in industrial sourdough fermentations. The organization of the gene cluster for glutamate conversion, and the availability of amino acids in cereals imply that glutamine rather than glutamate functions as the substrate for GABA formation. The exceptional coupling of glutamine deamidation to glutamate decarboxylation in L.Â reuteri likely reflects adaptation to cereal substrates.
Project description:Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism.
Project description:EPS formed by lactobacilli in situ during sourdough fermentation may replace hydrocolloids currently used as texturizing, antistaling, or prebiotic additives in bread production. In this study, a screening of >100 strains of cereal-associated and intestinal lactic acid bacteria was performed for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose. Fifteen strains produced fructan, and four strains produced glucan. It was remarkable that formation of glucan and fructan was most frequently found in intestinal isolates and strains of the species Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus pontis, and Lactobacillus frumenti from type II sourdoughs. By the use of PCR primers derived from conserved amino acid sequences of bacterial levansucrase genes, it was shown that 6 of the 15 fructan-producing lactobacilli and none of 20 glucan producers or EPS-negative strains carried a levansucrase gene. In sourdough fermentations, it was determined whether those strains producing EPS in MRS medium modified as described by Stolz et al. (37) and containing 100 g of sucrose liter(-1) as the sole source of carbon also produce the same EPS from sucrose during sourdough fermentation in the presence of 12% sucrose. For all six EPS-producing strains evaluated in sourdough fermentations, in situ production of EPS at levels ranging from 0.5 to 2 g/kg of flour was demonstrated. Production of EPS from sucrose is a metabolic activity that is widespread among sourdough lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the use of these organisms in bread production may allow the replacement of additives.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response of the human isolate L. reuteri ATCC 55730 during sourdough fermentation by using whole-genome microarrays. Significant changes of mRNA levels were found for 101 genes involved in diverse cellular processes, e.g., carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell envelope biosynthesis, exopolysaccharide production, stress responses, signal transduction and cobalamin biosynthesis. Our results evidence extensive changes of the organism’s gene expression to the growth in sourdough as compared to the growth in chemically defined medium, and thus allowed us to uncover pathways involved in the adaptation of L. reuteri to the ecological niche of sourdough. An impact of several genes of L. reuteri for effective growth in sourdough was shown by implementation of mutant strains in sourdough fermentation. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular fundamentals of L. reuteri’s ecological competitiveness, and provides a basis for further exploration of genetic traits involved in adaptation to the food and/or intestinal environment. Keywords: environment-specific gene expression, sourdough fermentation, chemically defined medium, dye swap Overall design: RNA of exponetially growing cells grown in chemically defined medium CDML and sourdough was isolated three times (biological replicates). cDNA was synthesized from RNA of each biological replicate, and labeled with both Cy3 and Cy5 separately. cDNA of CDML and sourdough cultures were hybridized in a dye-swap duplicate for each biological replicate, resulting in 6 hybridizations. The duplicate genome per slide results in 12 replicate hybridizations per spot/gene.
Project description:Microbial strains for starter culture-initiated sourdough productions are commonly isolated from a fermenting flour-water mixture. Yet, starter culture strains isolated from matrices other than sourdoughs could provide the dough with interesting metabolic properties and hence change the organoleptic properties of the concomitant breads. Furthermore, the selection of sourdough starter cultures does not need to be limited to lactic acid bacteria (LAB), as other food-grade microorganisms are sometimes found in sourdoughs. Therefore, different strains belonging to LAB, acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) that originated from different fermented food matrices (fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass, fermented sausage, and water kefir), were examined as to their prevalence in a wheat sourdough ecosystem during 72-h fermentations. Limosilactobacillus fermentum IMDO 222 (fermented cocoa pulp-bean mass isolate) and Latilactobacillus sakei CTC 494 (fermented sausage isolate) seemed to be promising candidates as sourdough starter culture strains, as were the AAB strains Acetobacter pasteurianus IMDO 386B and Gluconobacter oxydans IMDO A845 (both isolated from fermented cocoa pulp-bean mass), due to their competitiveness in the wheat flour-water mixtures. Wheat breads made with G. oxydans IMDO A845 sourdoughs were significantly darker than reference wheat breads.
Project description:Sourdough fermentation presents several advantageous effects in bread making, like improved nutritional quality and increased shelf life. Three types of experiments aimed to evaluate comparatively the efficiency of two Lactobacillus (Lb.) strains, Lb. plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lb. casei ATCC 393, to metabolize different white wheat flour and soybeans flour combinations to compare their efficiency, together with/without Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sourdough fermentation. For this purpose, the viability, pH, organic acids, and secondary metabolites production were investigated, together with the dynamic rheological properties of the sourdough. During sourdough fermentation, LAB presented higher growth, and the pH decreased significantly from above pH 6 at 0 h to values under 4 at 24 h for each experiment. Co-cultures of LAB and yeast produced a higher quantity of lactic acid than single cultures, especially in sourdough enriched with soy-flour. In general, sourdoughs displayed a stable, elastic-like behavior, and the incorporation of soy-flour conferred higher elasticity in comparison with sourdoughs without soy-flour. The higher elasticity of sourdoughs enriched with soy-flour can be attributed to the fact that through frozen storage, soy proteins have better water holding capacity. In conclusion, sourdough supplemented with 10% soy-flour had better rheological properties, increased lactic, acetic, and citric acid production.
Project description:The spontaneous microbiota of wheat sourdough, often comprising one yeast species and several lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, evolves over repeated fermentation cycles, which bakers call backslopping. The final product quality largely depends on the microbiota functions, but these fluctuate sometimes during the initial months of fermentation cycles due to microbiota evolution in which three phases of LAB relay occur. In this study, the understanding of yeast-LAB interactions in the start of the evolution of the microbiota was deepened by exploring the timing and trigger interactions when sourdough yeast entered a preestablished LAB-relaying community. Monitoring of 32 cycles of evolution of 6 batches of spontaneous microbiota in wheat sourdoughs revealed that sourdough yeasts affected the LAB community when the 2nd- or 3rd-relaying types of LAB genera emerged. In in vitro pairwise cocultures, all 12 LAB strains containing the 3 LAB-relaying types arrested the growth of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, a frequently found species in sourdoughs, to various extents by sugar-related interactions. These findings suggest competition due to different affinities of each LAB and a S. cerevisiae strain for each sugar. In particular, maltose was the driver of S. cerevisiae growth in all pairwise cocultures. The functional prediction of sugar metabolism in sourdough LAB communities showed a positive correlation between maltose degradation and the yeast population. Our results suggest that maltose-related interactions are key factors that enable yeasts to enter and then settle in the LAB-relaying community during the initial part of evolution of spontaneous sourdough microbiota. IMPORTANCE Unpredictable evolution of spontaneous sourdough microbiota sometimes prevents bakers from making special-quality products because the unstable microbiota causes the product quality to fluctuate. Elucidation of the evolutionary mechanisms of the sourdough community, comprising yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), is fundamental to control fermentation performance. This study investigated the mechanisms by which sourdough yeasts entered and settled in a bacterial community in which a three-phase relay of LAB occurred. Our results showed that all three layers of LAB restricted the cohabiting yeast population by competing for the sugar sources, particularly maltose. During the initial evolution of spontaneous sourdough microbiota, yeasts tended to grow synchronously with the progression of the lactic acid bacterial relay, which was predictably associated with changes in the maltose degradation functions in the bacterial community. Further study of ≥3 species' interactions while considering yeast diversity can uncover additional interaction mechanisms driving the initial evolution of sourdough microbiota.
Project description:Sourdough fermentation is a traditional process that is used to improve bread quality. A spontaneous sourdough ecosystem consists of a mixture of flour and water that is fermented by endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial diversity during backslopping of spontaneous sourdoughs prepared from wheat, spelt, or rye wholemeal flour. Culture-dependent analyses showed that the number of LAB (109 CFU/ml) was higher by three orders of magnitude than the number of yeasts (106 CFU/ml), irrespective of the flour type. These results were complemented by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rDNA V3 and V4 variable regions. The dominant phylum in all sourdough samples was Firmicutes, which was represented exclusively by the Lactobacillales order. The two remaining and less abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The culture-independent approach allowed us to detect changes in microbial ecology during the 72-hr fermentation period. Weissella sp. was the most abundant genus after 24 hr of fermentation of the rye sourdough, but as the process progressed, its abundance decreased in favor of the Lactobacillus genus similarly as in wheat and spelt sourdoughs. The Lactobacillus genus was dominant in all sourdoughs after 72 hr, which was consistent with our results obtained using culture-dependent analyses. This work was carried out to determine the microbial biodiversity of sourdoughs that are made from wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour and can be used as a source of strains for specific starter cultures to produce functional bread.
Project description:This study aimed to: (i) assess at what extent traditional, daily propagated, sourdough can be considered a stable microbial ecosystem; (ii) ascertain the drivers of stability/variability. For this purpose, samples of sourdough, flour and environment were collected over 1 year from three different bakeries located in Altamura, Castellana Grotte, and Matera. Culture-dependent and -independent analyses were carried out on all the samples. In addition, sourdough and flour were subjected to biochemical characterization. In all the sourdoughs sampled at the same bakery, cell density of lactic acid bacteria fluctuated of one-two log cycles. However, 16S metagenetic analysis showed that sourdough bacterial microbiota was remarkably stable, in terms of species. Yet, some differences were found during time at intra-specific level. Indeed, bacterial strains succeeded in a 1-year lapse of time or even in 6-months, such as in the case of strains isolated from Altamura sourdough samples. Residual carbohydrates, lactic acid, ethanol and free amino acids varied in the same sourdough collected at different sampling times. These variations could be attributed to combination of various factors, such as fermentation temperature and strain succession. In addition, concentration of flour nutrients varied over 1 year and, in some cases, in a shorter time lapse. This may have favored certain strains over others. For this reason and also because of its inherent contamination by lactic acid bacteria, we found flour as the major driver of strains succession.
Project description:Four sourdoughs (A to D) were produced under practical conditions by using a starter mixture of three commercially available sourdough starters and a baker's yeast constitutively containing various species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The sourdoughs were continuously propagated until the composition of the LAB flora remained stable. Two LAB-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems were established and used to monitor the development of the microflora. Depending on the prevailing ecological conditions in the different sourdough fermentations, only a few Lactobacillus species were found to be competitive and became dominant. In sourdough A (traditional process with rye flour), Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and a new species, L. mindensis, were detected. In rye flour sourdoughs B and C, which differed in the process temperature, exclusively L. crispatus and L. pontis became the predominant species in sourdough B and L. crispatus, L. panis, and L. frumenti became the predominant species in sourdough C. On the other hand, in sourdough D (corresponding to sourdough C but produced with rye bran), L. johnsonii and L. reuteri were found. The results of PCR-DGGE were consistent with those obtained by culturing, except for sourdough B, in which L. fermentum was also detected. Isolates of the species L. sanfranciscensis and L. fermentum were shown by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR analysis to originate from the commercial starters and the baker's yeast, respectively.