Coxsackievirus A16: epidemiology, diagnosis, and vaccine.
ABSTRACT: Coxsackievirus 16 (CA16) is one of the major pathogens associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. In recent years, CA16 and human enterovirus 71 (EV71) have often circulated alternatively or together in the Western Pacific region, which has become an important public health problem in this region. HFMD caused by CA16 infection is generally thought to be mild and self-limiting. However, recently several severe and fatal cases involving CA16 have been reported. Studies have shown that co-infection with CA16 and EV71 can cause serious complications in the central nervous system (CNS) and increase the chance of genetic recombination, which may be responsible for the large HFMD outbreak in Mainland China in 2008. For these reasons, recent studies have focused on the virological characteristics of CA16 and the development of CA16-related diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Project description:Cluster A enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Despite the close genetic relationship between these two viruses, EV71 is generally known to be a more perpetuating pathogen involved in severe clinical manifestations and deaths. While the serotyping of enteroviruses is mostly done by conventional immunological methods, many clinical isolates remain unclassifiable due to the limited number of antibodies against enterovirus surface proteins. Array-based assays are able to detect several serotypes with high accuracy. We combined an enterovirus microarray with multiplex reverse transcription-PCR to try to develop a method of sensitively and accurately detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16. In an effort to design serotype-specific probes for detection of the virus, we first did an elaborate bioinformatic analysis of the sequence database derived from different enterovirus serotypes. We then constructed a microarray using 60-mer degenerate oligonucleotide probes covalently bound to array slides. Using this enterovirus microarray to study 144 clinical specimens from patients infected with HFMD or suspected to have HFMD, we found that it had a diagnostic accuracy of 92.0% for EV71 and 95.8% for CA16. Diagnostic accuracy for other enteroviruses (non-EV71 or -CA16) was 92.0%. All specimens were analyzed in parallel by real-time PCR and subsequently confirmed by neutralization tests. This highly sensitive array-based assay may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnostics of EV71 and CA16.
Project description:The hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics have mainly been caused by human enterovirus 71 and human coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), which circulated alternatively or together in the epidemic area. The aim of the present study was to provide guidance in the prevention and control of HFMD from CA16 infection. The molecular epidemiology of the human CA16 strains was investigated. Overall, 1,151 specimens (throat swabs) were collected from 1,151 patients with HFMD symptoms. The results of the homology comparison in the VP1 of CA16 strains showed that the CA16 strains belonged to the B1b subgenotype. The difference of the 6 CA16 strains analyzed showed that the most prominent strain was the A genotype, and the most close strains were the B1 gene subtype, particularly the B1b gene subtype. With regards to the amino acids, in addition to the A genotype, the differences of amino acids with other gene subtype was not significant. The present data suggest that more effective and highly targeted intervention mechanisms could be developed for the prevention and control of HFMD.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (≥ 7/9 and 8.9 ～ 228.1) than in the placebo group (≤ 1/10 and 0.8 ～ 1.7, P < 0.05). But no similar NTAb response trends were found in CA16 and 3 types of Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI.
Project description:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness mainly caused by infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). The frequent HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem. Currently, no vaccine or antiviral drug for EV71/CA16 infections has been approved. In this study, a two-step screening platform consisting of reporter virus-based assays and cell viability?based assays was developed to identify potential inhibitors of EV71/CA16 infection. Two types of reporter viruses, a pseudovirus containing luciferase-encoding RNA replicons encapsidated by viral capsid proteins and a full-length reporter virus containing enhanced green fluorescent protein, were used for primary screening of 400 highly purified natural compounds. Thereafter, a cell viability-based secondary screen was performed for the identified hits to confirm their antiviral activities. Three compounds (luteolin, galangin, and quercetin) were identified, among which luteolin exhibited the most potent inhibition of viral infection. In the cell viability assay and plaque reduction assay, luteolin showed similar 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of about 10 ?M. Luteolin targeted the post-attachment stage of EV71 and CA16 infection by inhibiting viral RNA replication. This study suggests that luteolin may serve as a lead compound to develop potent anti-EV71 and CA16 drugs.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two most common etiological agents responsible for the epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), a childhood illness with occasional severe neurological complications. A number of vaccine candidates against EV71 or CA16 have been reported; however, no vaccine is currently available for clinical use. Here, we generated a secreted version of EV71 and CA16 virus-like particles (VLPs) using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system and reconstructed the three-dimensional (3D) structures of both VLPs by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) single-particle analysis at 5.2-Å and 5.5-Å resolutions, respectively. The reconstruction results showed that the cryo-EM structures of EV71 and CA16 VLPs highly resemble the recently published crystal structures for EV71 natural empty particles and CA16 135S-like expanded particles, respectively. Our cryo-EM analysis also revealed that the majority of previously identified linear neutralizing epitopes are well preserved on the surface of EV71 and CA16 VLPs. In addition, both VLPs were able to induce efficiently neutralizing antibodies against various strains of EV71 and CA16 viruses in mouse immunization. These studies provide a structural basis for the development of insect cell-expressed VLP vaccines and for a potential bivalent VLP vaccine against both EV71- and CA16-associated HFMD.The recent outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific region spurred the search for effective vaccines against EV71 and CA16 viruses, the two most common etiological agents responsible for HFMD. In this paper, we show that secreted versions of EV71 and CA16 VLPs generated in the baculovirus-insect cell expression system highly resemble the crystal structures of their viral conterparts and that the majority of previously identified linear neutralizing epitopes are well preserved on the VLP surfaces. In addition, the generated VLPs can efficiently induce neutralizing antibodies against various strains of EV71 and CA16 viruses in mouse immunization. These studies provide a structural basis for the development of insect cell-expressed VLP vaccines and for a potential bivalent VLP vaccine against both EV71- and CA16-associated HFMD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic among population of young children in Thailand. The disease is mostly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). METHODS:This study conducted serosurveillance for neutralizing (NT) antibodies to EV71 subgenotypes B5 and C4a, and to CA16 subgenotypes B1a and B1b, in 579 subjects of various ages using a microneutralization assay in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. These test viruses were the major circulating subgenotypes associated with HFMD in Thailand during the study period. RESULTS:We found that the levels of seropositivity against all 4 study viruses were lowest in the age group of 6-11 months, i.e., 5.5% had antibody to both EV71 subgenotypes, while 14.5% and 16.4% had antibody to CA16 subgenotypes B1a and B1b, respectively. The percentages of subjects with antibodies to these 4 viruses gradually increased with age, but were still less than 50% in children younger than 3 years. These laboratory data were consistent with the epidemiological data collected by the Ministry of Public Health which showed repeatedly that the highest number of HFMD cases was in children aged 1 year. Analyses of amino acid sequences of the test viruses showed 97% identity between the two subgenotypes of EV71, and 99% between the two subgenotypes of CA16. Nevertheless, the levels of seropositivity and antibody titer against the two subgenotypes of EV71 and of CA16 were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS:This study clearly demonstrated NT antibody activity across EV71-B5 and EV71-C4a subgenotypes, and also across CA16-B1a and CA16-B1b subgenotypes. Moreover, there were no significant differences by gender in the seropositive rates and antibody levels to any of the 4 virus subgenotypes.
Project description:Three armored RNAs (virus-like particles [VLPs]) containing target sequences from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and a pan-enterovirus (pan-EV) sequence were constructed and used in an external quality assessment (EQA) to determine the performance of laboratories in the detection of EV71 and CA16. The EQA panel, which consisted of 20 samples, including 14 positive samples with different concentrations of EV and either EV71 or CA16 armored RNAs, 2 samples with all 3 armored RNAs, and 4 negative-control samples (NaN(3)-preserved minimal essential medium [MEM] without VLPs), was distributed to 54 laboratories that perform molecular diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) virus infections. A total of 41 data sets from 41 participants were returned; 5 (12.2%) were generated using conventional in-house reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays, and 36 (87.8%) were generated using commercial real-time RT-PCR assays. Performance assessments of laboratories differed; 12 (29.3%) showed a need for improvement. Surprisingly, 4 laboratories were unable to detect EV71 RNA in any samples, even those containing the highest concentration of 10(7) IU/ml. Furthermore, the detection sensitivity for EV71 among all laboratories (82.1%) was substantially lower than that for EV (97.4%) or CA16 (95.1%). Overall, the results of the present study indicate that EQA should be performed periodically to help laboratories monitor their ability to detect HFMD viruses and to improve the comparability of results from different laboratories.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) were responsible for 43.3% (235 123/543 243) and 24.8% (134 607/543 243) of all laboratory-confirmed hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases during 2010-2015 in China. Three monovalent EV71 vaccines have been licensed in China while bivalent EV71/CA16 vaccines are under development. A comparative cost-effectiveness analysis of bivalent EV71/CA16 versus monovalent EV71 vaccination would be useful for informing the additional value of bivalent HFMD vaccines in China. METHODS:We used a static model parameterized with the national HFMD surveillance data during 2010-2013, virological HFMD surveillance records from all 31 provinces in mainland China during 2010-2013 and caregiver survey data of costs and health quality of life during 2012-2013. We estimated the threshold vaccine cost (TVC), defined as the maximum additional cost that could be paid for a cost-effective bivalent EV71/CA16 vaccine over a monovalent EV71 vaccine, as the outcome. The base case analysis was performed from a societal perspective. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying assumptions governing HFMD risk, costs, discounting and vaccine efficacy. RESULTS:In the base case, choosing the bivalent EV71/CA16 over monovalent EV71 vaccination would be cost-effective only if the additional cost of the bivalent EV71/CA16 compared with the monovalent EV71 vaccine is less than €4.7 (95% CI 4.2-5.2). Compared with the TVC in the base case, TVC increased by up to €8.9 if all the test-negative cases were CA16-HFMD; decreased by €1.1 with an annual discount rate of 6% and exclusion of the productivity loss; and increased by €0.14 and €0.3 with every 1% increase in bivalent vaccine efficacy against CA16-HFMD and differential vaccine efficacy against EV71-HFMD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Bivalent EV71/CA16 vaccines can be cost-effective compared with monovalent EV71 vaccines, if suitably priced. Our study provides further evidence for determining the optimal use of HFMD vaccines in routine paediatric vaccination programme in China.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are two major etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). EV71 is associated with severe cases but not CA16. The mechanisms contributed to the different pathogenesis of these two viruses are unknown. VP1 and VP4 are two major structural proteins of these viruses, and should be paid close attention to. RESULTS: The sequences of vp1s from 14 EV71 and 14 CA16, and vp4s from 10 EV71 and 1 CA16 isolated in this study during 2007 to 2009 HFMD seasons were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences available in GenBank using DNAStar and MEGA 4.0. Phylogenetic analysis of complete vp1s or vp4s showed that EV71 isolated in Beijing belonged to C4 and CA16 belonged to lineage B2 (lineage C). VP1s and VP4s from 4 strains of viruses expressed in E. coli BL21 cells were used to detect IgM and IgG in human sera by Western Blot. The detection of IgM against VP1s of EV71 and CA16 showed consistent results with current infection, while none of the sera were positive against VP4s of EV71 and CA16. There was significant difference in the positive rates between EV71 VP1 and CA16 VP1 (?(2) = 5.02, P < 0.05) as well as EV71 VP4 and CA16 VP4 (?(2) = 15.30, P < 0.01) in the detection of IgG against recombinant proteins with same batch of serum samples. The sera-positive rate of IgG against VP1 was higher than that against VP4 for both EV71 (?(2) = 26.47, P < 0.01) and CA16 (?(2) = 16.78, P < 0.01), which might be because of different positions of VP1 and VP4 in the capsid of the viruses. CONCLUSIONS: EV71 and CA16 were highly diverse in the nucleotide sequences of vp1s and vp4s. The sera positive rates of VP1 and VP4 of EV71 were lower than those of CA16 respectively, which suggested a less exposure rate to EV71 than CA16 in Beijing population. Human serum antibodies detected by Western blot using VP1s and VP4s as antigen indicated that the immunological reaction to VP1 and VP4 of both EV71 and CA16 was different.
Project description:The genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) sampled from children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China, over a 6-year period (1999 to 2004) were examined with reverse transcription-PCR and DNA sequencing. Out of 147 stool specimens, 60 showed positive signals when screened with EV71- and CA16-specific primers. EV71 was identified in 19 specimens, and CA16 was identified in 41 specimens; coinfection by EV71 and CA16 was not observed. Phylogenetic analysis of all EV71 strains isolated from the mainland Chinese samples established C4 as the predominant genotype. Only one other known strain (3254-TAI-98; AF286531), isolated in Taiwan in 1998, was identified as belonging to genotype C4. Phylogenetic analysis of CA16 strains allowed us to identify three new genetic lineages (A, B, and C), with lineage C recently predominating in Asian countries, such as the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Japan. These new observations indicate that CA16 circulating in the People's Republic of China is genetically diverse, and additional surveillance is warranted.