Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding.Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n?=?15 male, n?=?15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n?=?277 male, n?=?278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured.Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P?=?0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P?=?0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P?
Project description:<b>Purpose: </b>High calorie intake leads to obesity, a global socio-economic and health problem, reaching epidemic proportion in children and adolescents. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids from animal (lard) fat are major components of the western-pattern diet and its regular consumption leads to obesity, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, no clear evidence exists whether consumption of diet rich in saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids has detrimental effects on cardiac structure and energetics primarily due to excessive calories. We, therefore, sought to determine the impact of high calories versus fat content in diet on cardiac structure and mitochondrial energetics.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high calorie, high lard fat-based diet (60% fat, HFD), high-calorie and low lard fat-based diet (10% fat, LFD), and lower-calorie and fat diet (standard chow, 12% fat, SCD) for 10 weeks.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The HFD- and LFD-fed mice had higher body weight, ventricular mass and thickness of posterior and septal wall with increased cardiomyocytes diameter compared to the SCD-fed mice. These changes were associated with a reduction in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes I and III activity compared to the SCD-fed mice without significant differences between the HFD- and LFD-fed animals. The HFD-fed animals had higher level of malondialdehyde (MDA) than LFD and SCD-fed mice.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>We assume that changes in cardiac morphology and selective reduction of the OXPHOS complexes activity observed in the HFD- and LFD-fed mice might be related to excessive calories with additional effect of fat content on oxidative stress.
Project description:Restriction of a high-fat diet (HFD) and a change to a low-fat diet (LFD) are two interventions that were shown to promote weight loss and improve parameters of metabolic health in obesity. Examination of the biochemical and molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to these interventions has not been performed so far. Here, male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice, harboring an intact nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase gene, were fed a purified 40 energy% HFD for 14 weeks to induce obesity. Afterward, mice were divided into three dietary groups: HFD (maintained on HFD), LFD (changed to LFD with identical ingredients), and HFD-CR (restricted to 70 % of the HFD). The effects of the interventions were examined after 5 weeks. Beneficial effects were seen for both HFD-CR and LFD (compared to HFD) regarding physiological parameters (body weight and fat mass) and metabolic parameters, including circulating insulin and leptin levels. Macrophage infiltration in WAT was reduced by both interventions, although more effectively by HFD-CR. Strikingly, molecular parameters in WAT differed between HFD-CR and LFD, with increased activation of mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism in HFD-CR mice. Our results confirm that restriction of the amount of dietary intake and reduction in the dietary energy content are both effective in inducing weight loss. The larger decrease in WAT inflammation and increase in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism may be due to a larger degree of energy restriction in HFD-CR, but could also be due to superior effectiveness of dietary restriction in weight loss strategies.
Project description:Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation at white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to metabolic defects. Sex steroid hormone estrogen may be protective against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance. This has been tested by many previous studies utilizing rodent models of ovariectomy (OVX) and/or treatment of estradiol (E2), the major biologically active form of estrogen. Body weight and adiposity are increased by OVX and reduced following E2 treatment, however. Thus, the protective roles of E2 may be secondary effects to the changes in body weight and adiposity. We hypothesize that E2 directly prevents inflammation and maintains insulin sensitivity in WAT independent of energy status using mice with similar body weights and adiposity.Four groups of female C57BL/6 mice were used, including sham-operated mice treated with vehicle for E2 and fed with either a low-fat diet (LFD; Sham-Veh-LFD) or a HFD (Sham-Veh-HFD), and HFD-fed OVX mice treated with either vehicle (OVX-Veh-HFD) or E2 (OVX-E2-HFD). Body weight and abdominal parametrial WAT mass, insulin signaling, and expression levels of genes related to low-grade inflammation in WAT were compared between these groups pair-fed with equal amounts of calories for a period of 4 days.Body weights and WAT mass were similar in all four groups. OVX-Veh-HFD mice had impaired insulin signaling associated with rapid activation of inflammation, whereas OVX-E2-HFD group maintained insulin sensitivity without showing inflammation in WAT.E2 directly contributed to the maintenance of insulin sensitivity during the early phase of development of metabolic dysfunction, possibly via preventing low-grade inflammation in WAT.
Project description:A dramatic increase in the prevalence of major depression and diet-related disorders in adolescents has been observed over several decades, yet the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity have only recently begun to be elucidated. Exposure to western-style diet (WSD), high in both fats (45% kcal) and carbohydrates (35% kcal): e.g., high fat diet (HFD), has been linked to the development of metabolic syndrome-like symptoms and behavioral dysregulation in rodents, as similarly observed in the human condition. Because adolescence is a developmental period highlighted by vulnerability to both stress and poor diet, understanding the mechanism(s) underlying the combined negative effects of WSDs and stress on mood and reward regulation is critical. To this end, adolescent male C57 mice were exposed to vicarious social defeat stress (VSDS), a stress paradigm capable of separating physical (PS) versus psychological/emotional (ES) stress, followed by normal chow (NC), HFD, or a separate control diet high in carbohydrates (same sucrose content as HFD) and low in fat (LFD), while measuring body weight and food intake. Non-stressed control mice exposed to 5 weeks of NC or HFD showed no significant differences in body weight or social interaction. Mice exposed to VSDS (both ES and PS) gain weight rapidly 1 week after initiation of HFD, with the ES-exposed mice showing significantly higher weight gain as compared to the HFD-exposed control mice. These mice also exhibited a reduction in saccharin preference, indicative of anhedonic-like behavior. To further delineate whether high fat was the major contributing factor to these deficits, LFD was introduced. The mice in the VSDS + HFD gained weight more rapidly than the VSDS + LFD group, and though the LFD-exposed mice did not gain weight as rapidly as the HFD-exposed mice, both the VSDS + LFD- and VSDS + HFD-exposed mice exhibited attenuated response to the antidepressant fluoxetine. These data show that diets high in both fats and carbohydrates are responsible for rapid weight gain and reduced reward sensitivity; and that while consumption of diet high in carbohydrate and low in fat does not lead to rapid weight gain, both HFD and LFD exposure after stress leads to reduced responsiveness to antidepressant treatment.
Project description:We sought to delineate the retinal features associated with the high-fat diet (HFD) mouse, a widely used model of obesity. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a high-fat (60% fat; HFD) or low-fat (10% fat; LFD) diet for up to 12 months. The effect of HFD on body weight and insulin resistance were measured. The retina was assessed by electroretinogram (ERG), fundus photography, permeability studies, and trypsin digests for enumeration of acellular capillaries. The HFD cohort experienced hypercholesterolemia when compared to the LFD cohort, but not hyperglycemia. HFD mice developed a higher body weight (60.33 g vs. 30.17g, p < 0.0001) as well as a reduced insulin sensitivity index (9.418 vs. 62.01, p = 0.0002) compared to LFD controls. At 6 months, retinal functional testing demonstrated a reduction in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes. At 12 months, mice on HFD showed evidence of increased retinal nerve infarcts and vascular leakage, reduced vascular density, but no increase in number of acellular capillaries compared to LFD mice. In conclusion, the HFD mouse is a useful model for examining the effect of prediabetes and hypercholesterolemia on the retina. The HFD-induced changes appear to occur slower than those observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D) models but are consistent with other retinopathy models, showing neural damage prior to vascular changes.
Project description:Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (?13%) and IMF-LFD (?18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (?40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (?12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (?50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (?22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (?55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (?19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (?65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.
Project description:Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro. HFD increased VAT angiogenesis and induced weight gains including body weight, VAT mass and visceral adipocyte size compared with LFD. However, HFD-ALS led to weight reductions without affecting calorie intake compared with HFD. HFD-ALS also reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved lipid metabolism. HFD-ALS suppressed steatosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and accumulation of collagen in livers. HFD-ALS modulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, antioxidation, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, analysis of VAT function revealed that HFD-ALS led to fewer CD68-positive macrophage numbers and lower expression of inflammatory cytokines compared with HFD. Our findings show that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 attenuates NAFLD by targeting VAT during obesity, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibitors could aid in the treatment and prevention of obesity-induced human NAFLD.
Project description:Objectives Over-nutrition during pregnancy resulting from maternal obesity or an unhealthy diet can lead to excess infant adiposity at birth. Specific dietary macro- and micronutrients have been shown to increase fat cell development in both in-vitro and in-vivo models and may therefore link maternal diet to increased infant adiposity. We hypothesized that high maternal dietary niacin intake during pregnancy, especially in combination with a high-fat diet (HFD) would increase infant adiposity. Methods We included 1040 participants from a pre-birth cohort of mother-infant pairs. Maternal diet was assessed using multiple 24-hour dietary recalls. HFD was defined as ?30% of calories from fat and ?12% of fat calories from saturated fat. Neonatal body composition (% fat mass [%FM], fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM]) was measured by PEAPOD. We used multivariate regression to assess the joint effect of maternal dietary niacin and maternal HFD on neonatal body composition. Results Dietary niacin was not associated with neonatal body composition, and maternal HFD did not modify this finding. However, maternal HFD was independently associated with %FM (??=?0.8 [0.1, 1.4]%, p?<?0.01] and FM (??=?32.4 [6.7, 58.0] g, p?<?0.01). Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that a HFD during pregnancy may increase infant adiposity, therefore supporting the need for improved diet counseling of pregnant women at both the clinical and community levels.
Project description:Because adipose tissue is highly vascularized, modifying adipose tissue vasculature may provide a novel method for reducing body fat. A peptide sequence that elicits apoptosis of endothelium in white fat potently reduced body weight. We sought to determine how inhibiting adipose tissue vasculature changes key aspects of energy balance regulation and the neuroendocrine system that maintains energy balance.Lean and obese mice or rats were treated with proapoptotic peptide for 4 or 27 days. Daily energy intake and expenditure were measured in mice on a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) and in rats on a HFD. A conditioned taste aversion test was performed to assess whether proapoptotic peptide produces visceral illness. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocoritin (POMC) mRNA expression and plasma leptin levels were evaluated.Proapoptotic peptide completely reversed HFD-induced obesity in mice and reduced body weight in mice and rats on a HFD but not in those on a LFD. Fat loss occurred with no change of energy expenditure but reduced food intake that occurred without signs of illness and despite reduced circulating leptin and reduced hypothalamic POMC gene expression, indicating that the decrease in food intake is independent of the action of leptin.These experiments provide compelling evidence for a previously unknown relationship between the status of adipose tissue vasculature and the regulation of food intake.
Project description:Background:Sea vegetables are rich sources of nutrients as well as bioactive components that are linked to metabolic health improvement. Algal polysaccharides improve satiety and modulate gut microbiota while proteins, peptides, and phenolic fractions exert anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic effects. Objective:We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with either Pacific dulse (Palmaria mollis, red algae) or wakame (Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae) could remediate metabolic complications in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Methods:Individually caged C57BL/6J mice (n = 8) were fed ad libitum with either a low-fat diet (LFD), 10% kcal fat; high-fat diet (HFD), 60% kcal fat; HFD + 5% (wt:wt) dulse (HFD + D); or HFD + 5% (wt:wt) wakame (HFD + W) for 8 weeks. Food intake and weight gain were monitored weekly. Glucose tolerance, hepatic lipids, fecal lipids, and plasma markers were evaluated, and the gut microbiome composition was assessed. Results:Despite the tendency of higher food and caloric intake than the HFD (P = 0.04) group, the HFD + D group mice did not exhibit higher body weight, indicating lower food and caloric efficiency (P < 0.001). Sea vegetable supplementation reduced plasma monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) (P < 0.001) and increased fecal lipid excretion (P < 0.001). Gut microbiome analysis showed that the HFD + D group had higher alpha-diversity than the HFD or LFD group, whereas beta-diversity analyses indicated that sea vegetable-supplemented HFD-fed mice (HFD + D and HFD + W groups) developed microbiome compositions more similar to those of the LFD-fed mice than those of the HFD-fed mice. Conclusion:Sea vegetable supplementation showed protective effects against obesity-associated metabolic complications in C57BL/6J male mice by increasing lipid excretion, reducing systemic inflammatory marker, and mitigating gut microbiome alteration. While the obese phenotype development was not prevented, metabolic issues related to lipid absorption, inflammation, and gut microbial balance were improved, showing therapeutic promise and warranting eventual mechanistic elucidations.