JMY functions as actin nucleation-promoting factor and mediator for p53-mediated DNA damage in porcine oocytes.
ABSTRACT: Junction-mediating and regulatory protein(JMY) is a multifunctional protein with roles in the transcriptional co-activation of p53 and the regulation of actin nucleation promoting factors and, hence, cell migration; however, its role in the maturation of porcine oocytes is unclear. In the current study, we investigated functional roles of JMY in porcine oocytes. Porcine oocytes expressed JMY mRNA and protein, and the mRNA expression level decreased during oocyte maturation. Knockdown of JMY by RNA interference decreased the rate of polar body extrusion, validating its role in the asymmetric division of porcine oocytes. JMY knockdown also down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of actin and Arp2/3. Furthermore, JMY accumulated in the nucleus in response to DNA damage, and JMY knockdown suppressed DNA damage-mediated p53 activation. In conclusion, our results show that JMY has important roles in oocyte maturation as a regulator of actin nucleation-promoting factors and an activator of p53 during DNA damage during DNA damages in porcine oocytes.
Project description:Autophagy is a catabolic process whereby cytosolic components and organelles are degraded to recycle key cellular materials. It is a constitutive process required for proper tissue homoeostasis but can be rapidly regulated by a variety of stimuli (for example, nutrient starvation and chemotherapeutic agents). JMY is a DNA damage-responsive p53 cofactor and actin nucleator important for cell survival and motility. Here we show that JMY regulates autophagy through its actin nucleation activity. JMY contains an LC3-interacting region, which is necessary to target JMY to the autophagosome where it enhances the autophagy maturation process. In autophagosomes, the integrity of the WH2 domains allows JMY to promote actin nucleation, which is required for efficient autophagosome formation. Thus our results establish a direct role for actin nucleation mediated by WH2 domain proteins that reside at the autophagosome.
Project description:Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) is a regulator of both transcription and actin filament assembly. JMY is a critical nucleation-promoting factor (NPF); however, its role in the development of mammalian embryos is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the functional roles of the NPF JMY in porcine embryos. Porcine embryos expressed JMY mRNA and protein, and JMY protein moved from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at later embryonic developmental stages. Knockdown of JMY by RNA interference markedly decreased the rate of blastocyst development, validating its role in the development of porcine embryos. Furthermore, injection of JMY dsRNA also impaired actin and Arp2 expression, and co-injection of actin and Arp2 mRNA partially rescued blastocyst development. Taken together, our results show that the NPF JMY is involved in the development of porcine embryos by regulating the NPF-Arp2-actin pathway.
Project description:Despite its obvious importance in tumorigenesis, little information is available on the mechanisms that integrate cell motility and adhesion with nuclear events. JMY is a transcription co-factor that regulates the p53 response. In addition, JMY contains a series of WH2 domains that facilitate in vitro actin nucleation. We show here that the ability of JMY to influence cell motility is dependent, in part, on its control of cadherin expression as well as the WH2 domains. In DNA damage conditions JMY undergoes nuclear accumulation, which drives the p53 transcription response but reduces its influence on cell motility. Consequently, the role of JMY in actin nucleation is less in damaged cells, although the WH2 domains remain functional in the nucleus where they impact on p53 activity. Together, these findings demonstrate a pathway that links the cytoskeleton with the p53 response, and further suggest that the ability of JMY to regulate actin and cadherin is instrumental in coordinating cell motility with the p53 response.
Project description:Maternal factors are required for oocyte maturation and embryo development. To better understand the role of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) in oocyte maturation and embryo development, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was conducted in porcine oocytes. In this study, our results showed that Dnmt1 localized in oocyte cytoplasm and its expression displayed no obvious change during oocyte maturation. When siRNAs targeting Dnmt1 were injected into germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes, Dnmt1 transcripts significantly decreased in matured oocytes (P<0.05). After Dnmt1 knockdown in GV stage oocytes, the significant reduction of glutathione content, mitochondrial DNA copy number, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and expression profiles of maternal factors and the severely disrupted distribution of cortical granules were observed in MII stage oocytes (P<0.05), leading to the impaired oocyte cytoplasm. Further study displayed that Dnmt1 knockdown in GV stage oocytes significantly reduced the development of early embryos generated through parthenogenetic activation, in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer (P<0.05). In conclusion, Dnmt1 was indispensable for oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, providing a novel role for Dnmt1 in the regulation of oocyte maturation.
Project description:Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components; however, the contribution of autophagy during meiosis has not been studied in porcine oocytes maturing in vitro. In this study, we observed that the autophagy-related gene, LC3, was expressed in porcine oocytes during maturation for 44?h in vitro. Knockdown of the autophagy-related gene, BECN1, reduced both BECN1 and LC3 protein expression levels. Moreover, BECN1 knockdown and treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, LY294002, during maturation of porcine oocytes in vitro impaired polar body extrusion, disturbed mitochondrial function, triggered the DNA damage response, and induced early apoptosis in porcine oocytes. Autophagy inhibition during oocyte maturation also impaired the further developmental potential of porcine oocytes. These results indicate that autophagy is required for the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes.
Project description:Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) is a regulator of both transcription and actin filament assembly. In response to DNA damage, JMY accumulates in the nucleus and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis. JMY's actin-regulatory activity relies on a cluster of three actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domains that nucleate filaments directly and also promote nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex. In addition to these activities, we find that the WH2 cluster overlaps an atypical, bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and controls JMY's subcellular localization. Actin monomers bound to the WH2 domains block binding of importins to the NLS and prevent nuclear import of JMY. Mutations that impair actin binding, or cellular perturbations that induce actin filament assembly and decrease the concentration of monomeric actin in the cytoplasm, cause JMY to accumulate in the nucleus. DNA damage induces both cytoplasmic actin polymerization and nuclear import of JMY, and we find that damage-induced nuclear localization of JMY requires both the WH2/NLS region and importin ?. On the basis of our results, we propose that actin assembly regulates nuclear import of JMY in response to DNA damage.
Project description:LIMKi 3 is a specific selective LIMK inhibitor against LIMK1 and LIMK2, while LIMK1 and LIMK2 are the main regulators of actin cytoskeleton to participate in many cell activities. However, the effect of LIMKi 3 in porcine oocyte meiosis is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of LIMKi 3 and potential regulatory role of LIMK1/2 on porcine oocyte meiotic maturation. Immunofluorescent staining of p-LIMK1/2 antibody showed that LIMK1/2 was localized mainly to the cortex of porcine oocyte, which co-localized with actin. After LIMKi 3 treatment, the diffusion of COCs became weak and the rate of polar body extrusion was decreased. This could be rescued by moving oocytes to fresh medium. After prolonging the culture time of oocytes, the maturation rate of porcine oocyte increased in LIMKi 3 groups, indicating that LIMKi 3 may suppress the cell cycle during porcine oocyte maturation. We also found that after LIMKi 3 treatment actin distribution was significantly disturbed at porcine oocyte membranes and cytoplasm, indicating the conserved roles of LIMK1/2 on actin dynamics. Next we examined the meiotic spindle positioning in porcine oocyte, and the results showed that a majority of spindles were not attached to the cortex of porcine oocyte, indicating that LIMKi 3 may affect actin-mediated spindle positioning. Taken together, these results showed that LIMK1/2 inhibitor LIMKi 3 had a repressive role on porcine oocyte meiotic maturation.
Project description:Because atrazine is a widely used herbicide, its adverse effects on the reproductive system have been extensively researched. In this study, we investigated the effects of atrazine exposure on porcine oocyte maturation and the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that the rates of oocyte maturation significantly decreased after treatment with 200 ?M atrazine in vitro. Atrazine treatment resulted in abnormal spindle morphology but did not affect actin distribution. Atrazine exposure not only triggered a DNA damage response but also decreased MPF levels in porcine oocytes. Our results also revealed that atrazine worsened porcine oocyte quality by causing excessive accumulation of superoxide radicals, increasing cathepsin B activity, and decreasing the GSH level and mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, atrazine decreased developmental competence of porcine oocytes up to the blastocyst stage and changed some properties: cell numbers, apoptosis, and related gene expression levels. Collectively, our results indicate that porcine oocyte maturation is defective after atrazine treatment at least through disruption of spindle morphology, MPF activity, and mitochondrial function and via induction of DNA damage, which probably reduces developmental competence.
Project description:T-2 toxin is a main type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is the most toxic trichothecence. T-2 toxin has posed various toxic effects on human and animals in vigorous cell proliferation tissues like lymphoid, hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues, while HT-2 toxin is the major metabolite which is deacetylated by T-2 toxin. In this study, we focused on the toxic effects of HT-2 on porcine oocyte maturation. We treated the porcine oocyte with HT-2 toxin in vitro, and we first found that HT-2 treatment inhibited porcine oocyte polar body extrusion and cumulus cell expansion. We observed the disrupted meiotic spindle morphology after treatment, which might be due to the reduced p-MAPK protein level. Actin distribution was also disturbed, indicating that HT-2 affects cytoskeleton of porcine oocytes. We next explored the causes for the failure of oocyte maturation after HT-2 treatment. We found that HT-2 treated oocytes showed the increased ROS level, which indicated that oxidative stress had occurred. We also detected autophagy as well as early apoptosis in the treatment oocytes. Due to the fact that oxidative stress could induced apoptosis, our results indicated that HT-2 toxin caused oxidative stress induced apoptosis and autophagy, which further affected porcine oocyte maturation.
Project description:Excessive long-term fluoride intake is associated with several health problems, including infertility. However, limited information is available on the toxic effects of fluoride exposure on the female reproductive system, especially oocyte maturation. In this study, we investigated the toxic effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) exposure on porcine oocyte maturation and its possible underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that NaF exposure during porcine oocyte maturation inhibited cumulus cell expansion and impaired polar body extrusion. Cell cycle analysis showed that NaF exposure blocked meiotic resumption, disturbed spindle dynamics, disrupted chromosome separation, and increased aneuploidy in porcine oocytes. Moreover, NaF exposure disturbed mitochondrial function, triggered DNA damage response, and induced early apoptosis in porcine oocytes. NaF exposure also induced oxidative stress, decreased GSH level, and increased cathepsin B activity in and impaired the further development potential of porcine oocytes, as indicated by a decrease in blastocyst formation rate, increase in apoptosis, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Together, these results indicate that NaF exposure impairs the maturation capacity of porcine oocytes by inhibiting cumulus cell expansion, disturbing cytoskeletal dynamics, and blocking nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, thus decreasing the quality and affecting the subsequent embryonic development potential of porcine oocytes.