Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action.
ABSTRACT: The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action (MoA) and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.
Project description:A central premise in systems pharmacology is that structurally similar compounds have similar cellular responses; however, this principle often does not hold. One of the most widely used measures of cellular response is gene expression. By integrating gene expression data from Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) with chemical structure and bioactivity data from PubChem, we performed a large-scale correlation analysis of chemical structures and gene expression profiles of over 11,000 compounds taking into account confounding factors such as biological conditions (e.g., cell line, dose) and bioactivities. We found that structurally similar compounds do indeed yield similar gene expression profiles. There is an ?20% chance that two structurally similar compounds (Tanimoto Coefficient ? 0.85) share significantly similar gene expression profiles. Regardless of structural similarity, two compounds tend to share similar gene expression profiles in a cell line when they are administrated at a higher dose or when the cell line is sensitive to both compounds.
Project description:Modern research in the biomedical sciences is data-driven utilizing high-throughput technologies to generate big genomic data. The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) is an example for a large-scale genomic data repository providing hundred thousands of high-dimensional gene expression measurements for thousands of drugs and dozens of cell lines. However, the remaining challenge is how to use these data effectively for pharmacogenomics. In this paper, we use LINCS data to construct drug association networks (DANs) representing the relationships between drugs. By using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of drugs we demonstrate that the DANs represent a systems pharmacogenomic landscape of drugs summarizing the entire LINCS repository on a genomic scale meaningfully. Here we identify the modules of the DANs as therapeutic attractors of the ATC drug classes.
Project description:Large-scale perturbation databases, such as Connectivity Map (CMap) or Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), provide enormous opportunities for computational pharmacogenomics and drug design. A reason for this is that in contrast to classical pharmacology focusing at one target at a time, the transcriptomics profiles provided by CMap and LINCS open the door for systems biology approaches on the pathway and network level. In this article, we provide a review of recent developments in computational pharmacogenomics with respect to CMap and LINCS and related applications.
Project description:The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) L1000 big data provide gene expression profiles induced by over 10?000 compounds, shRNAs, and kinase inhibitors using the L1000 platform. We developed csNMF, a systematic compound signature discovery pipeline covering from raw L1000 data processing to drug screening and mechanism generation. The csNMF pipeline demonstrated better performance than the original L1000 pipeline. The discovered compound signatures of breast cancer were consistent with the LINCS KINOMEscan data and were clinically relevant. The csNMF pipeline provided a novel and complete tool to expedite signature-based drug discovery leveraging the LINCS L1000 resources.
Project description:The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program is a national consortium funded by the NIH to generate a diverse and extensive reference library of cell-based perturbation-response signatures, along with novel data analytics tools to improve our understanding of human diseases at the systems level. In contrast to other large-scale data generation efforts, LINCS Data and Signature Generation Centers (DSGCs) employ a wide range of assay technologies cataloging diverse cellular responses. Integration of, and unified access to LINCS data has therefore been particularly challenging. The Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) LINCS Data Coordination and Integration Center (DCIC) has developed data standards specifications, data processing pipelines, and a suite of end-user software tools to integrate and annotate LINCS-generated data, to make LINCS signatures searchable and usable for different types of users. Here, we describe the LINCS Data Portal (LDP) (http://lincsportal.ccs.miami.edu/), a unified web interface to access datasets generated by the LINCS DSGCs, and its underlying database, LINCS Data Registry (LDR). LINCS data served on the LDP contains extensive metadata and curated annotations. We highlight the features of the LDP user interface that is designed to enable search, browsing, exploration, download and analysis of LINCS data and related curated content.
Project description:Mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear transduce auditory and vestibular sensory input. Hair cells are susceptible to death from a variety of stressors, including treatment with therapeutic drugs that have ototoxic side effects. There is a need for co-therapies to mitigate drug-induced ototoxicity, and we showed previously that induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) protects against hair cell death and hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics in mouse. Here, we utilized the library of integrated cellular signatures (LINCS) to identify perturbagens that induce transcriptional profiles similar to that of heat shock. Massively parallel sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) of heat shocked and control mouse utricles provided a heat shock gene expression signature that was used in conjunction with LINCS to identify candidate perturbagens, several of which were known to protect the inner ear. Our data indicate that LINCS is a useful tool to screen for compounds that generate specific gene expression signatures in the inner ear. Forty-two LINCS-identified perturbagens were tested for otoprotection in zebrafish, and three of these were protective. These compounds also induced the heat shock gene expression signature in mouse utricles, and one compound protected against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in whole organ cultures of utricles from adult mice.
Project description:For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary adult brain tumor. Despite extensive efforts, the median survival for GBM patients is approximately 14 months. GBM therapy could benefit greatly from patient-specific targeted therapies that maximize treatment efficacy. Here we report a platform termed SynergySeq to identify drug combinations for the treatment of GBM by integrating information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS). We identify differentially expressed genes in GBM samples and devise a consensus gene expression signature for each compound using LINCS L1000 transcriptional profiling data. The SynergySeq platform computes disease discordance and drug concordance to identify combinations of FDA-approved drugs that induce a synergistic response in GBM. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that combining disease-specific gene expression signatures with LINCS small molecule perturbagen-response signatures can identify preclinical combinations for GBM, which can potentially be tested in humans.
Project description:The identification of the modes of action of bioactive compounds is a major challenge in chemical systems biology of diseases. Genome-wide expression profiling of transcriptional responses to compound treatment for human cell lines is a promising unbiased approach for the mode-of-action analysis. Here we developed a novel approach to elucidate the modes of action of bioactive compounds in a cell-specific manner using large-scale chemically-induced transcriptome data acquired from the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), and analyzed 16,268 compounds and 68 human cell lines. First, we performed pathway enrichment analyses of regulated genes to reveal active pathways among 163 biological pathways. Next, we explored potential target proteins (including primary targets and off-targets) with cell-specific transcriptional similarity using chemical-protein interactome. Finally, we predicted new therapeutic indications for 461 diseases based on the target proteins. We showed the usefulness of the proposed approach in terms of prediction coverage, interpretation, and large-scale applicability, and validated the new prediction results experimentally by an in vitro cellular assay. The approach has a high potential for advancing drug discovery and repositioning.
Project description:Transcriptional perturbation signatures are valuable data sources for functional genomics. Linking perturbation signatures to screenings opens the possibility to model cellular phenotypes from expression data and to identify efficacious drugs. We linked perturbation transcriptomics data from the LINCS-L1000 project with cell viability information upon genetic (Achilles project) and chemical (CTRP screen) perturbations yielding more than 90 000 signature-viability pairs. An integrated analysis showed that the cell viability signature is a major factor underlying perturbation signatures. The signature is linked to transcription factors regulating cell death, proliferation and division time. We used the cell viability-signature relationship to predict viability from transcriptomics signatures, and identified and validated compounds that induce cell death in tumor cell lines. We showed that cellular toxicity can lead to unexpected similarity of signatures, confounding mechanism of action discovery. Consensus compound signatures predicted cell-specific drug sensitivity, even if the signature is not measured in the same cell line, and outperformed conventional drug-specific features. Our results can help in understanding mechanisms behind cell death and removing confounding factors of transcriptomic perturbation screens. To interactively browse our results and predict cell viability in new gene expression samples, we developed CEVIChE (CEll VIability Calculator from gene Expression; https://saezlab.shinyapps.io/ceviche/).