ABSTRACT: To ascertain the prevalence of and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA).Cross-sectional baseline data were analyzed from the Sleep and Asthma Cohort Study, a multicenter prospective study designed to evaluate the contribution of sleep and breathing abnormalities to SCA-related morbidity in children ages 4 to 18 years, unselected for OSAS symptoms or asthma. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationships between OSAS status on the basis of overnight in-laboratory polysomnography and putative risk factors obtained from questionnaires and direct measurements.Participants included 243 children with a median age of 10 years; 50% were boys, 99% were of African heritage, and 95% were homozygous for ?(S) hemoglobin. OSAS, defined by obstructive apnea hypopnea indices, was present in 100 (41%) or 25 (10%) children at cutpoints of ?1 or ?5, respectively. In univariate analyses, OSAS was associated with higher levels of habitual snoring, lower waking pulse oxygen saturation (Spo2), reduced lung function, less caretaker education, and non-preterm birth. Lower sleep-related Spo2 metrics were also associated with higher obstructive apnea hypopnea indices. In multivariable analyses, habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 remained risk factors for OSAS in children with SCA.The prevalence of OSAS in children with SCA is higher than in the general pediatric population. Habitual snoring and lower waking Spo2 values, data easily obtained in routine care, were the strongest OSAS risk factors. Because OSAS is a treatable condition with adverse health outcomes, greater efforts are needed to screen, diagnose, and treat OSAS in this high-risk, vulnerable population.
Project description:Adenotonsillectomy (AT) is commonly performed for childhood OSA syndrome (OSAS), but little is known about prognosis without treatment.The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT) randomized 50% of eligible children with OSAS to a control arm (watchful waiting), with 7-month follow-up symptom inventories, physical examinations, and polysomnography. Polysomnographic and symptomatic resolution were defined respectively by an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) <2 and obstructive apnea index (OAI) <1 and by an OSAS symptom score (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire [PSQ]) < 0.33 with ? 25% improvement from baseline.After 194 children aged 5 to 9 years underwent 7 months of watchful waiting, 82 (42%) no longer met polysomnographic criteria for OSAS. Baseline predictors of resolution included lower AHI, better oxygen saturation, smaller waist circumference or percentile, higher-positioned soft palate, smaller neck circumference, and non-black race (each P < .05). Among these, the independent predictors were lower AHI and waist circumference percentile < 90%. Among 167 children with baseline PSQ scores ? 0.33, only 25 (15%) experienced symptomatic resolution. Baseline predictors were low PSQ and PSQ snoring subscale scores; absence of habitual snoring, loud snoring, observed apneas, or a household smoker; higher quality of life; fewer attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms; and female sex. Only lower PSQ and snoring scores were independent predictors.Many candidates for AT no longer have OSAS on polysomnography after 7 months of watchful waiting, whereas meaningful improvement in symptoms is not common. In practice, a baseline low AHI and normal waist circumference, or low PSQ and snoring score, may help identify an opportunity to avoid AT.ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00560859; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown.To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers.A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 3-14 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings.Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 ± 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 ± 4.7 kg/m(2) corresponding to 96.8 ± 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 ± 9.90, 5.06 ± 9.57, and 3.39 ± 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ? 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used.The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01322763.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The known risk factors of childhood OSAS include tonsillar and adenoidhypertrophy, obesity, craniofacial anomalies, neuromuscular disorders and African-American (AA) ancestry. Whether other factors such as allergic rhinitis (AR), premature, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) are associated with OSAS are inconsistent in different studies. Our study enrolled children of a broad age range and included potential risk factors of OSAS derived from previous studies and our own experience. Our objective is to identify risk factors of OSAS in children in a clinical setting. METHODS:Children between 2 and 15?years of age exhibiting snoring symptoms who visited the sleep center for polysomnography (PSG) were enrolled. All children completed a questionnaire, physical examination and PSG. The questionnaire included demographic data and information related to potential risk factors for sleep disorders. A physical examination included measurements of height, weight, neck circumference, waist and hip ratio, visual evaluation of the tonsils and the degree of adenoid obstruction. Children with obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) ? 1 were defined as OSAS. RESULTS:A total of 1578 children were enrolled and1009 children exhibited OSAS. Univariate analyses showed that snoring occurring for ? 3?months, male gender, preterm birth, breastfeeding, obesity, neck circumference???30?cm, waist/hip ratio???0.95, tonsillar hypertrophy, and adenoid hypertrophy were associated with OSAS. The proportion of low educational level was higher in parents who breastfed their babies than those who didn't. Multivariate analysis showed that snoring for ? 3?months, male gender, obesity, breastfeeding, tonsillar hypertrophy, and adenoid hypertrophy were associated with OSAS. Confounders such as socioeconomic status, parental occupation, and health-related behaviors should be explored further to investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and OSAS. CONCLUSION:The independent risk factors for OSAS in children included snoring ? 3?months, male gender, obesity, breastfeeding, tonsillar and adenoid hypertrophy. The study was registered on Clinical Trials government (NCT02447614). The name of the trial is "Follow-up Studies of Primary Snoring (PS) and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) in Chinese Children" and the URL is https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
Project description:Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), studies on the direct relationship between NAFLD and snoring, an early symptom of OSAS, are limited. We evaluated whether snorers had higher risk of developing NAFLD. The study was performed using data of the Tongmei study (cross-sectional survey, 2,153 adults) and Kailuan study (ongoing prospective cohort, 19,587 adults). In both studies, NAFLD was diagnosed using ultrasound; snoring frequency was determined at baseline and classified as none, occasional (1 or 2 times/week), or habitual (?3 times/week). Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic and Cox models, respectively. During 10 years' follow-up in Kailuan, 4,576 individuals with new-onset NAFLD were identified at least twice. After adjusting confounders including physical activity, perceived salt intake, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome (MetS), multivariate-adjusted ORs and HRs for NAFLD comparing habitual snorers to non-snorers were 1.72 (1.25-2.37) and 1.29 (1.16-1.43), respectively. These associations were greater among lean participants (BMI?<?24) and similar across other subgroups (sex, age, MetS, hypertension). Snoring was independently and positively associated with higher prevalence and incidence of NAFLD, indicating that habitual snoring is a useful predictor of NAFLD, particularly in lean individuals.
Project description:Background:The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a clinical picture characterized by partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep, associated with a reduction of oxygen saturation in the blood.The most common symptoms are: apnea sleep, snoring, headache, sleepiness, reduced concentration and memory, irritability, increased blood pressure and dry mouth. Materials and methods:It was examinated a not-smoker man of 54 years that suffers of roncophaty. He did physical examination, rhinoscopyexam, faringoscopy, rhinofibrolaringoscopy, gnathological evaluation and polysomnographic examination performed with multichannel polygraphy (VitalNight). From the performed examinations, it has been diagnosed a moderate form of obstructive apnea sleep syndrome. He was treated with a mandibular advancement device and it was repeated the polysomnographic exam. Results:Comparing the results of the polysonographic examination performed before and after the treatment, the patient's clinical picture clearly improved. It has shown a clear reduction of obstructive apneas, hypopneas and snoring. Conclusions:The use of a mandibular advancement device is certainly a valuable aid in the treatment of moderate type OSAS. The quality of diurnal life is also improved as shown with Sleepness Epworth Scale.
Project description:Background and objectives: Obstructive Sleep Apnea represents a widespread problem in the population, but it is often not diagnosed and not considered a true pathology. Different diagnostic tools are available for the diagnosis of sleep apnea. This study aims to demonstrate the ability of the STOP-Bang (Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure, Body mass index, Age, Neck circumference, and Gender) questionnaire in identifying subjects with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Syndrome, highlighting the role of dentists as epidemiological sentinels. Materials and methods: the STOP-Bang questionnaire was administered to a cohort of 1000 patients, assessing three private dental clinics in Italy. Excessive daytime sleepiness was measured using Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and defined as ? 10. Subjects were considered at risk of OSA if they had three or more positive items at STOP-Bang and were invited to undergo further examination with a type 3 polygraph. Presence of OSA was measured with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and defined as AHI ? 5. Results: 482/1000 subjects (48.2%) had three or more positive items in the STOP-Bang questionnaire and were considered at risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS ? 10) was more frequent among subjects at risk for OSAS (73/482, 15.1%) vs. those not at risk for OSAS (30/518, 5.8%) (p < 0.0001). Moreover, 153/482 subjects at risk for OSAS (31.7%) accepted further examination with a type 3 polygraph. Presence of OSAS (AHI ? 5) was suggested in 121/153 subjects (79.1%, 95% CI 71.6% to 85.1%), with 76/121 subjects (62.8%) needing treatment (AHI ? 15). Conclusion: the high prevalence of OSAS highlights the role of dentists as "epidemiological sentinels". The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a simple and efficacious instrument for screening sleep apnea patients.
Project description:To develop and evaluate a screening questionnaire and a two-step screening strategy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in healthy workers.This is a cross-sectional study of 1,861 employees comprising healthy blue- and white-collar workers in two representative plants in the Netherlands from a worldwide consumer electronic company who were approached to participate. Employees were invited to complete various sleep questionnaires, and undergo separate single nasal flow recording and home polysomnography on two separate nights.Of the 1,861 employees, 249 provided informed consent and all nasal flow and polysomnography data were available from 176 (70.7%). OSAS was diagnosed in 65 (36.9%). A combination of age, absence of insomnia, witnessed breathing stops, and three-way scoring of the Berlin and STOPBANG questionnaires best predicted OSAS. Factor analysis identified a six-factor structure of the resulting new questionnaire: snoring, snoring severity, tiredness, witnessed apneas, sleep quality, and daytime well-being. Subsequently, some questions were removed, and the remaining questions were used to construct a new questionnaire. A scoring algorithm, computing individual probabilities of OSAS as high, intermediate, or low risk, was developed. Subsequently, the intermediate risk group was split into low and high probability for OSAS, based on nasal flow recording. This two-step approach showed a sensitivity of 63.1%, and a specificity of 90.1%. Specificity is important for low prevalence populations.A two-step screening strategy with a new questionnaire and subsequent nasal flow recording is a promising way to screen for OSAS in a healthy worker population.Development and validation of a screening instrument for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in healthy workers. Netherlands Trial Register (www.trailregister.nl), number: NTR2675.
Project description:Recurrent hypoxia, which is associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), leads to an increase in the degradation of adenosine triphosphatase into xanthine, which in turn increases uric acid concentrations.The current study aimed to determine whether an association exists between OSAS and uric acid levels in the peripheral blood from a representative population of Sao Paulo (Brazil).A population-based survey adopting a probabilistic 3-stage cluster sample of Sao Paulo was used to represent the population according to gender, age, and socioeconomic class. A total of 1,042 volunteers underwent polysomnography recordings for OSAS diagnosis, blood pressure assessment, and biochemical blood analysis, and answered questionnaires.Uric acid levels were correlated with most important risk factors for OSAS, such as AHI, desaturation time and index, minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI, triglycerides and arousal, and with OSAS itself. Also, uric acid was increased in OSAS volunteers even after controlling for all confounders. Hyperuricemic volunteers presented lower mean and minimum SpO2 and increased desaturation index. Importantly, minimum SpO2 was a significant predictor of uric acid levels, which in turn was considered an independent predictor for OSAS in the binary logistic model. However, a ROC curve analysis for establishing cut-off points for uric acid levels as a biomarker of OSAS revealed moderate sensitivity and specificity.A strong association was found between uric acid levels and OSAS in a representative sample of the population of Sao Paulo. Although they do not qualify for a biomarker alone, uric acid levels may be involved in OSAS severity and should be considered in sleep apnea management in the future.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. METHODS: In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. RESULTS: Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.
Project description:Position therapy plays a role in treating snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether position therapy using a head-positioning pillow (HPP) could reduce snoring sounds in patients with mild-to-moderate positional OSAS, taking into account the potential confounding effects of body weight. A total of 25 adults with positional OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]supine:AHInon-supine ≥ 2) were prospectively enrolled. Patients were asked to use their own pillows at home during the first night (N0), and the HPP during the second (N1) and third (N2) nights. The primary outcome measures included the subjective snoring severity (SS, measured on a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 to 10) and the objective snoring index (SI, expressed as the number of snoring events per hour measured on an acoustic analytical program). Both endpoints were recorded over three consecutive nights. From N0 to N2, the median SS and SI values in the entire study cohort decreased significantly from 5.0 to 4.0 and from 218.0 events/h to 115.0 events/h, respectively. In the subgroup of overweight patients, SS showed a significant improvement, whereas SI did not. Both SS and SI were found to be significantly improved in normal-weight patients.