Chemotherapy or targeted therapy as second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies.
ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is a cornerstone in treatments of gastric cancer, but despite its benefit, less than 60% of patients receive salvage therapy in clinical practice. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis based on trial data on the role of second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer. MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library were searched for randomized phase III trials that compared active therapy to best supportive care in advanced gastric cancer. Data extraction was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. Summary HR for OS was calculated using a hierarchical Bayesian model and subgroup analysis was performed based on baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG) performance status (0 vs. 1 or more). A total of 1,407 patients were evaluable for efficacy, 908 were treated in the experimental arms, with chemotherapy (231 pts) or with targeted therapies (677 pts). The risk of death was decreased by 18% (HR?=?0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85; posterior probability HR?1: <0.00001) with active therapies. Chemotherapy and ramucirumab were able to decrease this risk by 27% and 22%, respectively. No differences were found between chemotherapy and ramucirumab. In patients with ECOG?=?0 a greater benefit was found for chemotherapy with a reduction of the risk of death by 43% and no benefits were found for ramucirumab or everolimus. In patients with ECOG?=?1 or more a significant reduction of the risk of death by 32% was reported in patients treated with ramucirumab, even if no significant difference was reported between chemotherapy and ramucirumab. This analysis reports that active and available therapies are able to prolong survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer with a different outcome based on initial patient's performance status. New trials based on a better patient stratification are awaited.
Project description:Advanced gastric cancer poses a therapeutic challenge worldwide. In randomised clinical trials, anti-VEGF has been reported as an essential agent for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. This review aims at assessing the treatment outcome of anti-angiogenesis therapy through the VEGF pathway in the management of patients with advanced gastric cancer.During this review, 38 clinical trials were identified. Of these, 30 clinical trials were excluded, leaving eight trials of phase II and III. Ramucirumab, as a second line treatment of advanced gastric cancer, decreases the risk of disease progression (37-52%) and death (19-22%). Compare ramucirumab and bevacizumab in combination with traditional chemotherapy; ramucirumab has shown to improve progression-free survival and overall survival. Apatinib tyrosine kinase inhibitor combined with traditional chemotherapy has shown to improve overall response rate and progression-free survival with marginal improvements in overall survival. Chemotherapy, in combination with anti-VEGF drugs, in the management of advanced gastric cancer significantly improves the outcome of overall response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival when compared to chemotherapy alone. Therefore, we recommend that anti-VEGF drugs are the drugs of choice in the management of patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Project description:Importance:Ramucirumab, a human IgG 1 antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, has been shown to improve progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer in the second-line setting. Objective:To compare progression-free survival for S-1 and oxaliplatin plus ramucirumab with that for S-1 and oxaliplatin plus placebo in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This phase 2, double-blind randomized clinical trial (RAINSTORM [First-line S-1 Plus Oxaliplatin With or Without Ramucirumab Followed by Paclitaxel Plus Ramucirumab in Patients With Advanced Gastric Cancer]) was conducted from October 12, 2015, to April 11, 2018, at 36 sites in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Participants were chemotherapy-naive patients (n?=?189) with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. Analyses of the full analysis set and safety population were conducted between November 27, 2017, and June 4, 2018. Interventions:Patients randomized to the ramucirumab plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm received S-1, 80 to 120 mg/d twice daily, on days 1 to 14 and oxaliplatin, 100 mg/m2, on day 1 with ramucirumab, 8 mg/kg, on days 1 and 8 in part A (21-day cycle). Patients randomized to the placebo plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm received the same S-1 and oxaliplatin dosage as well as placebo on days 1 and 8 in part A. Eligible patients received second-line paclitaxel, 80 mg/m2, on days 1, 8, and 15 and ramucirumab, 8 mg/kg, on days 1 and 15 in part B (28-day cycle). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was progression-free survival, analyzed using the stratified log-rank test; the hazard ratio (HR) was estimated using the stratified Cox proportional hazards regression model. Secondary end points included overall survival and adverse events. Results:In total, 189 patients were randomized and received treatment: 96 to the ramucirumab plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm and 93 to the placebo plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm. Among the 189 patients, 121 (64.0%) were male, and the median (range) age was 62.0 (26-84) years. Median progression-free survival was not prolonged in the ramucirumab plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm compared with the placebo plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm (6.34 [80% CI, 5.65-6.93] vs 6.74 [80% CI, 5.75-7.13] months; HR, 1.07; 80% CI, 0.86-1.33; P?=?.70). Median overall survival was 14.65 (80% CI, 12.39-15.67) months in the ramucirumab plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm and 14.26 (80% CI, 13.83-17.31) months in the placebo plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm (HR, 1.11; 80% CI, 0.89-1.40; P?=?.55). The most commonly reported grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events in the ramucirumab plus S-1 and oxaliplatin arm in part A were decreased neutrophil count (14 patients [14.6%]), hypertension (10 patients [10.4%]), and anemia (10 patients [10.4%]). Conclusions and Relevance:In this randomized clinical trial, the addition of ramucirumab to first-line S-1 and oxaliplatin treatment did not prolong progression-free survival or overall survival compared with S-1 and oxaliplatin alone among East Asian patients with advanced gastric cancer; no new safety signals for ramucirumab were identified. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02539225.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We report the first randomized, Phase II trial of ramucirumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 monoclonal antibody, as front-line therapy in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients from the USA with advanced esophageal, gastric, or GEJ adenocarcinoma randomly received (1:1) mFOLFOX6 plus ramucirumab (8 mg/kg) or mFOLFOX6 plus placebo every 2 weeks. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) with 80% power to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.71 (one-sided ? = 0.15). Secondary end points included evaluation of response and overall survival (OS); an exploratory ramucirumab exposure-response analysis was undertaken. RESULTS:Of 168 randomized patients, 52% of tumors were located in the stomach/GEJ and 48% in the esophagus. The trial did not meet the primary end point of PFS [6.4 versus 6.7 months, HR 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.69-1.37)] or the secondary end point of OS (11.7 versus 11.5 months) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Objective response rates (45.2% versus 46.4%) were similar between arms. Most Grade ?3 toxicities did not differ significantly between arms, yet premature discontinuation of FOLFOX and ramucirumab (for reasons other than progressive disease) was more common among ramucirumab- versus placebo-treated patients. In an exploratory analysis that censored for premature discontinuation, the HR for PFS favored the ramucirumab arm (HR 0.76), particularly in patients with gastric/GEJ cancer. An exploratory exposure-response analysis indicated that patients with higher ramucirumab exposure had longer OS. CONCLUSION:The addition of ramucirumab to front-line mFOLFOX6 did not improve PFS in the ITT population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER:NCT01246960.
Project description:Gastric cancer currently ranks fourth in cancer-related mortality worldwide. In the western world, it is most often diagnosed at an advanced stage, after becoming metastatic at distant sites. Patients with advanced disease (locally advanced or metastatic) have a somber prognosis, with a median overall survival of 10-12 mo, and palliative chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, novel approaches using inhibition of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival, compared with chemotherapy alone, in first-line treatment of patients with overexpression of HER2. In addition, both second-line chemotherapy and treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-inhibitor ramucirumab demonstrated significant benefits in terms of overall survival, compared with best supportive care, in randomized studies. Moreover, ramucirumab in combination with chemotherapy demonstrated further significant benefits in terms of progression-free and overall survival, compared with chemotherapy alone, in second-line treatment for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. A recently published molecular classification of gastric cancer is expected to improve patient stratification and selection for clinical trials and provide a roadmap for future drug development. Nevertheless, despite these developments the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor. In this review we discuss current standards of care and outline major topics of drug development in gastric cancer.
Project description:Despite the great progress in the treatment of gastric cancer, it is still the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Patients often miss the opportunity for a surgical cure, because the cancer has already developed into advanced cancer when identified. Compared to best supportive care, chemotherapy can improve quality of life and prolong survival time, but the overall survival is often short. Due to the molecular study of gastric cancer, new molecular targeted drugs have entered the clinical use. Trastuzumab, an antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), can significantly improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with HER2 overexpression. Second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer with ramucirumab, an antibody targeting VEGFR-2, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, has been proved to provide a beneficial effect. The VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, apatinib, can improve the survival of advanced gastric cancer patients after second-line chemotherapy failure. Unfortunately, none of the EGFR targeting antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab), VEGF targeting monoclonal antibodies (bevacizumab), mTOR inhibitor (everolimus), or HGF/MET pathway targeting drugs has a significant survival benefit. Many other clinical trials based on molecular markers are underway. This review will summarize targeted therapies for advanced gastric cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Clinical trials under-represent patients (pts) >65 years. Non-interventional studies (NISs) help to evaluate therapies in daily practice. This NIS evaluates efficacy and safety of cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) pts aged >65 years vs ≤ 65 years. METHODS: A total of 657 pts were recruited into the NIS and analysed applying descriptive statistics and χ(2) or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: A total of 309 and 305 pts aged ≤ 65 and >65 years, respectively, were documented; 80% showing a reduced ECOG status of 1-2 and 95% having received at least one palliative treatment. Cetuximab was combined with irinotecan according to approval status. Grade III/IV toxicities occurred in 20% of pts without any difference between age groups although the older pts had significantly more pre-existing comorbidities (P=0.001). A total of 64.2% of the pts developed skin rash, which was strongly related to response (P<0.0002) without any difference between age groups (P=0.34). The objective response rates were 37.9% for ages 18-65 years vs 35.4% for >65 years. Progression-free survival (PFS) did not differ between pts 18-65 years old (6.5 months) in comparison with pts >65 years (7.0 months). In a multivariate analysis only ECOG status had a negative impact on PFS (HR: 0,675; 95% Cl, 0.53-0.87; P=0.0019). CONCLUSION: This NIS reports one of the largest mCRC collectives >65 years and reduced performance status. Cetuximab has a similar efficacy and safety profile for pts aged ≤ 65 and >65 years.
Project description:Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is associated with a high mortality rate and, despite multiple new chemotherapy options, the survival rates of patients with AGC remains poor. After the discovery of targeted therapies, research has focused on the new treatment options for AGC. In the last two decades, many targeted molecules were developed against AGC. Currently, two targeted therapy molecules have been approved for patients with AGC. In 2010, trastuzumab was the first molecule shown to improve survival in patients with HER2-positive AGC as part of a first-line combination regimen. In 2014, ramucirumab was the second targeted molecule to improve survival rates and was suggested as treatment for patients with AGC who had progressed after first-line platinum plus fluoropyrimidine with or without anthracycline chemotherapy. Ramucirumab was the first targeted therapy acting as a single agent in patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancers. Although these two molecules were introduced into clinical use, many other promising molecules have been tested in phase?I-II trials. It is obvious that in the near future many different targeted therapies will be in use for treatment of AGC. In this review, the current status of targeted therapies in the treatment of AGC and gastroesophageal junction tumors, including HER (2-3) inhibitors, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, c-MET inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, agents against other molecular pathways fibroblast growth factor, Claudins, insulin-like growth factor, heat shock proteins, and immunotherapy, will be discussed.
Project description:Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Even though during these last decades gastric cancer incidence decreased in Western countries, it remains endemic and with a high incidence in Eastern countries. The survival in advanced and metastatic stage of gastric cancer is still very poor. Recently the Cancer Genoma Atlas Research Network identified four subtypes with different molecular profiles to classify gastric cancer in order to offer the optimal targeted therapies for pre-selected patients. Indeed, the key point is still the selection of patients for the right treatment, on basis of molecular tumor characterization. Since chemotherapy reached a plateau of efficacy for gastric cancer, the combination between cytotoxic therapy and biological agents gets a better prognosis and decreases chemotherapeutic toxicity. Currently, Trastuzumab in combination with platinum and fluorouracil is the only approved targeted therapy in the first line for c-erbB2 positive patients, whereas Ramucirumab is the only approved targeted agent for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. New perspectives for an effective treatment derived from the immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we report an overview on gastric cancer treatments, with particular attention to recent advances in targeted therapies and in immunotherapeutic approach.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine-platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ?10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ?2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ?1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ?2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ? 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ?1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ?2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. CONCLUSION:In patients with previously treated advanced gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma, addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel prolonged overall survival while maintaining patient QoL with delayed symptom worsening and functional status deterioration. CLINICALTRIALSGOV:NCT01170663.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The randomized phase III RAINBOW trial established paclitaxel (pac) plus ramucirumab (ram) as a global standard for second-line (2L) therapy in advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, together gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). Patients (pts) receiving first-line (1L) FOLFOX often develop neuropathy that renders continued neurotoxic agents in the 2L setting unappealing and other regimens more desirable. As such, FOLFIRI-ram has become an option for patients with 2L GEA. FOLFIRI-ramucirumab (ram) has demonstrated safety and activity in 2L colorectal cancer, but efficacy/safety data in GEA are lacking. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS:Patients with GEA treated with 2L FOLFIRI-ram between August 2014 and April 2018 were identified. Clinicopathologic data including oxaliplatin neurotoxicity rates/grades (G), 2L treatment response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety, and molecular features were abstracted from three U.S. academic institutions. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to generate PFS/OS; the likelihood ratio test was used to determine statistical significance. RESULTS:We identified 29 pts who received 2L FOLFIRI-ram. All pts received 1L platinum + fluoropyrimidine, and 23 of 29 (79%) had post-1L neuropathy; 12 (41%) had G1, and 11 (38%) had G2. Patients were evenly split between esophagus/gastroesophageal junction (12; 41%) and gastric cancer (17; 59%). Among evaluable pts (26/29), the overall response rate was 23% (all partial response) with a disease control rate of 79%. Median PFS was 6.0 months and median OS was 13.4 months among all evaluable pts. Six- and 12-month OS were 90% (n = 18/20) and 41% (n = 7/17). There were no new safety signals. CONCLUSION:We provide the first data suggesting FOLFIRI-ram is a safe, non-neurotoxic regimen comparing favorably with the combination of pac + ram used in the seminal RAINBOW trial. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Results of this study provide initial support for the safety and efficacy of second-line (2L) FOLFIRI-ramucirumab (ram) after progression on first-line platinum/fluoropyrimidine in patients with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). The overall response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity profile compare favorably with paclitaxel (pac) + ram and highlight the importance of the ongoing phase II RAMIRIS trial examining FOLFIRI-ram versus pac + ram in 2L GEA (NCT03081143). FOLFIRI-ram may warrant consideration for inclusion as an alternate regimen in consensus guidelines for GEA.