Trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1 activates PI3K by forming a complex with MAGuK-family proteins MPP3 and Dlg.
ABSTRACT: CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule 1), a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in cell-cell interaction and the formation and maintenance of epithelial structure. Expression of CADM1 is frequently downregulated in various tumors derived from epithelial cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways activated by CADM1-mediated cell adhesion remain unknown. Here, we established a cell-based spreading assay to analyze the signaling pathway specifically activated by the trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1. In the assay, MDCK cells expressing exogenous CADM1 were incubated on the glass coated with a recombinant extracellular fragment of CADM1, and the degree of cell spreading was quantified by measuring their surface area. Assay screening of 104 chemical inhibitors with known functions revealed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), efficiently suppressed cell spreading in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of Akt and Rac1, downstream effectors of PI3K, also partially suppressed cell spreading, while the addition of both inhibitors blocked cell spreading to the same extent as did LY294002. Furthermore, MPP3 and Dlg, membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs (MAGuK) proteins, connect CADM1 with p85 of PI3K by forming a multi-protein complex at the periphery of cells. These results suggest that trans-homophilic interaction mediated by CADM1 activates the PI3K pathway to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and form epithelial cell structure.
Project description:CADM1 (Cell adhesion molecule 1), a cell adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in cell-cell interaction and the formation and maintenance of epithelial structure. Expression of CADM1 is frequently down-regulated in various tumors derived from epithelial cells. However, the intracellular signaling pathways activated by CADM1-mediated cell adhesion remain unknown. Here, we established a cell-based spreading assay to analyze the signaling pathway specifically activated by the trans-homophilic interaction of CADM1. In the assay, MDCK cells expressing exogenous CADM1 were incubated on the glass coated with a recombinant extracellular fragment of CADM1, and the degree of cell spreading was quantified by measuring their surface area. Assay screening of 104 chemical inhibitors with known functions revealed that LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), efficiently suppressed cell spreading in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitors of Akt and Rac1, downstream effectors of PI3K, also partially suppressed cell spreading, while the addition of both inhibitors blocked cell spreading to the same extent as did LY294002. Furthermore, MPP3 and Dlg, membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs (MAGuK) proteins, connect CADM1 with p85 of PI3K by forming a multi-protein complex at the periphery of cells. These results suggest that trans-homophilic interaction mediated by CADM1 activates the PI3K pathway to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and form epithelial cell structure.
Project description:Protein components of cell adhesion machinery show continuous renewal even in the static state of epithelial cells and participate in the formation and maintenance of normal epithelial architecture and tumor suppression. CADM1 is a tumor suppressor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecule and forms a cell adhesion complex with an actin-binding protein, 4.1B, and a scaffold protein, MPP3, in the cytoplasm. Here, we investigate dynamic regulation of the CADM1-4.1B-MPP3 complex in mature cell adhesion by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. Traditional FRAP analysis were performed for relatively short period of around 10 min. Here, thanks to recent advances in the sensitive laser detector systems, we examine FRAP of CADM1 complex for longer period of 60 min and analyze the recovery with exponential curve-fitting to distinguish the fractions with different diffusion constants. This approach reveals that the fluorescence recovery of CADM1 is fitted to a single exponential function with a time constant (?) of approximately 16 min, whereas 4.1B and MPP3 are fitted to a double exponential function with two ?s of approximately 40-60 sec and 16 min. The longer ? is similar to that of CADM1, suggesting that 4.1B and MPP3 have two distinct fractions, one forming a complex with CADM1 and the other present as a free pool. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching analysis supports the presence of a free pool of these proteins near the plasma membrane. Furthermore, double exponential fitting makes it possible to estimate the ratio of 4.1B and MPP3 present as a free pool and as a complex with CADM1 as approximately 3:2 and 3:1, respectively. Our analyses reveal a central role of CADM1 in stabilizing the complex with 4.1B and MPP3 and provide insight in the dynamics of adhesion complex formation.
Project description:The cell adhesion molecule (CADM) family of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) comprises four members, CADM1-CADM4, and participates in the formation of epithelial and synaptic adhesion through cell-cell homophilic and heterophilic interactions. To identify the partners that interact with each member of the CADM family proteins, we set up a platform for multiple detection of the extracellular protein-protein interactions using surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) and analyzed the interactions between the CADM family proteins and 10 IgSF of their structurally related cell adhesion molecules. SPRi analysis identified a new interaction between CADM1 and CADM4, where this heterophilic interaction was shown to be involved in morphological spreading of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells expressing CADM1 when incubated on CADM4-coated glass. Moreover, class-I MHC-restricted T-cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) was identified to show the highest affinity to CADM1 among its binding partners by comparing the dissociation constants calculated from the SPR sensorgrams. These results suggest that the SPRi platform would provide a novel screening tool to characterize extracellular protein-protein interactions among cell-surface and secreted proteins, including IgSF molecules.
Project description:When epithelial cells in vivo are stimulated to proliferate, they crowd and often grow in height. These processes are likely to implicate dynamic interactions among lateral membranous proteins, such as cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member. Pulmonary epithelial cell lines that express CADM1, named NCI-H441 and RLE-6TN, were grown to become overconfluent in the polarized 2D culture system, and were examined for the expression of CADM1. Western analyses showed that the CADM1 expression levels increased gradually up to 3 times in a cell density-dependent manner. Confocal microscopic observations revealed dense immunostaining for CADM1 on the lateral membrane. In the overconfluent monolayers, CADM1 knockdown was achieved by two methods using CADM1-targeting siRNA and an anti-CADM1 neutralizing antibody. Antibody treatment experiments were also done on 6 other epithelial cell lines expressing CADM1. The CADM1 expression levels were reduced roughly by half, in association with cell height decrease by half in 3 lines. TUNEL assays revealed that the CADM1 knockdown increased the proportion of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells approximately 10 folds. Increased expression of CADM1 appeared to contribute to cell survival in crowded epithelial monolayers.
Project description:Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), an immunoglobulin superfamily member, is expressed on superior cervical ganglion neurites and mediates cell-cell adhesion by trans-homophilic binding. In addition to the membrane-bound form, we have previously shown that a soluble form (sCADM1) generated by alternative splicing possesses a stop codon immediately downstream of the immunoglobulin-like domain. Here, we demonstrate the presence of sCADM1 in vivo and its possible role in neurite extension. sCADM1 appears to be a stromal protein because extracellular-restricted, but not intracellular-restricted, anti-CADM1 antibody stained stromal protein-rich extract from mouse brains. Murine plasmacytoma cells, P3U1, were modified to secrete sCADM1 fused with either immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc portion (sCADM1-Fc) or its deletion form that lacks the immunoglobulin-like domain (DeltasCADM1-Fc). When P3U1 derivatives expressing sCADM1-Fc or DeltasCADM1-Fc were implanted into collagen gels, Fc-fused proteins were present more abundantly around the cells. Superior cervical ganglion neurons, parental P3U1, and either derivative were implanted into collagen gels separately, and co-cultured for 4 days. Bodian staining of the gel sections revealed that most superior cervical ganglion neurites turned toward the source of sCADM1-Fc, but not DeltasCADM1-Fc. Furthermore, immunofluorescence signals for sCADM1-Fc and membrane-bound CADM1 were co-localized on the neurite surface. These results show that sCADM1 appears to be involved in directional neurite extension by serving as an anchor to which membrane-bound CADM1 on the neurites can bind.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown molecular pathogenesis. A recent molecular focus has been the mutated neuroligin 3, neuroligin 3(R451C), in gain-of-function studies and for its role in induced impairment of synaptic function, but endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by mutated molecules also deserves investigation. We previously found two missense mutations, H246N and Y251S, in the gene-encoding synaptic cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) in ASD patients, including cleavage of the mutated CADM1 and its intracellular accumulation. In this study, we found that the mutated CADM1 showed slightly reduced homophilic interactions in vitro but that most of its interactions persist. The mutated CADM1 also showed morphological abnormalities, including shorter dendrites, and impaired synaptogenesis in neurons. Wild-type CADM1 was partly localized to the ER of C2C5 cells, whereas mutated CADM1 mainly accumulated in the ER despite different sensitivities toward 4-phenyl butyric acid with chemical chaperone activity and rapamycin with promotion activity for degradation of the aggregated protein. Modeling analysis suggested a direct relationship between the mutations and the conformation alteration. Both mutated CADM1 and neuroligin 3(R451C) induced upregulation of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), an ER stress marker, suggesting that in addition to the trafficking impairment, this CHOP upregulation may also be involved in ASD pathogenesis.
Project description:Alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis and protease/antiprotease imbalance based proteolysis play central roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema but molecular mechanisms underlying these two events are not yet clearly understood. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a lung epithelial cell adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily. It generates two membrane associated C terminal fragments (CTFs), ?CTF and ?CTF, through protease mediated ectodomain shedding.To explore the hypothesis that more CADM1-CTFs are generated in emphysematous lungs through enhanced ectodomain shedding, and cause increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells.Western blot analyses revealed that CADM1-CTFs increased in human emphysematous lungs in association with increased ectodomain shedding. Increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells in emphysematous lungs was confirmed by terminal nucleotide nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays. NCI-H441 lung epithelial cells expressing mature CADM1 but not CTFs were induced to express ?CTF both endogenously (by shedding inducers phorbol ester and trypsin) and exogenously (by transfection). Cell fractionation, immunofluorescence, mitochondrial membrane potentiometric JC-1 dye labelling and TUNEL assays revealed that CADM1-?CTF was localised to mitochondria where it decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cell apoptosis. A mutation in the intracytoplasmic domain abrogated all three abilities of ?CTF.CADM1 ectodomain shedding appeared to cause alveolar cell apoptosis in emphysematous lungs by producing ?CTF that accumulated in mitochondria. These data link proteolysis to apoptosis, which are two landmark events in emphysema.
Project description:Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) regulates cell-cell adhesion and an altered expression level is associated with tumorigenesis and progression. The present study assessed CADM1 expression level in 84 bladder tissues to investigate the association with clinicopathological parameters from bladder cancer patients and then investigated the effects of CADM1 overexpression on T24 bladder cancer cells in vitro. The results demonstrated that expression level of CADM1 protein was significantly reduced in bladder cancer tissues (0.26±0.14) compared with in normal bladder mucosa (0.69±0.092; P<0.01), and methylation of CADM1 promoter was responsible for silencing of CADM1 protein expression and significantly associated with tumor size, recurrence, pathology classification and clinical stage (P<0.05). Overexpression of CADM1 protein inhibited tumor cell proliferation, reduced tumor cell invasion capacity and induced tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. At the gene level, CADM1 expression level upregulated caspase-3 activity and expression of Bax and p27 protein and downregulated levels of B cell lymphoma-2, cyclinD1, cyclinE1 and cyclin dependent kinase 2 proteins. Furthermore, overexpression of CADM1 regulated the expression level of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers, including increased expression level of E-cadherin and ?-catenin, whereas it decreased the levels of Vimentin. The present study demonstrated that lost expression of CADM1 protein may exert an essential role in the development and progression of bladder cancer and suggested that CADM1 may be a novel molecular target for the control of this disease in clinical practice.
Project description:PI3K/Akt (PKB) pathway has been shown in several cell types to be activated by ligands to cell surface integrins, leading to the metastasis of tumour cells. The signalling pathways involved in the metastatic spread of human scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells have not been defined.The role of the PI3K/Akt pathway in an extensive peritoneal-seeding cell line, OCUM-2MD3 and a parental cell line, OCUM-2M, was investigated by assessing in vitro adhesion and spreading assay, and in vivo peritoneal metastatic model. We also examined the correlation of PI3K/Akt pathway with integrin signals by immunoprecipitations, using cells by transfection with mutant p85 (?p85).Adhesiveness and spreading of OCUM-2MD3 cells on collagen type IV was significantly decreased by PI3K inhibitors and expression of mutant p85, but not by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with integrin signalling through Src and vinculin. In an in vivo experimental metastasis model, p85 inhibition reduced peritoneal metastasis of OCUM-2MD3 cells.PI3K/Akt signalling may be required for integrin-dependent attachment and spreading of scirrhous gastric carcinoma cells, and would be translated into generating better strategies to optimise their use in cancer clinical trials.
Project description:Pulmonary emphysema is characterized histologically by destruction of alveolar walls and enlargement of air spaces due to lung epithelial cell apoptosis. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily member expressed in lung epithelial cells. CADM1 generates a membrane-associated C-terminal fragment, ?CTF, through A disintegrin- and metalloprotease-10-mediated ectodomain shedding, subsequently releasing the intracellular domain (ICD) through ?-secretase-mediated intramembrane shedding of ?CTF. ?CTF localizes to mitochondria and induces apoptosis in lung epithelial cells. ?CTF contributes to the development and progression of emphysema as a consequence of increased CADM1 ectodomain shedding. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the ICD makes a similar contribution.The ICD was synthesized as a 51-amino acid peptide, and its mutant was synthesized by substituting seven amino acids and deleting two amino acids. These peptides were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and were introduced into various cell lines. ICD peptide-derived fluorescence was well visualized in lung epithelial cells at the site of Mitotracker mitochondrial labeling, but was detected in locations other than mitochondria in other cell types. Mutant peptide-derived fluorescence was detected in locations other than mitochondria, even in lung epithelial cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays revealed that transduction of the ICD peptide increased the proportion of apoptotic cells 2- to 5-fold in the lung epithelial cell lines, whereas the mutant peptide did not. Abundance of the ICD was below the Western blot detection limit in emphysematous (n?=?4) and control (n?=?4) human lungs. However, the ICD was detected only in emphysematous lungs when it was immunoprecipitated with anti-CADM1 antibody (4/4 vs. 0/4, P?=?0.029).As the abundance of ICD molecules was sparse but present, increased CADM1 shedding appeared to contribute to the development of emphysema by generating ?CTF and the ICD in lung epithelial cells.